Southwestern Monuments Monthly Report



Improvement of Highways


Personnel of Individual Monuments
Personnel Changes and Additions



Miscellaneous Contacts
Special Visitors


Public Works Program
Emergency Roads and Trails, Appropriation 4x391
FERA Accomplishments


New Equipment






Coolidge, Arizona
September 1, 1935

The Director,
National Park Service,
Washington, D. C.

Dear Mr. Director:

I have the following report to submit on activities in the 25 Southwestern Monuments during the year ending September 30, 1935:

Weather: —

Probably of greatest importance locally in the Southwest is the fact that the beginning of the winter of 1934-1935 brought an end to the unprecedented drouth conditions that had prevailed for about two years. Winter weather was rather slow in getting under way. Once winter started in earnest, the snows, rains and cool weather continued late into the summer. Following a few months of summer marked by less intense heat than usual, the late summer rains have set in. August, 1935, has been a month of general rains and cloudbursts in Arizona, New Mexico, and Colorado. Bridges have been washed out and traffic stranded, causing considerable inconvenience to travellers at times. It appears that we shall go into the winter of 1935-1936 with no shortage of water in the great storage reservoirs behind Coolidge and Roosevelt Dams.

Travel: —

It is believed that travel for 1935 will show substantial gain over that for 1934 after final tabulations are made. Hotels and railroads report better business for 1935 than they have for a number of years. During the summer of 1934 rail travel seemed noticeably lean but in 1935 many of the fine trains have had to operate in several sections. Travellers have frequently found it necessary to make Pullman reservations in advance in order to be sure of accommodations. All of the better quality hotels and motor courts report capacity business.

The spirit of the travelling public seems better than usual. Increased sales are reported by the leading Indian Trading Posts. There is more money in circulation, apparently, for there is doubtless considerably more being spent in travel and Indian goods.

At the close of this report a form will be found in which travel figures for the year closing September 30, 1935, can be entered when the usual required report by wire is made.

Improvement of Highways:

The 1933 Annual Report carried a long list of major road improvements and construction in the region as a whole some of which has carried over into 1935. The 1933 and 1934 programs included the paving of most of the unpaved gaps in transcontinental highways through Arizona. However, scanning a map of the Southwest, we find the following notable improvements in several sectors during the past year: (1) The paving of transcontinental highway No. 80 between Casa Grande and Gila Bend was finished; (2) improvement of curves, fills and drainage has progressed on Highway 80 in the Globe-Superior-Miami region; (3) a general program of road improvement and widening has continued in the Salt River Valley; (4) Highway 89 from Flagstaff to Cameron and northward into Utah has been greatly improved and now meets first-class highway standards over most of its course; and (5) the roads into Chaco Canyon and Canyon de Chelly have been considerably improved through grading, drainage and alignment.


As of October 1, 1934, the personnel list for Southwestern Monuments was as follows: Frank Pinkley, Superintendent; Hugh M. Miller, Chief Clerk, Robert H. Rose, Park Naturalist and Acting Assistant Superintendent; Dale S. King, Junior Park Naturalist; and W. G. Attwell, Associate Engineer.

Personnel of Individual Monuments:

The field organization had eight full-time custodians as follows: (1) Johnwill Faris, Aztec Ruins; (2) Earl Jackson, Bandelier; (3) Robert R. Budlong, Canyon de Chelly; (4) Hilding F. Palmer, Casa Grande; (5) Thomas C. Miller, Chaco Canyon; (6) W. H. Smith, Gran Quivira; (7) Martin L. Jackson, Montezuma Castle; and (8) George L. Boundey, Tumacacori.

Checking the list as of October 1, 1934, there were the following nominal and part time custodians: (1) J. J. Turnbow, Arches; (2) Homer J. Farr, Capulin Mountain; (3) E. Z. Vogt, El Morro; (4) Zeke Johnson, Natural Bridges; (5) John Wetherill, Navajo; and (6) Tom Charles, White Sands.

