Southwestern Monuments Monthly Report

Field Reports From the Men on the Job

PIPE SPRING By Leonard Heaton, acting custodian, Moccasin, Arizona.
Visitors this month, 119; total since October 1, 1,548.

I seem to have been out of step with the world this past month; things in general have not gone the way they should or the way I thought they ought. Some of the blame, no doubt, rests upon me, as I have not felt as well as I should. I was without my glasses for three weeks. At present I can't think of very much to report other than figures and my troubles. I shall give the figures and try to keep my troubles to myself.

Travel for the month shows a slight decrease. Total for the month, 119; for June, 138; unguided, 79; June, 250. There has been a larger percentage of easterners here this month than last. As an excuse for the decrease I can offer the condition of the roads which are very rough and dusty due to the lack of rain and the very hot weather we are having. Most of the visitors express themselves as wanting to get out of here and into the mountains. I don't blame them a bit.

My weather records show the following: clear days, 13; partly cloudy, 9; and cloudy and stormy, 3. The last part of June we had some very good rains, but throughout July the weather has been hot and dry. I am beginning to worry about the life of the trees, as it seems impossible to get the water where I want it. As yet, nothing has suffered so very much.

I have done away with two house cats which seem to be all the grown ones. There are two or three small ones that the boys have in camp which will more than likely get into my traps before long.

The only project that the CCC has worked on this month is the ditch elimination starting July 5. With five men and the truck they have done a lot of work. Another man was added July 14, and I would say that two more weeks work will see this job completed as far as the project is outlined at present.

The pit toilets are all complete except the second coat of paint and the lattice screens in front. These I hope to have completed by the last of the month.

On June 28, some 40 boys were sent home as their time was up in the camp. This left about 110 in camp. The camp received 87 new boys July 16, bringing the camp strength up to 200. The new boys seem to be fine follows and satisfied with the place.

On July 14 I had the east pond cleaned of weeds and trash as had been done before, having no idea what it would do to the fish. In about four days after the cleaning, not a live fish could be seen in the east pond. The only explanation that I can offer is that the decayed leaves and weeds caused a poison which, when we stirred it up, killed the fish. A number of the fish were split down the belly and all were bloated very much.

The next time I clean the ponds when there are fish in them, it will be a little at a time, or we will drain them and move the fish to another place. Anyway, I won't kill as many as I did this last time.

On the afternoon of July 20, I had my mother down to give me the names and other data I need to complete my museum records and comply with the memorandum sent out a while back about the receipt of gifts or loans. Mr. Heaton helped gather up a lot of the museum articles back in 1927-28 and no record was made of them at that time. Now, with a lot of work on my part, I hope to get this part of the monument where it ought to be in the next few weeks.

I have another sad and serious thing to report. That is the dying of some of the big cottonwood trees between the ponds. There are two that lean out over the east pond that will be dead by fall, and there are several others that don't look so good to me. The leaves are not as numerous as they should be and a lot of dead limbs are appearing. I am wondering if it is old age creeping up on them or if there is some disease getting hold of them. Anyway, I am worried about them and I am not a tree doctor. So I call for some help.


Calls are going out to Dave Madison about the fish and Ward Yeager about the trees so we are sure of expert advice about Leonard's troubles before long. We will be mighty sorry to lose those big cottonwoods between the two ponds for their shade has a great part in making the place so lovely in the summer.--F. P.


NAVAJO By William F. V. Leicht, park ranger, Tonalea, Arizona.
Visitors this month, 82; total since October 1, 276.

The season's upward trend of travel has been reflected at Navajo during the past month. From near and far 82 visitors came to the monument. Of this total, 73 were at Betata'kin, two at Keet Seel, and seven at Inscription. A goodly percentage of these had visited our adjacent monuments, Canyon de Chelly, Arches, Natural Bridges, Rainbow Bridge, and Wupatki. One party of four came by pack train from Rainbow Bridge. Fourteen visitors camped overnight at Betata'kin. Several parties en route to Betatakin turned around, after trying to negotiate the hill above Shonto.

A distinguished visitor during the month was Dr. Charles Winning, of New York City, field director of the Rainbow Bridge-Monument Valley Expedition, now at headquarters on Marsh Pass. The expedition, which comprises a personnel of 23, will be in the area for the duration of the summer. Custodian John Wetherill is acting as guide. One party is camped at Cobra Head Canyon four miles below Betata'kin; another is on a boat trip down the San Juan.

Park Service guests were Bill and Sally Lippincott of Canyon de Chelly. They were the first of our Southwestern Monuments family to visit me. Natt Dodge of Casa Grande got within almost shouting distance of Navajo, but lack of time prevented his coming all the way. At Flagstaff, on the first of the month, I had a pleasant visit with Custodian Al Bicknell of Casa Grande. I should like to throw a figurative lariat, ensnaring Hugh Miller, as he virtually promised me a visit months ago.

Late one afternoon a party of five welcome visitors from Salt Lake City arrived at Betata'kin. Among them was Mrs. Lucille Ross Bowen, of glorious voice and charming personality, a soloist of the Tabernacle Choir. In the still of the sunset hour and on God's great stage which is Betata'kin, Mrs. Bowen sang "By the Bend of the River". The theatrical setting of cliff dwellings behind the high arch made that event most impressive. To those delightful guests from Salt Lake City may I say, "Come again!"

I am glad to chronicle the news that cars will soon be able to drive to the head of Betata'kin trail. Work began July 18 at the two worst places on the last-mile stretch of the Betata'kin road. Mr. Kilgore, of the recently-established CCC Camp at Shonto, is in charge. Just enough work is being done at present to make the road passible. In time, the hill above Shonto will be given attention and, I understand, a particularly bad grade on the back road to Kayenta.

During the month I made inspection trips to Keet Seel and Inscription House, on each trip having guests to Navajo accompanying me. It is now a round-trip journey of a hundred miles from Betata'kin to Inscription House, as the two short-cuts from Shonto have become impassable.

On July 18 I had a trip through Monument Valley to the Goosenecks of the San Juan, being a guest of the Rainbow Bridge-Monument Valley Expedition. At Nevills' Lodge in Mexican Hat, Mrs. Neville asked if we had recent news of her son Norman, who is conducting an expedition down the Colorado River. Unfortunately, we had not, as our isolation is almost as complete as hers. The anxiety of that dear little mother was very apparent, but she did have great confidence in her son's skill as a riverman. That evening a remarkable coincidence occurred for me. A friend whom I had known in South America arrived at the Lodge.

A favorable statement can be made about the weather at Navajo. The month started out with the usual wind and sandstorms which lasted four days. Then followed two weeks of almost perfect weather. The remainder of the month has been hot, with afternoon showers, though still quite agreeable. The rainy season is near at hand.

Mr. and Mrs. Evermore (quoth the ranger), the two officious ravens who live in their penthouse up in the great cave, have become so sociable that they now perch on the ridge-pole of the tent, first doing a little preliminary snooping about my water-cooler in the stream. The clownish rascals are a nuisance, but they are company on lonely days.

Someone should invent a hair retarder for us fellows who cannot get to a barber shop oftener than once a month. By the end of the month I look as if I should be wearing a coonskin cap, leather jerkin, and fringed breeches, and toting an old flintlock over my shoulder.

Adios, until next month.


Bill has the following to say in a letter during the month: "Thanks to some one at the office for making a correction in my June report. The word 'Auto' was substituted for 'Buick.' I knew it was not good journalism to use a trade name, and I thought of it--too late. Moreover, I would not willingly admit that anything could ever happen to the mechanism of a Buick, being the owner of that make of car."

Which just shows how careful we try to be, but in the hectic rush of getting the report into the mail, we so often fail.

Bill also says: "Mrs. Rorick sold out her interest in the Shonto Trading Post and sails today for Europe. Johnnie O'Farrell sold out at Tonalea over a month ago and is now located at The Gap."--F. P.


SUNSET CRATER By David J. Jones, park ranger, Tuba Star Route, Flagstaff, Ariz.
Visitors this month, 1,287; total since October 1, 4,671.

A total of 1,287 visitors registered at this monument during the past month as compared to 1,212 in 1937, 1,177 in 1936, and 909 in 1935.


Another month passes, 1,287 visitors drive four miles of their way to see Sunset Crater and most of them go away disappointed. To site and think of this situation is one thing; to actually experience it is another. During the past month, I have spent a total of two days at Sunset talking to visitors part of the time to find out what questions predominate in their minds. The thing that impresses me the most is the appreciation that people show when you take a bit of time to explain the interesting features of the Crater. Wouldn't it be a big load off your mind, Boss, to feel that by next summer we would actually take care of all the visitors at Sunset? I am almost ashamed to appear in uniform around Sunset simply because visitors immediately ask why the Park Service doesn't do anything about it.

The lack of an educational program for Sunset, I realize, is chiefly my fault. However, as soon as possible I intend to take care of this matter. Most desirable is the presence of a ranger, at least temporarily, to answer the dozen and one questions we could never hope to do with signs. Second in importance is an exhibit room about 16 feet by 20 feet in which we can present to the visitor the necessary fundamentals of volcanology. This would also serve the visitor who, through lack of time or ability, cannot take the trails to the actual exhibits in the field--and there will always be a good many of them. Third in importance is a system of trails to the major points of interest with a brief explanation of the feature at each station. As I have mentioned above I intend to present plans for the latter two projects by the last of September.

Highlight of the month was an inspection by members of the Branch of Plans and Design, accompanied by Hugh Miller. Although it was necessary to work until dark, we really got down to "brass tacks". Both Paul and I are well satisfied with the plans for development as far as they have gone. Can you imagine the rare occasion when practically everyone agrees upon several different problems?

On July 16, Dr. Colton and Major Brady, of the Museum of Northern Arizona, and I spent the better part of a day at the Crater. Arriving in a downpour of rain, we explored a rift that extends for about two miles northeast of the crater. Later we went over an area in general. I greatly appreciate the time which Dr. Colton and Major Brady spent, as I now feel Sunset Crater presents a more unified picture to me.

Incidental to our trip, we took care of a fire that had been started by lightning striking a dead tree. Since it was only one tree, we trenched the area and then left it until morning when three CCC boys from NM-5-A came out and stayed until there was no further danger.

During the month 15 flowering plants were collected at Sunset Crater. I am afraid that we are going to miss some of those that are coming out now through lack of time to collect them.


David is right, of course, and it would be a big load off of our mind if we could feel that the Sunset visitors next year would be properly greeted and have their questions answered. There is one other problem, however, which takes precedence over this one of giving information at Sunset, and that is, which ruin shall we leave wide open to vandalism in order to keep the public from carrying off Sunset Crater? Protection, in other words, must have precedence over education; if our policy were otherwise, David would be living at Sunset where we have three times the number of visitors that we get at Wupatki. Our basic work is protection! After that, not far, I will admit, but certainly not equal to it is in importance, comes the informational phase of our job.--F.P.


WUPATKI By David J. Jones, park ranger, Tuba Star Route, Flagstaff, Ariz.
Visitors this month, 424; total since October 1, 549.

A total of 424 visitors registered at both the Citadel and Wupatki this month. This has been one of our busiest months from this point of view.


We have been somewhat disappointed with the weather man. On July 27, 28, and 29 we received a total of one inch of rainfall. It was not a cloudburst, but a slow drizzle which did considerable good. Since then, however, there has been non at all. We hope that the rainy season will set in during the month of August as it is plenty hot and dry here.


Probably the most important thing that happened this month was a visit from the "landscapers" and Hugh Miller. Although they did not stay long enough to suit us, we enjoyed a chance to discuss our problems with them. Here, as well as at Sunset Crater, I am well pleased with the way the monument is being developed, or rather the plans for development. I am willing to bet that within a year after we get a good road in here the travel will jump to about ten thousand a year. I say this because of our proximity to Grand Canyon. Visitors there ask where it is possible to see a large ruin within a reasonable distance from the highway. Wupatki is the best place, but the rangers usually add for the benefit of the eastern visitor that the roads are pretty awful. Hence we get only the more adventuresome souls. This increase in travel should be taken into consideration when the development is planned.

This month was impossible to check the flow from the spring in time to put it in this report. However, we are not having trouble with a shortage of water. In accord with your request, samples of water from Wupatki and Heiser springs were sent to Sanitary Engineer Hommon for analysis.

Of interest was a Navajo curing sing on the monument. Nal Smith, one of the neighboring Navajos, had a bad eye and to cure it held a five day sing. Although it was during the wrong time of the year for me to attend during the day, we did manage to get some pictures of it. Mr. E. T. Nichols, a photograph from Tucson, has been visiting us and took quite a number of shots both still and movie, in color. The Peshlakais have been a good source for pictures of the "Family Life of the Navajos", a slide lecture Mr. Nichols is planning.

Mr. Robert Atwood, who has established an art school in Flagstaff, made a very nice oil painting of the south group of Wupatki ruin. At present the painting is exhibited at the Chamber of Commerce in Flagstaff.

During the month a number of museum specimens for the Sunset Crater collection have been gathered, including bombs and other volcanic features. Major Brady of the Museum of Northern Arizona donated a specimen of pseudomorphic halite crystals found in the Moencopi formation. He also returned the Cheriotherium tracks which were discovered by Brewer last year.

Our new tree ring exhibit is almost ready to be assembled. The major point in it is that the specimens used to illustrate the "bridge method" actually have rings which are the same size where they overlap. If anyone wants a series of these specimens, I can furnish them.


1938:--424; 1937:--341; 1936:--321; 1935:--268.

Visitors registering at the Citadel, 282; at Wupatki, 242. Since 100 of the Visitors registered at both places, the total travel to the monument this month is 424.


National Park Service visitors include the following from the Branch of Plans and Designs: Tom Vint, A. C. Kuehl, A. J. Doty, and Harvey Cornell. In addition, we had visits from Hugh Miller, C. N. Gould, regional geologist, J. H. Tovrea, Pual Beaubien, Natt N. Dodge, and C. Wilder of the Wayside Museum at Grand Canyon.

We are sorry to have missed Natt when he was here on June 23, but we took a day off to go on a wild goose chase for Hopi petroglyphs.

Mr. and Mrs. H. T. Getty stayed overnight with us and told us what was going on in the outside world. Harry was very much impressed with the museum at Mesa Verde. Paul Franke and Don Watson would turn red at the ears to hear his praise of their work.

The Tovreas came out on a pleasure jaunt while they were stationed in Flagstaff. Not only did we enjoy their company, but Tov did a wonderful water color of the ruin; one of the best that I have seen.


Will those of you who have the problem of getting over the story of the tree ring growth please note Davy's offer of the best possible material and take advantage of it if you wish to do so.

The ring growth story is one of the hardest simple things to get across that we have in Southwestern archaeology.--F.P.


ARCHES By Harry Reed, park ranger, Moab, Utah.
Visitors for month, 186; total since October 1, 1,066.

Although it has been impossible to meet all visitors this month, I have contacted 161 and estimate that an additional 25 visited the monument during my absence. Cars were registered from eight western and seven eastern states, as well as one car from Hawaii.


We have had fine weather during the last week of June and up to July 20. The last two days have been considerably warmer and we have missed the cool breezes which have blown every day for the past four weeks. Only one light shower has fallen during the entire month. This was on June 12.

The temporary road has been in pretty bad condition but I have been able to keep it open to traffic. Two sand dunes formed across the road which made it necessary to change the route of the road at these points. The commissioners of Grand County and the Dalton Wells CCC Camp plan to put a crew on the road in a few days. A grader and dump trucks will be used and shale will be placed in the worst places.


Victor H. Cahalane, acting chief of the Wildlife Division, Washington, D. C., and Dr. W. B. McDougal, regional wildlife technician, Santa Fe, New Mexico, were visitors to the monument late in June. They also made trips to Fisher Canyon and the Big Flat between the Colorado and Green Rivers. On June 28 and 29, I accompanied them on a 45 mile boat trip down the Colorado River to the mouth of Lockhart Canyon.


MORE ARCHES! I have four more arches to report. Two of these are within the present boundary of the monument and two are in Yellow Cat which is not within the proposed extension but only a short distance away and can be seen from the monument. They are as follows:

Yellow Cat:No. 1. Height 100 feet; length, 150 feet.

No. 2. Height 40 feet; length, 60 feet.
Devil's Garden:Whale Arch (closely resembling a whale)

Height, 18 feet.

Length, 25 feet.
Windows Section (sketch next page)

Height, 20 feet.

Length, 50 feet. (All dimensions are estimated)

Imagine my surprise at finding an unusually beautiful arch behind a wall which I have always taken for granted was of little importance. From now on I am taking nothing for granted. It seems there is no way of determining the number of arches in this monument. This brings the total to 48 large arches (35 feet or more) and 21 small arches (less than 35 feet) within the proposed extension and in addition there are three large ones just outside. I have been given descriptions of others which I have never seen which will boost these figures considerably. I am making up a list of the arches which I have seen, giving their official or estimated dimensions. This list and a photograph of the new arch in the Windows Section will be mailed in as soon as completed.

A cave without a roof is about the best way to describe this newly found arch in the Windows Section of Arches National Monument. Size of opening under arch approximately 20 x 50 feet. Streaks on back wall are water marks. A small waterfall drops through the arch after a rainstorm.

sketch of arch

If Harry keeps on we will have to begin numbering the arches in Arches National Monument. It tickles me to have him cheerfully report a new arch 100 feet high and 150 feet long as a part of the month's work, along with three others which are "little" ones.

Think of Tom Boles finding an arch among his formations 100 feet high and 150 feet long and just casually reporting it as one item in the monthly report! He would promptly telegraph Washington, day rate: "Have found only cycloid arch in the world, approximately 203 feet high and 361 feet long; verily, we do our part."--F.P.


CHACO CANYON By Lewis T. McKinney, custodian, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.
Visitors this month, 710; total since October 1, 4,681.

After so long a time we have had a little rain in the Chaco, and things are looking up a bit. No doubt visitors have been scared away because of rains over other parts of the state. When it rains on the Chaco approach roads, it is no place for a paved-road driver. Sometimes we old country boys get delayed, and only by the use of a shovel, brush, or whatever we can get our hands on are we able to shove on ahead. It is only 24 miles from Pueblo Bonito to Highway 55 when the road is dry, but several miles farther when the road is wet. The old Chaco Wash has been up four times this month since the 15th; on that date it was up to the 5.10 mark on the gauge.

I put new roofing on the custodian's residence this month, and I believe I have stopped two of the leaks that Carroll and I have been working on for the last five years.

The calcimine has been bought and we will start work on the inside of the custodian's residence on Monday.

I have a notice that the linoleum is at the freight depot in Gallup and as soon as the calcimining is over and the mess is cleaned up, I will start laying the linoleum and make a new mess.

The Ford has been in the shop for the past two weeks being completely overhauled. Maybe within a week or two I'll have it out again.


The visitors for the past month were far below the same month last year. There were only 710, coming from the following 26 states: Ariz., Ark., Cal., Colo., Conn., Georgia, Idaho, Illinois, Indians, Kansas, Mass., Maryland, Mich., Minnesota, Missouri, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Ohio, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Texas, Washington, Wisconsin, also Washington, D. C., and Territory of Hawaii.


George Antonick and family, J. L. Gardner, W. R. McKinney, James B. Goodwin, J. J. Turner, and Dell G. Shokley, all of the Soil Conservation Service, of Gallup, New Mexico; M. A. Pfeiffer, Washington, D. C.; A. W. Simington, Albuquerque, New Mexico; Robert Matsen, Crownpoint, New Mexico; Norman Conway, Window Rock, Arizona, of the U. S. Indian Service; and Mr. and Mrs. J. H. Shivers, U. S. Bureau of Public Roads, Albuquerque, New Mexico, were in the Chaco during July.


T. C. Miller and family, Aztec, New Mexico; Hugh M. Miller, J. H. Tovrea, and Dale S. King, from headquarters; Mr. and Mrs. Alfred Lee Rowell and daughter, Mesa Verde, Colorado; Thomas C. Vint, Washington, D. C.; and Charles A. Richey, Santa Fe, New Mexico, were Park Service visitors.


The maximum temperature for this month was 37°; minimum 43°; and precipitation .22 inch. Clear days, 17; partly cloudy, 9; cloudy, 4.


Threatening Rock now measures three inches on the west end, three and 10/32 inches in the center, and three and 6/32 inches on the east end.


The University of New Mexico representatives will probably be here on August 1 to begin their summer school here in Chaco and will remain until August 27.


Our water supply in the Chaco is still a problem. Our haywire water pumping system is becoming more and more haywire each day.


There are three water gaps out, caused from the floods, which must be repaired as soon as I can get around to them. This is a job that must be done after each flood.


The Soil Conservation Service is talking very favorably of beginning some work in the Canyon soon.


In order to bring the figures of the Threatening Rock up to date, we have compiled them again and present them here in variations of thirty-seconds of an inch. The three guages were originally set at the east, center, and west ends of the Rock in August with a space of two inches. Two inches should, therefore, be taken from each of the following figures to get the net movement.--F.P.

EastCenter West

MOBILE UNIT By Gordon Vivian, foreman, Chaco Canyon, New Mexico.

Inasmuch as we lost six working days at the beginning of this month and have not been able to get the crew back to full strength since then, we have expanded only 153 man days since our last narrative report. Distribution of these 153 man days is as follows:

Wall support, Bonito104
Repair to Capping15
Clean drainage ditches10
Waterproof rooms, Aztec24

All camp and job overhead, establishing new tool and material storage, hauling firewood, and maintenance on water pump and rolling stock, has been pro-rated among the above jobs.

Under wall support, the work has been made up of these individual items:

117 (west)7031 cu. yds., wall masonry.
117 (south)62 sq. yds masonry, and replace lintels.
116 (west)84 sq. yds. masonry veneer.
115 (west)34 sq. yds. re-spalling.
114 (west)1510 sq. yds. masonry veneer.
96 (east)23 sq. yds. re-spalling.

TOTAL: 31 cubic yards masonry; 16 square yards surface veneer; seven square yards re-spalled.

On room 117, an exterior room on the west central side of the ruin, practically all of the veneer has fallen away from the core of the west wall. In repairing this, the veneer was rebuilt on both sides of the core. At the south end of the same room, the veneer on the doorway surfaces had fallen and the lintels cracked. Doorway surfaces were repaired and new lintels set in place.

Rooms 114 - 115 are quite similar to 117 above, being outside rooms where the exterior veneer has fallen away from the core or where veneer is badly in need of re-spalling to prevent its collapse. In 114 where the veneer had fallen, the rubble core was exposed in places to a height of seven feet. For every yard of surface repair such as this, an equal area of core and veneer on the reverse side of the wall are saved.

The three square yards of re-spalling in room 96 are preliminary to support work on the second story by extension of wall fragments and repair of beam holes.

Under repairs to capping are the following individual jobs:


The above six rooms are some which had been previously capped and reported but on which the capping was found unsatisfactory from the point of its appearance. On those, the top layers of the capping have been removed and replaced so that they are consistent in appearance with the rest of the stabilized capping on the site.

In connection with cleaning the existing drainage ditches, Mr. Read has staked out the area northwest of the ruin where the run off from the cliffs collected against rooms 200 to 2004. Six yards of material have been moved in cutting and filling this area.

With the crew sent to Aztec, 23 man days have been expended getting materials to the site, cleaning up around the ruins, and cleaning off rooms 1 and 6 preparatory to working on them.


We were very pleased at the good reports on the excellent quality of the work of the Mobile Unit which came out of the meeting at Chaco Canyon this past month. To speak truly, I have had some trouble in selling myself on this bitumuls capping and wall repair for it just seems a little too good to be true. The reports would indicate that it checks out all right except for time, and for that we will just have to wait ten years.--F. P.


CASA GRANDE By Albert T. Bicknell, custodian, Coolidge, Arizona.
Visitors this month, 1,753; total since October 1, 30,178.


Days clear15Max. Temp.113°
Days partly cloudy3Min. Temp57°
Days cloudy13Mean max. temp.106.5°
Precipitation1.45"Mean min. temp.72.6°

This month the area around Coolidge has been subjected to very unsettled weather. Rain fell on nine days of the month, five of which showed rainfall in excess of of .01 inch. The heaviest precipitation occurred on June 28 when .73 inch fell during the evening and night. Most of the rains were preceded by wind and dust storms, making, on two occasions, actual rains of mud for a few minutes after the rain began to fall.

Temperatures were slightly higher than last month, but the mean maximum for the month fell almost two degrees below that of July last year. Mean minimum was almost exactly the same as that of a year ago. On only two days during the month the maximum fell below 100 degrees, which, coupled with the high relative humidity due to the frequent rains, caused considerable physical discomfort. The prevailing wind direction was from the west.


Visitor travel is holding up better this month than was expected. Only 31 fewer people visited Casa Grande this month than came here during June, and the total travel, 1,763 people, is an increase of 150 over the same period in 1937. The average time spent by the visitors has also increased; the increase amounting to 3.2 minutes in the ruins, and 2.2 minutes in the museum over the time spent by the average party last month.

The outside activities of Custodian Bicknell during the month were as follows: three trips to Mt. Elden CCC Camp, at Flagstaff, to deliver equipment for the camp; two trips to SP-11-A, near Tucson, to remove the last of the Park Service equipment from that camp; two trips to Phoenix - one for the purpose of consulting Major Hildring in regard to the side camp here, the other, to make pickups.

Our janitor, Teddy Baehr, had the misfortune to be bitten by a centipede on July 16. At the time of this report he is still confined to bed as the swelling in his foot persists and is aggravated if the foot is used.


July 8 - 11, Mr. and Mrs. H. B. Chase, Project Superintendent from Bandelier CCC Camp, were house guests of the Millers. On July 23, Mr. A. E. Demaray, assistant director of the National Park Service, arrived here for a field inspection trip to include most of the Southwestern Monuments. While here, Mr. Demaray was escorted through the ruins and museum by Superintendent Pinkley.

Other visitors of note during the month were Fred Winn, Supervisor, of the Coronado National Forest, and Assistant Supervisor Sam Sowell, on July 11; J. K. Barnes, Chief of Police from Houson, Texas, and his family on the 19th; and Professor O. M. Clark, Dean of the Botany Department of Oklahoma Agricultural College, on the 20th.


Total travel, July, 1938, 1,763; 1937, 1,613; 1936, 1,142.

Of the 1,763 visitors to the monument, 1,485 were contacted on guided parties through the ruins, the museum, or both. A total of 9,279 minutes were spent in conducting 237 parties through the ruins for an average time of 39.1 minutes per party. In the museum, 4,382 minutes were spent with 184 parties, for an average time of 23.8 minutes. (See "Casa Grande Visitor Statistics" under the Headquarters division of this monthly report.)

During the month, 37 separate parties comprised of 368 visitors, made use of the picnic grounds. While most of these were local people, in some instances groups from as far as Tucson came in for picnics. One such group was a part of 10 Boy Scouts, 1 scoutmaster, 1 woman, and 1 baby, from South Tucson. Outside this group, on picnic of 21 local school-age children was the largest single group of people picnicking here during the entire month; a bit different than during May when every Sunday saw picnic parties of over 100 people. (Could it be the weather?)

Visitor travel by states is as follows: Visitors from 35 states, the District of Columbia, and the Territory of Hawaii were represented in the travel to the monument in the past month. States represented by more than 20 visitors were: Arizona, California, Illinois, Michigan, Texas, Oklahoma, New Mexico, Missouri. Arizona showed registrations of 782, or 45% of the total travel; California, 139, or 8%, while the number of Texas visitors increased materially over registrations from that state last month. Illinois is again back in the "over 20" column, and Michigan showed a good increase over June. However, Oklahoma and New Mexico showed a considerable drop in visitor registrations; Oklahoma being the lowest in several months.


Job No. 50, Shop: During the month, the cement floor was poured, making this building complete with the exception of the interior fittings and the doors. Man-days expended, 77.

Job No. 51, Warehouse: The walls and roof are complete and the outside of the building lathed and ready for the plaster coat. Man days expended, 14.

Job No. 53, Guide and Contact Work: Holt, Rogers, and Coyle still on guide duty, Scholz working in Naturalist's Office, and Larry Mungerro, a new man, replacing Morales in the headquarters office. Man-days expended on this project, 89.

Job No. 54, Oil House: This building is now 40 per cent complete with practically all of the walls up at this time. Man-days expended, three.

Job No. 55, Making Adobes: During the month, 5,000 adobes were made for use in walls and buildings of the utility area. Man-days expended in this work during the month, 102.

In addition, five man-days were used in cleaning out the area to be occupied by the equipment sheds, for which no job number has yet been assigned. Also, 15 man-days were occupied in camp construction, not otherwise charged.

Teddy Savage is still assigned to assistant Mechanic Stonehocker in the shop, but has not been in camp much during the month as he made three trips to Mt. Elden CCC Camp near Flagstaff to help transfer equipment to the new camp. One of the guides, Jimmie Rodgers, was also pressed into service, making two trips to the same camp.

Joe Hobbs, foreman at the side camp here, took a two week leave, returning the morning of July 25. In his absence, Ed Knagge from Chiricahua was in charge. During the month, five new men arrived from the main camp at Chiricahua: Larry Mungerro, Jerry Martin, Mendoza, Geronimo, and Jasso.

Safety meetings were held each Thursday evening, attended by all men in the camp. No religious services were held in camp this past month. There were no accidents during the report period.

It was found necessary to enlarge the storeroom at the camp. This was done the latter part of the month. The two refrigerators which had been inside the storeroom were moved out to the larger room where the air circulation was better, as the boxes were giving trouble and one had to be repaired during the month due to running too hot in the unventilated storage space. Ventilation for this back room was provided at the same time.

Camp inspections were as follows: July 1, Lieutenant Willson, from NM-2-A; July 5, Mr. Dale and Project Superintendent Stevenson, from NM-2-A; July 12, Project Superintendent Stevenson; July 12, Mr. Beatty, Educational Advisor from NM-2-A; July 21, Captain Harvey from SP-3-A, Phoenix, Arizona.


One of the guides, Coyle, recently related this one which takes the prize for questions asked by visitors in recent months:

After he had spent some 30 minutes listening to Coyle explain the history of the Casa Grande and its construction and probable use, one visitor asked the guide if he knew how far these Indians would have had to go to the nearest town to obtain their supplies. Coyle replied that that was something he really couldn't answer. The visitor left, apparently thinking we had some rather dumb guides here, not to be able to answer such a simple question as that.


I had an interesting variation of that episode of Coyle's. Many years ago, one of my lady visitors asked two or three times in the course of the walk around the ruins why the Indians built "way out here". I thought I saw what was in her mind and tried to ease her out of her position by round about answers that this was where they could get water, land, etc. She finally put it plainly: "That may be very true, but it is so very far from either Phoenix or Tucson!" Needless to say, I could no longer save her from some spoofing from the rest of the party.--F. P.


TONTO By Roland Richert, park ranger, Roosevelt, Ariz.
Visitors this month, 320; total since October 1, 4,468.

From the viewpoint of the weather, July has been a characteristic month in that mid-afternoon thundershowers loom up almost daily. Heavy, moisture-laden, cumulus clouds roll in from some indefinite place over the horizon, band together, and then Thor cuts loose his big guns to release the cooling, welcome rain over a parched land.

Our number of visitors increased slightly over last month, but fewer were willing to negotiate the half-mile ascent to the Lower Ruins. The vantage spot on the trail called "Perspiration Point" must have been christened in July because the humid atmosphere following the rains lends itself to the appellation. Nevertheless, those who make the climb declare that the panoramic vista overlooking the basin with the ribbon-like Salt River entering the lake in the far background and the rugged, pine-clad Sierra Anchas rising abruptly in the front of the picture, is sufficient compensation for the effort expended.

We are happy to receive four large new signs which should assist in sending the visitor tally away up after they are placed at the two junctions of the Apache Trail and the main highways. Study skin and herbarium cases are now property of the monument.

The prize this month for our farthest-away visitor goes without dispute to the Rev. J. Charles May, Latter Day Saints Missionary from Papiiti, Tahiti, and Society Islands. This South Seas group, made famous by Nordoff's and Hall's "Mutiny on the Bounty", is as Rev. May said: "The land of a salubrious climate, gorgeous sunsets, and devastating hurricanes".

The following is the weather report derived from the daily observations by Mr. Reynolds at Roosevelt.

Maximum temperature---111°Days clear19
Minimum temperature---67°Days cloudy11
Total precipitation---1.95


Average attendance3.3Average attendance3.5
Average time41.9Average time18.9


AZTEC RUINS By T. C. Miller, custodian, Aztec, New Mexico.
Visitors this month, 2,264; total since October 1, 13,974.


July has been a busy month here at Aztec Ruins with heavy travel and almost all guided visitors through the ruins and through the museum. Our guide force has been greatly undermanned all the month. It is believed that the increase in travel is largely due to improved roads in northwestern New Mexico. The entrance road to this monument has received the finishing seal coat and it is now a beautiful pavement. Highway U. S. 550 from Aztec to Farmington has been completed and a decided increase in travel is noted. The work on the general upkeep of the monument is somewhat retarded due to the fact that most all of our time has been spent guiding visitors. To date we do not know how much money we will have for this fiscal year to run the monument.

The Custodian was absent from the monument on annual leave from July 1 to July 7. Ranger Peterson from Hovenweep and Yucca House reported for duty as instructed by your office July 1. Pete worked here as relief man to and including July 10.


A shipment of linoleum was received and placed in the two west rooms of the Museum of the Administration Building, and the kitchen and bathroom of the Custodian's residence during the month. This new linoleum improves the looks of both places and is much easier to keep clean.

The five-hour man days were received during the month on weed eradication through the cooperation of the National Youth Administration.


Engineer Foreman Read arrived with his crew to make survey on Ruins Stabilization June 28 and departed on the 30th.

Custodian Faris and family were also here on June 28.

Thomas C. Vint, Chief Landscape Architect, Washington, D. C., Chuck Richey, and Mr. H. H. Cornell were here on official business July 2.

Ansel Hall, concession operator Mesa Verde National Park, was here July 2.

Homer Hastings and family from Chaco Canyon were monument visitors July 9.

Hugh Miller, Dale King, and Chuck Richey arrived and departed on July 13. Many problems were discussed with this party and it is believed that we will profit from their visit. Come again!

Gordon Vivian, archeologist foreman Chaco Canyon Mobile Unit, was here on official business, July 20.

Custodian McKinney was in two or three times during the month.


Mr. Al Whiting of the Museum of Northern Arizona brought a brand new bride to the monument on July 4. Al's going to take care of Botany for the Museum of Northern Arizona again this summer.

Mr. Talma L. Smith and family, Washington, D. C., were appreciative visitors, July 11. Mr. Smith is a member of the Appropriations Committee, U. S. SEnate, in Washington. He came after closing time, was over the museum, and then took an hour trip through the ruins.

And then there was the family from Wichita Falls, Texas, who went through the Ruins and the Museum on the morning of the 21st and came back for another ruins trip in the afternoon. The Custodian guided the party on the first trip, and Ranger Brewer the second trip. I introduced Jimmie to the party and told him that this was their second trip today. The party states that it was the most wonderful trip through ruins that they had ever taken, then they told Brewer the same story on the second trip.

Paging Johnwill: A party came to the ruins saying, "We don't want to see all of the ruins. We just came to see the little man swing through the door."


At night and during spare moments, Ranger Brewer has carved and painted a new sign. The sign is being used on the chain entrance across the cattle guard at the monument entrance. It reads... "Closed...Open 8:00 A. M. till 5:00 P. M." and is readable only when the chain is put across the entrance which is at 5:00 P. M. when the last party starts for the Ruins. Jimmie is to be congratulated on making a good looking sign which matches with the existing entrance sign.


This wedding-in-the-Kiva idea seems to be taking hold. One was reported last month, and again this month the Kiva goes back to ceremony.

The Rev. Richell united in marriage Mr. [M.?] O. Nutt and Miss Hazel Roe on June 25. We don't know that it makes much difference, but the bride's name is now Hazel Nutt!


The museum cases were moved during the month in order to put down the linoleum. Some of the cases were rearranged as they were somewhat shaken up from moving.

Miss Lorraine Lawson has acted as museum attendant five five-hour days under N. Y. A. during the latter part of the month. Miss Lawson is well qualified for the work and we only wish that we could keep her on this job every day during the summer months.


Five Navajos arrived with one dump truck loaded with cement and bitudobe to waterproof rooms on job No. 22, authorized by your office. To date rooms one and six have been cleaned up and made ready for waterproofing of the roofs and drainage as well as the capping of the individual walls around the roofs of these rooms. The camp is located near the center of the monument, screened in by large cottonwood trees, and the Navajos seem to be well pleased with their camp site. It is hoped that the plans will arrive for wall capping before these boys complete the roofing job.


One official trip was made to Chaco Canyon on July 18. It was noted on this trip that the approach road from Highway 55 to the monument headquarters was badly damaged in places due to heavy rains. The purpose of this trip was to go over some of the ruins stabilization work with Mr. Vivian and to make plans and receive instructions in regard to the CCC unit.


Maximum temperature---93°Clear days9
Minimum temperature---47°Cloudy days4
Precipitation---1.30Partly cloudy days18


Visitors to the monument totaled 2,264 for the month, coming in 647 automobiles and from 40 states and the territory of Hawaii. Foreign countries represented were Belgium, Canada, China, and Tahiti. Of these visitors, 2,112 were guided through the ruins in 255 trips. In 251 trips 2,113 persons were guided through the museum.

Total travel since October 1, 13,974. For the corresponding period of last year, 9,442--an increase of 4,532 people.


We know that George Boundey and Johnwill Faris, who have served at Aztec, will join the rest of us in a long sigh of relief that the entrance road from the bridge to the monument at Aztec is finally paved. It is less than a mile, but I don't know of any other mile of paving that we needed more greatly than that; it could get slicker with less rain than any road I know of except that piece out near Mike Kirk's Trading Post before it was paved. That was slick road when it got wet; I have slid back and forth on that road after a light shower and, looking behind me, found dust in the skid tracks! Although I never experienced it, I am confident a light dew would have made that road slick. The fellow who was with me will remember the time we put on all four chains and crept past ten or fifteen cars in that half mile just west of the overhead pass. They were unable to steer and had to wait for the road to dry out a little.--F. P.

WHITE SANDS By Tom Charles, Custodian, Alamorgodo, New Mexico.
Visitors this month, 16,830; total since October 1, 73,418.

It is with "fear and trembling" that I start this month's report. There have been more visitors than in any other month in the history of the monument. The registration books show 2,833 and please remember that only 24 per cent of our visitors register. The nearest to this month's registration was in August, 1936, when we registered 2,785. This month's visitors came from 46 states and nine foreign countries. If I could stop here it would be fine, but it is the speculative part of the count that I dread. According to the Mohun percentage, which is far and away the most complete we ever made, we have had 20,200 visitors for the month. That would be over 650 visitors a day; it doesn't seem possible.

Joe and I saw this coming. That was one reason we were so anxious to have an electric counter. The next best was to count them ourselves. So Joe counts cars as he works and has actually counted during 225 hours this month. I have counted on Sundays and holidays and have counted for 60 hours. Joe's average number of cars per hour has been 3.18 while mine was a shade over 14 cars per hour. Joe's count has been in the heat of the day when visitors are fewest, while mine ran from 10 A.M. to 8 P. M. So on the basis of 14 hour days, Joe's count gives us 5,340 visitors into the Heart of the Sands on week days and my count shows 5,880 on Sundays. Adding the usual 1/3 who stop along the road, we have had 16,830 visitors this month. There is a strong chance that the first one is correct for Dave, the watchman at the building, tells us that 8 P. M. until midnight is the busiest time at the Sands. These are what you would call local picnickers, I presume; but most of them come from El Paso, over 100 miles away. At any rate, we have had lots of visitors and I will be satisfied with credit for either 20,200 or 16,830 for the correct number is some place between these two points, I presume.

You would think from that count that conditions were ideal for the month. But they were far from it. It has rained, or threatened rain, most of the time for the past two weeks. Federal Highway No. 70 to Las Cruces has been impassible at least three different days on account of a wash out. But despite handicaps, July and August continue to be our leading months. And every day we seem to be tied more closely with Carlsbad. An amazing percent of the visitors tell us that they are here to visit the "Sands and the Caverns" on this trip.

Rains have helped conditions around headquarters this past month. The desert planting which looked rather disconsolate for a time is now as lively and green as a meadow. The road into the dunes of the Sands is back to its old velvet finish. Joe has had plenty to do but he has his road back to its original standard. Johnie has a water tank installed on the top of the sand ridge west of the headquarters and the new pump is keeping it full without trouble. This supplies a fair grade of water for the planting and not too bad for drinking and makes possible the opening of the comfort stations for the public.

The drainage ditch over north of the headquarters was tried out last week for the first time and seemed to work to perfection. It is a good big ditch but the flood waters filled it bank full and it probably saved us considerable trouble down at headquarters.

Temperature at the monument has been fine, cloudy and cool most of the time. The highest temperature which I have registered was 113° F. at 2 p. m. on July 10. At the same time it was only 96 in the shade of the car. One hundred and eighteen isn't very hot for White Sands but I noted that one of our prettiest bathing beauties leaned against a piece of iron on the new car that day and the yell which was evoked created quite a commotion among the visitors. I wasn't in position to make much investigation for I do not see how there can be any liability, but I suspect there was quite a burn. I doubt if we ever hear any more about it.

On the hot days people usually refuse to stand in the sun and register, or to listen to any information about the origin of the Sands. Even the white mice and lizards fail to create an interest. Their chief amazement is that any one stays out there and takes it. And their interest is to get their car going and get out of there.

Among the official visitors this month were E. F. Preece, assistant chief engineer from Washington, and Jack Diehl, also Messrs. Underhill and Montgomery who were here in connection with the call for seal coating on our three miles of highway. This is to come up on August 12.


Note, please, that we hold Tom down to his lowest figures for the month; we have to put a limit on him someplace or he will get clear away from us. Anyway, 16,000 visitors is enough for anybody to have in any month and after the thermometer passes 115 degrees a man's eyesight gets poor and he may begin to see double.

It won't be long now, we hope, before the new road is paved out in front of the headquarters and then we will have the traffic under much better control and can get an actual count on it at the office door as it goes through to the sands.

We went over the museum plans for White Sands the other day and it looks like the boys have something good in mind there which the visitors will enjoy.--F. P.


HOVENWEEP By Alfred Peterson, park ranger, Cortez, Colorado.
Visitors this month, 15; total since October 1, 140.

In accordance with instructions received from headquarters, I proceeded to Aztec Ruins National Monument, arriving there in the afternoon of June 30, having stopped at Mesa Verde National Park to see Mr. Nusbaum and make one trip to the cliff dwellings. July 1 to 10 inclusive was spent in official duty at Aztec, guiding visitors through the ruins. Jimmie and I were kept busy during the week of Cal's absence with many visitors.

On may way back to Cortez, July 11, a stop was made in Durango to have needed repairs made to 8113. That seems to be the only place parts can be located for this car.

On July 12, I made my first visit this month to Yucca House. Mrs. Ray Ismay told me that several cars had been in and the people walked over the ruin mounds and "picked up a few pieces of pottery". She did not say how many people she saw. About a week later, on my next trip of inspection, I mounted four "warning" signs on the most conspicuous parts of the fence. What we need for Yucca House are a few of those metal "It is Unlawful - - -" signs.

During the past month, there have been six cars in the Square Tower Group bringing 15 visitors to see Hovenweep. Four of these were here on July 4 while I was at Aztec. Mrs. Ismay told me that local people had two relatives from California visiting and took them to see the ruins. The others were contacted by the Roving Ranger. One party of five were from a local trading post in Utah, about eight miles from the ruins. One lone traveler, a chemical engineer from Oklahoma, had been directed specifically how to find the place by Jimmie Brewer at Aztec. He spent considerably over half a day seeing the different groups of ruins. All the rest were from Mesa Verde--either people who had inquired for directions at Mesa Verde after seeing the Monuments shown on their road maps, or members of the ranger staff or Ansel Hall's assistants. Miss Betty Yelm, museum attendant at Mesa Verde, and Gene Kingman were here on the 22nd. States represented are California, Colorado, Oklahoma, Utah, and Maine. The Maine representative was Mr. Soper, on of Ansel Hall's assistants, and whom I met at the University of Arizona about 1934.

Being interested in tree ring dating, I have been on the watch for wood specimens from these ruins. As previously mentioned, apparently somebody has already taken wood from the different groups, but still I find some. As yet I have not taken a piece of wood from a standing wall, nor have I taken any borings (having no borer), but I have found pieces of what evidently are beam ends in the debris of fallen walls. To date I have five of these and have sawed them up into workable pieces, ready to be packed and shipped if so desired. I shall first see what I can do in the way of dating them, but have very little hope of any success since they are all juniper and very poor wood for this purpose.

The other day we located four more section markers put in by the General Land Office. Most of these are within a half mile of the Square Tower Group boundary line, and near three of them are the remains of what appears to be homestead houses. Without exception, these houses had been made of prehistoric building stones from ruins nearby--probably Square Tower Group. I have noted these markers on the maps included with Jimmie's report of last year.

The weather has been typical of the region; thunder storms on every side every afternoon with an occasional local shower. The road to Cortez via McElmo Canyon is being much improved by a large road crew at the present time, and this should make it easier for visitors, until they reach the point where there is no road. I have decided that two or three little direction signs should be placed at the turns near Hovenweep--at least as long as I am here. When I leave, it might be well to remove them.

The gnats are very few at present, mosquitos not too numerous, but flies are a nuisance. Conditions are much pleasanter than last month.

On the 14th I went to the Cajon Group. Stock tanks were dry and have been for over two months. Several visits to Holly and Hackberry Groups were made.


It would appear that any time we can get a man in charge of Hovenweep or Yucca House we can turn a fairly good number of visitors in to these ruins by the use of signs. We have not, thus far, tried to encourage visitors to come because the roads are slow and rough and, until we can get a man in charge to explain what they see, they will get little out of the trip.

Yucca House, especially, we look upon as a reserve monument, not to be visited by the public until many years hence when a large excavation project has opened it for research and study. Then, with a permanent man in charge and a good museum, it will be a very interesting monument.--F. P.


WALNUT CANYON By Paul Beaubien, junior park archeologist, Flagstaff, Arizona.
Visitors this month, 2,378; total since October 1, 8,649.

Contacts were as follows: 1,283 at station and 479 at the Observation Point. There were 62 picnic parties and 25 camping parties.

July 1, Ken Disher of the Indian Arts and Crafts Board, Washington, D. C., visited Walnut Canyon with a party that included Mary Louise Rogers of the Museum Division of the National Park Service.

A few days later, Dr. Charles N. Gould arrived to investigate the possibilities of drilling for a water supply. As none of the deep wells in this vicinity have proved successful, it seems that water for the monument must come either from a catchment basin or the Flagstaff water mains.

District Engineer Tovrea spent about two weeks here on engineering problems.

July 7, Chief Architect Thomas Vint, Hugh Miller, J. H. Tovrea, H. H. Cornell, A. C. Kuehl, Cecil Doty, and H. C. Parker inspected the proposed improvement areas of Walnut Canyon, Sunset Crater, and Wupatki National Monuments, and discussed plans for their improvement. Next day, Hugh, Al, Tov., and Project Superintendent Parker prepared a camp program for the current fiscal year.

Last month I reported that the CCC camp was to have its complement of boys early in July. They are now expected to arrive early in August. From the amount of planning for the camp, it seems there are some people who still believe there will sometime be a camp here.

Custodian Bicknell, Teddy Savage, and Jimmie Rodgers ferried a couple of trucks from headquarters to the CCC camp. They visited Walnut briefly.

Luis Gastellum was at camp several days checking equipment.

Ward W. Yeager inspected four "bug" trees, July 21. The trees are widely scattered, and no control measures were advised. Mr. Yeager seemed disappointed in not having any CCC boys to instruct in the art of fire fighting.

In general, the weather has been pleasant. It has been a bit dry but as this report goes to press, a good rain is falling. The summer rains have started, and I can worry about pulling visitors out of mud holes for the next month.


We agree with Paul that it is taking a long time to get the camp installed. In the meantime we have the plan of the ranger's residence approved and are shaping up the other plans. We are having a little trouble getting the administration building and parking area located to suit everybody. The Regional Office sent us down a nice looking plan but it threw the foot traffic directly across the parking area and we have asked for a revision. The administration building was first designed right on the rim of the canyon but we think we can get it back a little, closer to the parking area and with its floors more nearly on one level.--F. P.


TUMACACORI By Louis R. Caywood, custodian, Box 797, Nogales, Arizona.
Visitors this month, 1,005; total since October 1, 13,145.

Very dry conditions prevailed in this section of the Santa Cruz Valley until July 24. There was one rain on June 28 and there were two night rains on July 20 and 21. The hardest rains came on July 24 when there were two heavy downpours, one in the morning and one in the afternoon. If these continue, the range should soon be in condition and all water holes will be filled.

The total number of monument visitors amounted to 1,005. Although this figure is below that of 1,157 for the same month of last year, it does not show such a decrease as have the past few months, as compared to the same months of last year. The visitors are almost entirely Arizona people and their friends. The out-of-state travel is almost nil.

On July 24 this monument was highly honored by a long visit from A. E. Demaray, assistant director, Frank Pinkley, and Hugh Miller. This was Mr. Demaray's first visitor since 1919 when he came with Mr. Pinkley. This visit was such that the entire plant was seen by Mr. Demaray.

Dr. and Mrs. A. E. Douglass and nephew, Andrew Douglass, were visitors on June 27.

Bishop Gercke of Tucson, Rev. Don Hughes, Msg. Timberman, Rev. Stoner, and Bert Underwood were visitors on June 29. The Bishop and his party were very pleased with all of the museum exhibits and especially the one entitled The Mass. The music was a great deal to do with its success.

Mr. and Mrs. Fred Winn stopped to see the new exhibits on July 14. Mr. Winn is Supervisor of the Coronado National Forest. Mrs. Winn said The MAss with its music was exquisite.

Msg. Duval and Rev. Donnelson were visitors on July 20. They enjoyed seeing the new museum exhibits, especially The Mass diorama.

The Santa Cruz County Chamber of Commerce is sponsoring the holding of a pageant in honor of the quadricentennial of the entrance of Fray Marcos de Niza to Arizona soil. As there has been so much inquiry into the status of the museum exhibits, I suggested to the secretary and president of the Chamber of Commerce that a meeting be held at the Tumacacori museum and someone could give a lecture on Fray Marcos de Niza. Father Stoner was asked to give the talk and was very pleased to do so. The meeting was held at 8:00 P. M. on July 7 with 60 persons attending. The local people now realize that the museum is worth while, but incomplete Father Stoner gave a very good talk on Fray Marcos. Mr. Edward Edmondson, Mr. Thomas Hall, and Mr. Harry Karns, all of Nogales, gave short talks on the possibility and reasons for a pageant to be held next year at some time in April. At that time they hope that the National Park Service will have the museum completed so that dedicatory services may be held in connection with the pageant.

On July 22 the Custodian gave a lecture on Fray Marcos de Niza before 29 members of the Nogales Rotary Club.

During the month considerable time has been spent by the Custodian on setting up the lighting reflectors and experimenting with the lights for the museum cases. Several minor repairs were made to the exhibits. On July 22 Charles Steen, junior park archeologist, arrived from Coolidge to work on assembling the museum cases. The Custodian and Steen have since been working together on this and hope to set up a goodly number of cases before he leaves.

A new hot air furnace has been installed and tested and is now ready for the winter season. It is electronically operated by a clock and thermostat. Mr. J. H. Tovrea was here on July 18 to inspect the furnace. On July 23 the furnace was operated for four hours by the installers, Hearn and Caid, and seemed to work perfectly. When the furnace is needed at the beginning of winter, they will return and see that it is in proper order.


I might say that on our recent visit we found the Chamber of Commerce very much awake to the value of a celebration of the four hundredth anniversary of the coming of Fray Marcos. In a fifteen minute talk, Mr. Demaray made clear how far we could go in such a celebration and expressed his willingness to have us help out if the ceremony could be kept on the proper plane.--F. P.


GRAN QUIVIRA By George Boundey, custodian, Gran Quivira, New Mexico.
Visitors this month, 357; since October 1, 2,524.

On June 25, our rainy season started in with a vengeance and has either rained or threatened to rain every day since. Our one really passable road has been flooded much of the time. For more than a week water was up to the hubs on one stretch of over two miles.

The rains have put the grass on the range in wonderful shape and, although beans were planted very late, if we should have a reasonably late fall, there will be a bumper crop.

Work on the monument has consisted principally of scraping the roads, filling in washed places, and hoeing weeds.

Besides several coveys of quail, two deer are making their home on the monument.

About 50 CCC boys, who were excavating at the Abo ruins, spent an afternoon with us. They report some interesting finds at Abo. With several projects being excavated to the north of us, we can not expect many visitors the coming fall and winter. The crowd goes to where something is to be seen besides crumbling walls. Our walls have suffered considerably during the past month of rains. A small museum at this place to compete with the other museums being established in near-by ruins would interest the public greatly. About half our visitors this month came to see a small object I found on one of the floors near the patio.


EL MORRO By: Robert R. Budlong, custodian, Ramah, New Mexico.
Visitors this month, 580; total since October 1, 2,002.

What some people have been pleased to call our rainy season is now well advanced, and we are hoping that before much longer we may get some sort of moisture. We have had a very few light sprinkles of rain, but more moisture is needed immediately. Roads remained passable the entire month, and visitors travel to this monument during July was the heaviest for any month since I have been stationed here.

Visitor travel bunches up on Sundays and holidays, and it is impossible to obtain complete registration. Actually, we had well over 600 visitors during the month, though only 580 registered; but when we have 15 or more cars parked before the cabin at one time, with more arriving and still others departing, and the custodian waving his arms around to direct traffic, pointing out items of interest, guiding parties around inscriptions and doing another thousand and one things simultaneously, it is impossible to make sure that back at the cabin all visitors are registering. The HCWP does her best to cook dinner, direct visitors, see that they register, keep track of time spent by them, and so on, but there are limits. We aren't complaining, for we realize we are extremely fortunate when we read of the trials and tribulations of certain other custodians and rangers. Especially do we feel like a couple of pikers when we find that at one particular monument, once administered after a fashion by one lone man, they now have only three men to do duty simultaneously at nine separate stations.


A total of 580 persons registered during the travel month and all were contacted. They made trips as follows:

Inscriptions, guided: Persons, 447; trips, 93; total time, 6,560 minutes; average persons per trip, 4.8; average time per trip, 70.43 minutes.

Inscriptions, unguided: Persons, 19; trips, 5; total time, 145 minutes; average persons per trip, 3.8; average time per trip, 29 minutes.

Trail, unguided: Persons, 122; trips, 23; total time, 1,650 minutes; average persons per trip, 5.3; average time per trip, 71.7 minutes.

Office visits: Persons, 98; visits, 24; total time, 2,470 minutes; average persons per visit, 4.1; average time per visit, 102.9 minutes.

Picnics: Persons, 79; picnics, 11; average persons per picnic, 7.1.

Camping parties: Persons, 28; parties, 9; average persons per camping party, 3.1.

Mr. and Mrs. F. E. Vreeland and children arrived at the monument July 1 and camped here until the 5th. We were mighty sorry to see them leave, for in spite of the rather hectic time that resulted from crowds of other visitors over the holiday, we managed to visit with them for some time, and will long remember with pleasure their stay at the monument. Mrs. Vreeland's water-color studies of flowers were greatly admired.

Jack Snow, photographer with the Navajo Service, paid two visits to the monument, being accompanied on his second visit by Clay Hockett, also of the Navajo Service. As might have been expected, their visits were all too brief as they were on official business.

Miss Bertha Dutton of the Museum of New Mexico and Miss Hulda Hobbs, both of Santa Fe, paid two visits to the monument during the month, camping overnight on the occasion of their second visit. We are looking forward to their next visit, which we hope will be soon.


This is deserving not only a special mention, but of a special heading, for it was the highlight of the month. The custodian paid an overnight visit to headquarters, arriving July 9 and departing on the 10th, and derived much profit and great pleasure from the visit. My last trip there was two years ago, and I am strongly in favor of the field personnel making at least yearly visits to the headquarters office. The Custodian found a sudden drop from 7,000-feet elevations down to close proximity to the infernal regions something of a strain, but the hospitality of the Boss and Natt Dodge and the reception by the remainder of the headquarters personnel made the visit one long to be remembered. I lost some of my multitudinous cares, and also some pounds I could ill afford to lose, but it was worth it. The prolonged huddle with the Boss relative to cabbages and kings did me a world of good, and Natt's showing of his color motion pictures was a real treat.


This office is now the proud possessor of a Kodaslide projector and a beaded screen, both of which were received recently. Although not listed as official lectures, since they were only experimental, six impromptu lectures have already been held using this equipment and, judging by the requests coming in, we are going to have our hands more than full filling engagements. The custodian has his own 110-volt light plant, and it takes only a few minutes to place the entire thing in the pickup truck, or in his own car, and transport light plant, projector, and screen to some distant point and set up the equipment for an illustrated lecture. The projector was intended primarily for visitor education, but judging from the reception given by local persons, it is going to be useful for general educational purposes in the community as well. More on this later.

During the month, a microscope was obtained by transfer from Headquarters, and this has a multitude of uses in educational work. We greatly appreciate these new items of equipment.


The young Golden Eagle that hatched out this spring is now flying, having left the nest about July 12. Due to a rush of visitors about that time, the exact date of its initial venture from home was not noted.


Work has now commenced on the photographing of each of our hundreds of inscriptions in order that we may have permanent records of them in the event of their obliteration or destruction in the future. One end of the cellar constructed last fall has been converted into a darkroom, and equipped with the necessary electric lights, enlargers, tanks, table, etc., and the work of making these photographs of inscriptions promises to occupy many hours of time. This work should have been done 20 years ago.


Having heard persistent rumors for several months to the effect that within the next two decades somebody plants to drill a well here hoping to find water, I really shouldn't comment further on the pool of so-called water at the base of the rock, but it has reached a condition where it just about speaks for itself. No longer can we enjoy the cool zephyrs of evening as once we were wont to do, for now, borne on the vagrant breezes come fragrances from the pool reminiscent of a sewage-disposal plant gone sour. Perhaps the pool was a sight for sore eyes to the early Conquistadores, but they have been dead for centuries, and I am beginning to suspect that the water has been too. Last year birds that fell into the pool used to drown; now they either die of dust pneumonia or else walk out without getting wet. I put a couple of chunks of the stuff under a microscope and showed it to some of the folks who have been hauling it from the pool, and the entire community for miles around suffered an epidemic of nightmares. You must pardon my skepticism, and I'm willing to be convinced, but if there is anything to that rumor about a well, we'd like to know more about it.


Word reaches me this evening that a party of tourists visiting the vicinity of the ice caves some 19 miles east of the monument became lost among the lava beds on the 19th, and were only found today, the 23rd. Apparently they had quite a harrowing experience, but it is said they suffered no lasting ill effects.

In closing may we extend a most cordial invitation to the personnel of the newly established Southwestern Monuments to come out to the west and visit El Morro. Bring along a house and a well when you come and make yourself at home.


We assure Bud it was as good for us to see him at headquarters and go over his problems with him as it could possibly have been for him.

Also, it really begins to look like a well; the money is set up and what we need now is a set of specifications and some bid forms. More than that, we need a location for the said well, because, as it goes, so goes the headquarters area--on the north or south side of the Rock.--F. P.


MONTEZUMA CASTLE By Earl Jackson, custodian, Camp Verde, Arizona.
Visitors this month, 1,490; total since October 1, 7,794.


Park Service: June 25 - Natt Dodge was in for several hours. We had an interesting and instructive visit.

July 14 - Al Bicknell was in the with Teddie Savage and Jimmie Rodgers, CCC guides from Casa Grande Ruins. I was away on business when they arrived, but met them on the road as I returned.

July 21 - Luis Gastallum dropped in en route to Headquarters from the Mount Elden Camp and spent an hour and a half with us, seeing the Castle.

Other Visitors: June 25 - T. J. Parr, at the Bureau of Ethnology and Plant Quarantine, was an interested visitor.

June 26 - Dr. W. W. Woods and his two sons, from San Marino, California, were especially interested visitors and campers.

June 29 - Theodore Moorehead, one of Great Britian's engineers in Bhavnagi, India, visited the Castle.

July 2 - Michael Carelitz, in charge of the designing and installation of the carriage and giant horseshoe bearing for the 200-inch telescope to be installed on Palomar Mountain in San Diego, California, was a visitor.

July 4 - Dr. and Mrs. J. M. Greer of Phoenix were visitors. Dr. Greer is a widely known bone surgeon.

July 6 - Believe it or not: Mr. and Mrs. William Shakespeare, or Socorro, New Mexico, were visitors.

July 9 - From the State Teachers College at Silver City, New Mexico, 20 teachers, under the charge of Mr. Jess Bingeramon, visited the Castle.

July 11 - Dr. Edward Fleischer, a mathematics professor at Brooklyn College, New York, was a very interested visitor. His hobby is birds and he seems quite well informed on them.

July 15 - The Palo Verde Ranch School, near Prescott, Arizona, sent a party of 16 boys and members of their families to visit the Castle.

July 16 - Major and Mrs. John R. Scott, U. S. Army, were interested.

July 22 - Mr. H. J. Carns, of Nogales, told us considerable about the missions of southern Arizona and northern Mexico. It appears he has made a special study of them for many years.


Precipitation---2.04Minimum temperature---52
Days cloudy---6Mean maximum---98.23
Days partly cloudy---15Mean minimum---60.93
Maximum temperature---108

Good rains have come our way. As a result, road maintainers are able to do some good, and approach roads, with the exception of the one from Highway 79 via Cornville, are in better condition than last month. The Cornville Road is still under reconstruction.

Cattle look better than usual at this time of year in spite of the dry early summer.

On a recent drive by way of Stoneman Lake through Long Valley and south to Pine, we found the humus floor of the pine forest a literal mass of flowers. This is certainly a scenic drive, and we are surprised more people don't travel it.


Several blisters on the new entrance road have been sanded. And we notice a few places where the oiled surface is breaking. This is probably because so much coarse gravel was used. There is one particularly coarse spot just at the beginning of the run-around at the parking area. Parts of this have been patched, but we are going to have to tear up about 150 square feet and put in finer mix.

The museum was given a complete cleaning and rearranged, and a much more effective textile exhibit made.

All of the unsightly mess of gasoline, fuel oil, and lubricating oil drums was removed from near the parking area to the garage, and the new gasoline pump and underground storage tank put into use.

The ranger tent-house was given a coat of weather proofing compound.

Montezuma Castle was given a thorough cleaning out and sweeping.

Our water pumping system went haywire, but was repaired from spare parts lying around.

The pickup truck was cleaned and the bed painted, leaks in plumbing were traced and repaired, and general cleanup on grounds was effected.


Practically all of the equipment for an automatic electric pumping system has been received and lighting equipment also is on hand.


A Prescott, Arizona, daily paper used our mimeographed information sheet about Montezuma Castle as the basis for an article.


Ranger Edwin C. Alberts surprised us all by bringing home a bride on July 6. She is the former Carey Davis of Holbrook, Arizona. The newlyweds are honeymooning at Montezuma Castle, living in the tent house by the creek. They are deferring their honeymoon trip until later.

This tent house, planned as only a temporary structure, has certainly developed a history. Built originally as the summer home for a convalescent, it was later the site of a honeymoon for Ranger and Mrs. Russell Farmer, it is now serving its second term in this capacity. Between times it was the home of Jesse and Jane Jennings, while Jesse was proving out as a Park Service man. While they lived there, the highest flood in history almost washed the tent house away, forcing abandonment for two days until the waters receded and the mud was washed off the floor. Then the foundation was repaired, and now we are waiting for something else to happen to this "temporary" structure. We would hate to see it die of old age before a ranger house is built.

Ranger Alberts took sick leave for two days, July 21 and 22. He was mighty sick for a while, but is back on the job now. Must have been a touch of the "flu".


A small model of a cliff dweller ladder was made so visitors would get a better idea of how the Indians may have entered the Castle.

Twenty six new plants were collected, pressed, and sent to Jack Whitehead for positive identification.

During the month Dr. F. H. Douglas of the Denver Art Museum wrote Superintendent Pinkley to the effect that during a study of textile specimens from this monument he sent some slides of the material used to Mr. Volney Jones, of the Ethnobotanical Laboratory, University of Michigan. Mr. Jones reported some of the specimens contained a material which most closely resembled the fiber of the basswood tree. At Dr. Douglas' suggestion, we have sent a number of these specimens to Mr. Jones for more complete study. It is with much interest we await this report and the possibility that it may establish use of a new textile fiber in aboriginal southwestern weaving.

All our museums and educational equipment was inventoried during the month.


From the Custodian's viewpoint, things have gone nicely this month. A number of things that needed doing were done and, insofar as we are able to tell, the public had no cause to feel neglected.

Several campers came in as if in answer to my statement in last month's report that no more campers were appearing. These people seemed much impressed with the place and left pleased.

Betty Jackson's bird report will be found on page 73 of the Supplement.

It may be of interest to you to note that several parties have been here lately who told us they had left their house trailers in Flagstaff and Prescott, rather than navigate the mountain roads with them. It has been some time since a house trailer has been seen here, although two or three small trailers of the luggage-tote variety have appeared.

!Hasta la vista!


CHIRICAHUA By Frank L. Fish, custodian, Douglas, Arizona.
Visitors this month, 1,003; total since October 1, 7,557.

July has been a wonderful period here in the Chiricahuas this year in respect to weather. We have had ten days out of twenty three in which rain fell on the monument. A cloudburst on July 18 at the mouth of Bonita Canyon and the administration area registered three inches of precipitation in about three quarters of an hour. Some hail accompanied the storm. Practically all the culverts on the entrance road below the Faraway Ranch were blocked by sand. And much of the road surfacing washed away in spots. Mrs. Stevenson had a crew of enrollees open the culverts and clean the drainage ditches soon after the storm. You are referred to his report, following this one, for the amount of work necessary. Range conditions as a result of the rains are much improved and with livestock prices advancing, the stockmen's position appears mcuh brighter.

Labor conditions have not improved materially as yet in this area. However, if copper prices keep increasing it should alter that in a short time. The Phelps-Dodge Corporation have received a government contract which assures their present employees steady work for some time. The Shattuck-Denn have closed their mine and have kept only a skeleton force.

Visitor attendance shows a loss of 214 this month as compared with July of 1937. However, the year as a whole shows an increase over last year. Out-of-state people appear to be as numerous as in the past. No large parties entered the monument this month. Douglas held an American Legion Convention during July 3, 4, and 5. This may have kept many local people from visiting the Chiricahuas.


19382531,035255 in 15 cars

Total stay of all visitors amounted to 65,035 minutes.

National Park Service officials were: Associate Director Demaray, accompanied by Engineer Tovrea on the 25th. We took them over the Echo Trail and around the administration developments and enjoyed the trip very much. Tovrea and John H. Haile were here inspecting on the 21st. George Sholly and family from Bandelier were visitors on July 22.

Gordon Gilbert Philp entered on duty July 1 as temporary ranger. "Gil" is making an old hand with the visitors on Sundays and rush days. Odd moments are devoted to collecting birds and mammals for display and study purposes at the monument.

Ora M. Clark, Dean and Professor of Botany of the Bristow Junior College, Bristow, Oklahoma, was an interesting visitor and helped out in classifying many plants of this region for my benefit.

Due to heavy rains in the Chiricahuas, only one fire was reported for the month, that being a lone pitch snag just across the eastern boundary of the monument. The fire was controlled by Mr. Stevenson and Ray Ringenbach, his clerk. They had the novel experience of getting soaking wt going to the fire. The Forest Service has been able to lay off their lookouts at the present writing. However, we are keeping ours on duty until we are a little more sure the fire season is over.

Roads approaching the monument are in the same statues as last month with added gains toward completion of construction. Pinery Canyon is being improved by the Forest Service. They have a work crew staying at the local CCC camp.

Fred Winn favors a road into this area from Bowie, via the Old Fort and Apache Pass. He still desires aid on a trail to Cochise Head. Both he and John Ball inform me there are nice formations around that area.


CHIRICAHUA CCC By William Stevenson, project superintendent, Douglas, Ariz.

Work was resumed on the back-sloping project July 5. Five hundred square yards of rock banks were sloped on Bonita Highway approximately three miles north of the Sugar Loaf truck trail intersection. Materials were used to widen fill slopes. In connection with this project, 250 man-days were used removing objectionable "overcast".

A cloudburst on July 18 washed the lower two miles of Bonita Highway to such an extent that 500 man days were required the repair the damage. Culverts were blocked and ditches filled which caused the loss of surfacing on approximately one-half mile of road. Also, the capacity was increased on some arroyas so that new drainage structures may be required in the near future.

All materials have been received for the exhibit cases for the Administration Building and the cases are now being fabricated in the carpenter shop.

Work was started on the warehouse June 30. Footings have been poured, sewer line connected, and walls completed to a height of five feet.

Work continued throughout the month in the rock quarry.

Bridge No. 1 is 100 per cent complete, which marks the completion of the Bridges project.

Seventy three enrollees were transferred to this camp June 30 and 15 additional were enrolled July 7, making our present company strength 193.


CANYON DE CHELLY By Johnwill Faris, custodian, Chin Lee, Arizona.
Visitors this month, 223; total since October 1, 943.

With time passing so quickly as it is, I'd better start wishing the boys a Merry Christmas and A Happy New Year. Perhaps it is that time passes more rapidly when one is busy, because we have been plenty busy here the past month. At least Bill and Woody have been on the go.

Our visitor table shows that we are still a few under July of last year with our 223 for this month. I have not figured out the time on the two months, but I feel certain that more time has been spent on each party partly due to the fact that we have been unable to drive into the canyons and the trim trip was stressed to avoid any disappointment in not being able to get up the canyons. Even the concession car is forced to turn down trips into the canyons because of the sand being so deep. Cozy will get through if anybody can and, while he is trying it again today with a party, I certainly can not blame him for not taking his car into the sand even with his equipment. With the long dry spell that we have had, I expect that when it does rain it will be necessary to use boats to get around. A little shower the other day was not even enough to test out our new grading around the residence. I think that it will be necessary to do a little hand wash to assure us the proper drainage, and a good rain will tell the tale.

Odd jobs about the place have kept Woody and Bill both pretty busy. The major portion of the work is in the big room where we put on a prime coat and covered with a cold water paint in white and ivory. It leaves us a beautiful room and, while we are at it, we will paint a bedroom and fix up some of the floors.

Several official parties visited us during the month. One of the rangers from the Petrified Forest was in with his wife early in the month. A couple of the boys from the Forestry Division stopped in for a night and day. We took them up the canyon. They report no serious infection within the monument area and it was not necessary to burn any trees. One of the boys, I am sure, will vouch for the fact that in case of an emergency we can supply the water. Boss, I think that anyone who stops into one of possibly two waterholes in the entire 83,840 acres should really be given a medal.

Most of the inspections of the month were on the rim, due largely to the fact that we have had excellent control over the canyons. Boss, Nature is a grand ranger when it comes to controlling canyon travel. Just this afternoon a CCC employee was telling me of the marvels of big wheels all around. We did get up much better than I do with the small tires in front, but because we were so sure of the car, we stopped in a very sandy spot and dug the rest of the way out to a hard spot. The car just will not make it under all hazards that exist at the present setting.

We had a couple of horseback trips with Bill and Sally as guides. Speaking of Bill and Sally; the fourteenth of the month we started them out with 10888 for Blanding, Utah, to trade cars with Zeke. They were routed via Navajo in order that they might see one of the monuments. They report a very nice trip and speak most highly of Zeke and Bill Leicht. The Model A that we received in trade is the pet of the monument now and we fell quite proud of the addition. It is much easier to push in the sands.

Minor improvements have been made in the garage and tool units of our area. Bill has turned out to be a real carpenter. He constructed quite a box to fit into the back of the pickup for tools, etc. Green paint on our gas pumps make them much more attractive and in accordance with the regulations. Repairs to our weather station puts us in a position to report to the Weather Bureau once again.

Nature observations appear on page 71 of the Supplement.

Well, Boss, as this is being written the place is filling up with visitors: three campers this evening, two other parties for a trip in the morning, and reservations made for two other parties Friday and Saturday. So it looks good for a start in August.


NATURAL BRIDGES By Zeke Johnson, custodian, Blanding, Utah.
Visitors this month, 188; total since October 1, 422.

July has been an ideal month out here; cool all month and cloudy every day with several fine showers. It is very cloudy today and looks as if we may have rain any minute. There has been much more rain at the Bridges than at Blanding, with several small floods down both Armstrong and White Canyons. Grass is still plentiful in the canyons and there are flowers everywhere. I have never spent a July out here as cool as this month has been.

Roads are in good condition, and now that I have the pickup it is easier to keep the approach road (or tumble-in as I sometimes call it) in better shape.

There have been 188 people register and I have contacted all but 13 of them. I spent at least 60 minutes with every group as it takes that long to visitor Owachomo. Then I have hiked to all three bridges and the ruins with 56 people. I hiked over to Sipapu and back with 28. Seventy four people saw all the bridges, 46 saw Owachomo and Sipapu, and 68 saw only Owachomo. I spent all the time possible with each group, and it is hard to keep track of the number of minutes spent with each person.

I know that I have been plenty busy. July 24 was the only day this month that no one came, so Mrs. Johnson and I spent Sunday together. We have many over-night campers and some stay two nights. So many people come expecting to find cabins and eating houses. Right now I want to thank our Uncle and all concerned who sent us the refrigerator. It surely is a life saver this year. So just come up and see us and we can treat you plenty cool.

Two records have been broken this year. The oldest man now that has made the hike to all three bridges is 78. Before, it was 77. The youngest child to hike to all three was five, now it is four, a Blanding girl, and she came back bouncing like a rubber ball.

There have been a lot of photographers this month--five different outfits hunting pictures to show in the East. I always ask them to leave a few pictures for the other fellow.

On July [3?], Mrs. Johnson and I started for the monument in our personal car, which was well loaded with groceries. We got out 13 miles when, rounding a small curve, we saw a CCC truck coming very fast. So we pulled to the bank on the right hand side of the road and just as we got stopped the truck hit us head on. Oh what a mess! Mrs. Johnson was hurt on the head, shoulder, and knees. A Mr. Hatch came along and I got him to bring us back to Blanding.

I notified the CCC bosses. A lot of them went out with measuring sticks and took photographs galore and exonerated the truck driver. There was no reason why he could not have passed us OK, but he said his boss told him not to pull out into the sage brush to pass anyone; so we got hit.

The next day very early we tried to start the pickup but could not as the battery was down. So we towed it to the garage and hooked it to the light plant for a few hours, then off we went out to our car, transferred all the supplies, and arrived at the Bridges OK. On July 6 we tried to start the pickup, but nothing doing. It just wouldn't start. Then I got a car hooked on ahead of it and finally got it started, getting back to Blanding safely. On the following morning we came back and left the car up on a hill where we could get a good start and had no trouble after that. We were very glad when Sally and Bill Lippincott came and traded us a V8 for the Model A. We have had no more trouble and the V8 runs fine after having the horn and lights fixed up so they would act. Now Mrs. Johnson and Zeke are glad we were not in the pickup when we were hit for I fear there might have been a different story. That little car has the gas tank so close to our faces that I believe we would have been hurt worse than we were. We are very glad the mixup was no worse.

Boss, I felt very bad when I saw by the last Monthly Report that I had credit for only 67 visitors and no contacts. How did it happen? I had 138 visitors and all were contacted except 11. I don't know how the mistake was made.


Zeke, the reason your figures were too low last month was that I had to guess them in by myself. I did the best I could but got the total too low. We had to have the statistics table made up and studied before your report reached us. We didn't want to leave your monument out because we knew you had been doing a lot of walking and talking that month. Se we just did the next best thing and estimated them. We called attention to the fact that when the figures finally arrived we found we had undershot the park.--F. P.


CAPULIN MOUNTAIN By Homer T. Farr, custodian, Capulin, New Mexico.
Visitors this month, 7,500; total since October 1, 15,700.

I have been itching for a visit from my Boss, or Hugh, or some of the good old gang from headquarters; when?

The Custodian here has been pretty busy all the month keeping the road passable. I have worked nine days this month on the road or, at least, parts of the nine days. We have had two heavy rains that washed out the road which simply had to be repaired. One rain made the road impassable, but I got right after it with a light grader and that afternoon cars were going up again.

The Custodian made many visitor contacts this month but was too busy with the road to give them much attention. Only a "Good morning", or "Howdy", a smile and "Glad to have you come and visit our Monument, hope you enjoy it", was about all the time I had except two or three trips when I took parties up there and spent a few hours with them. I am thoroughly convinced that 99 per cent of our visitors here really enjoy this monument. They say they do, most of them in no uncertain tones. I have noted cars from 21 states, the District of Columbia, and Canada.


From July 1 to 15 we had warm weather. But since that time we have had nice cool days and nights. Four good rains during the month have made this monument put on her best coat of green and now she is a beauty. Flowers and bushes area all abloom and grass is the finest it has been for many years. We have a wonderful crop of pinyon nuts and acorns and our fauna here should be well fed for the winter.

We have a swell crop of deer and also of the small animals. I believe we have something like 15 to 20 deer. Of course, it is hard to count them except in winter.

I fear a fire hazard this fall and winter and will use all the caution possible as soon as the monument gets really dry. However, we had a considerable fire hazard last fall and winter and had no fire, for which we are very thankful.


Our principal highway, 87 and 64 near the monument has been pretty busy, in spite of the repair work going on all summer on 87. This has been oiled from ten miles east of here to 30 miles west. But within a couple of weeks will all be finished and then it will be the best highway across the state.

A Mr. Oliver from the East, interested in things of long ago, was here last week looking for the Folsom man near Capulin. I gladly gave him all the information possible but informed him I had only lived here 30 years and did not know the man personally.


BANDELIER By C. G. Harkins, custodian, Box 669, Santa Fe, New Mexico.
Visitors this month, 2,702; total since October 1, 9,454.

The weather for the month of July has been warm but not too hot. Although dry the first part of the month, we had some very welcome showers the last two weeks of July. The approach road to the monument has been maintained in the best possible condition. Although very rough from Pojaque on Highway 285 to the Otowi Section, we have had a good many favorable comments on the remainder of the road to monument headquarters.

Our travel during the month of July is a little under the same month in 1937. The bulk of the travel through Santa Fe this summer has consisted of railroad excursions. We have been fortunate in having several large groups visit the monument and these groups have been amply taken care of by our very efficient temporary rangers. One large group of 165 Catholic Sisters from Albuquerque and vicinity were very much interested in our ruins and museum. They spent nearly the entire day picnicking and visiting the ruins.


For the month of July, weather conditions have been typical of New Mexico: hot days and cool nights with occasional showers. Following are the weather statistics for July:

Maximum---96°Days clear---12
Minimum---45°Days cloudy---8
Mean maximum---85.90°Days part cloudy---11
Mean minimum---52.41°Precipitation---2.41


Painting of the relief map was completed this month. This map has been placed in the office lobby where it arouses a great deal of interest among our visitors in that they want to see what our road looks like with all it turns and twists; especially the visitors from the plains of Texas. One lady was astonished to think the prehistoric inhabitants of this region would build their homes out here in Frijoles Canyon so far from the railroad.


An air compressor and a one-ton chain hoist have been received for the garage, in addition to two electric washers and ironers for the hotel development and residential areas.

A wall Multiplex, size 24" x 36" has been installed in the office lobby. Now we need something to fill it up.


Indications are very good that we will get our entrance road and the parking area paved before winter. The deplorable condition of the road from Pojaque to the Otowi Section has discouraged a good many visitors. Pojaque Wash has had considerable water in it and as the road runs down the middle of the stream, a number of cars have been stalled and had to be pulled out.


Weekly inspections have been made of the Otowi Section. Farmers in the lower valley have been moving their cattle to the Santa Fe National Forest Reserve and driving through the Otowi Section. So far very few have been noted within the boundaries or remained more than one night.


The State Fish and Game Commission brought 1,400 native and rainbow trout on July 12. These were liberated in Frijoles Canyon near the Ceremonial Cave. On July 14, 8,000 more were taken to the Upper Crossing, making a total of 22,000 fingerlings between two and five inches in length planted in Frijoles Creek this season.

(NOTE: Report of the finding of a skeleton in the Otowi Section is given on page 80 of the Supplement.)


Travel has been very good the past month. There were 2,702 persons who visited the monument in 681 cars from 34 states and three foreign countries. Our visitors made 173 trips through the ruins with an average of 9.27 to the party and 85.7 minutes per group. One hundred five parties were shown through the museum, averaged 6.26 persons per group, and stayed 18.1 minutes per group.


Ninety-four members of the Leadership Training Company, Colorado-New Mexico Conference, United Brethren, were shown the ruins and museum.

Brown-Moore School, of Santa Fe, 28 members, made a ruins trip including the Ceremonial Cave.

Professor E. T. Renaud, of the University of Denver, with a group of students visited the monument the latter part of the month.

Renaie Ferguson, famed writer of Albuquerque, visited a short while at Frijoles Canyon Ranch.

A group of 165 Franciscan Sisters from Saint Anthony's Orphanage, Albuquerque, formed by far the most interested and interesting group to visit the monument this season.


A new sign for the Otowi Section at the junction of the Los Alamos Ranch School's road and State Highway No. 4 is being designed by the Branch of Plans and Designs of the Regional Office. New signs are also being designed for the junction of the entrance road and State Highway No. 4 at the monument boundary.


Park Service visitors this month were: Jack Diehl, regional engineer, Santa Fe, New Mexico; John S. Cross, assistant chief engineer, Washington, D. C.; Tom Vint, chief architect, Washington, D. C.; Charles A. Richey, associate landscape architect, Santa Fe; Leo McClatchey, public informant, Santa Fe; A. E. Underhill, road-oil foreman, San Francisco, California; and H. A. Montgomery, assistant engineer, Santa Fe.


The problem of talking the proposed self-guiders into taking a guided trip is still with us. We find that a little super-salesmanship at the first contact by the car checker dissuades some from their plans, but there still remain those who go to the camp ground or hotel for lunch and then from there form their own tour. Sometimes these are met in the ruins by a party and talked into going along, but the percentage still remains high in their favor. The longer average time in the ruins and museum can be attributed to the change in counting time without joiners and break-offs, and also to the fact that individual guide times are longer.


Ranger Spuhler has devoted one day a week to collecting plants for our herbarium. These will be forwarded to your office shortly for identification.

Nature notes from Bandelier appear on page 68 of the Supplement.


BANDELIER FORESTRY By James T. Fulton, forestry foreman, Box 669, Santa Fe, New Mexico.


Nearly three inches of rain has fallen this month; vegetation is green. The soil contains a quantity of moisture and the litter and duff is moist. As a result, the hazard of fires is a a minimum. June and July of this year have approached the normal for the Southwest insofar as precipitation is concerned. Judging from this, we might well look forward to low hazard for another month and then relatively dry conditions for a short period--the last of August and the first of September. However, I am unwilling to wager on this production. I am only hoping that such is the case.


No fires have occurred this month.


BANDELIER CCC By H. B. Chase, project superintendent, Box 669, Santa Fe, New Mex.

Plumbing has been completed and all doors have been assembled and installed in the lobby and sales room building. During the later part of the month, a small crew has been painting and staining the walls and woodwork in this building and only a few more days of painting remain before we can call this a 100 per cent completed project.

During this month, most of the plumbing fixtures have been installed and approximately 60 per cent of the flagstone flooring has been smoothed by grinding in the operator's residence. There remains only a small amount of plumbing and the decorating and plastering to be done before this will be a completed project.

All fixtures have been installed and decorating completed on the employees' dormitory. This building is now 100 per cent complete.

Wall construction of Cabin "A", Unit No. 11, of the Operator's Development, has been completed to parapet wall height and all vigas, lintels, aspen ceiling, etc., have been installed. At the present time rough plumbing is in process of installation.

The second guest cabin, Group "B", was started on July 14. The excavation has been completed, all footings in place, and approximately three feet of all walls constructed.

During the later part of this month, the cable was received for the power lines. At the present time the junction boxes on this line are being installed.

Although we have kept the usual crew in the rock quarry, activities have been somewhat handicapped due to the fact that both of our compressors are worn out beyond repair. We were able to borrow a compressor from the SP-1-N camp in Santa Fe on July 27, but do not know how long we will be able to retain it. It is our hope we will be able to procure a compressor from some source in the near future.

Although the carpenter crew has been kept busy most of the month with duties in connection with the different units of the Hotel Development Project, considerable progress has been made on the dining room tables under the furniture project. Also one project assistant and an enrollee have been busy since July 18 constructing tin fixtures and mirrors for installation in the operator's development.



Ocmulgee Archeology, an article which appeared on page 551 of the June, 1938, Supplement, has received considerable publicity and has drawn the following correction from Jesse Jennings, acting superintendent of Ocmulgee National Monument, Georgia:

"I am very sorry to say that I am not the author of that brief summary, although I would cheerfully accept responsibility for it. Gorden Willey is the author".

Our apologies to both Jesse and Gordon. We are mighty glad to have had opportunity to run the articles, but very sorry that lack of a by-line caused us to misplace the credit and hope that this correction will straighten up the record all around.-Ed.


On June 23, following an operation for kidney stones, Regional Forester William H. Wirt died in a hospital at Albuquerque, New Mexico. The news came as a shock to Park Service personnel throughout Region Three where Bill's good nature, friendly personality, and efficient work had made him a multitude of friends. The body was sent to Yakima, Washington, for burial.


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Date: 01-May-2007