Three permanent rangers included: (1) Louis R. Caywood, Casa Grande; (2) Frank L. Fish, Montezuma Castle; and (3) Martin O. Evenstad, Tumacacori.

Southwestern Monuments have no ranger naturalists on its organization list.

Temporary ranger positions were provided as of October 1, 1934, at the following monuments: (1) Aztec Ruins; (2) Chiricahua; (3) El Morro; (4) Saguaro; (5) Tonto; (6) Walnut Canyon; and (7) Wupatki.

One full time laborer includes Leonard Heaton who is Acting Custodian of Pipe Springs National Monument.

Personnel Changes and Additions:

Examining the personnel list as of September 1, 1935, we find the following changes, replacements and additions: (1) In July, 1935, Louis R. Caywood entered on duty as Junior Park Naturalist, Southwestern Monuments; (2) through transfer, John H. Diehl, Park Engineer, Sequoia National Park came to Southwestern Monuments in the same capacity. In the same transfer Associate Engineer Attwell assumed the duties of Park Engineer at Sequoia; (3) Robert H. Rose assumed the title of Park Naturalist which he has always carried, dropping the title of Acting Assistant Superintendent, in order to give more attention to the greatly expanded educational organization. Concurrent with this change, Chief Clerk Hugh Miller, through change in designation, is Acting Assistant Superintendent

Changes and additions in the permanent field station personnel are as follows: (1) Charlie R. Steen entered on duty as Park Ranger, Casa Grande, in August, 1935; (2) Mr. W. J. Winters has been appointed to the position of Custodian, Casa Grande, and expects to report for duty on or about September 15. Mr. Winters is filling the position made vacant by the death of the late Hilding F. Palmer; and (3) James W. Hart, Jr., of South Carolina, has been recommended for appointment to the newly established position of Permanent Park Ranger, Aztec Ruins.

During the summer of 1935 the following temporary ranger positions, established effective July 1, were filled: (1) J. Douglas Harritt began duties as temporary ranger at Canyon de Chelly; (2) Lewis T. McKinney was appointed at Chaco Canyon; (3) Jerome W. Hendron served at Bandelier; and (4) Erik Reed began as Travelling Temporary Ranger in the Yucca House—Hovenweep vicinity.

Summarizing the Southwestern personnel as of September 1, 1935, we find the following: (1) one Junior Park Naturalist has been added to the headquarters staff; (2) an additional position of ranger will be filled with Mr. Hart's entrance on duty at Aztec Ruins, giving four permanent rangers; and (3) there are eleven temporary rangers with the new positions at De Chelly, Chaco, Bandelier and Yucca House—Hovenweep. Other positions remained the same in number as reported for October 1, 1934.


Personnel increases, consisting chiefly of additional temporary rangers have helped meet certain emergencies in protection and educational services during the heaviest of the travel season. However, employment of temporary personnel at monuments having year 'round travel does not meet the basic needs for protection. Tonto, Walnut Canyon, Wupatki, El Morro, Yucca House—Hovenweep, Chiricahua, White Sands, Navajo and others need protection during the entire year. Temporary personnel greatly relieves the emergency for educational service but only partially relieves the acute problem of protection.

Improvement of transcontinental highways together with connecting minor roads has served to intensify this problem of protection against vandalism. Two factors make this true, namely (1) more people reach monuments into virtual all year tourist attractions. As was emphasized in the Annual Report for 1934, these needs for protection are not arising out of any campaign of advertising originating with Southwestern Monuments or as the result of any other factors over which we can exercise control. State, city and county agencies are gradually realizing the value of national monuments as economic assets. Travel to these wonder spots is encouraged by a multitude of organizations and the people are coming whether we are prepared for them or not. Limitations must be raised on personnel which we can request in the regular justifications for personnel. Until the basic and essential protectional and educational needs are met we can continue to receive violent criticism from the public, scientists and interested conservationists.



The new Administration and Exhibit Building at Aztec Ruins was completed early in the Calendar Year 1935. In calling for bids it was necessary to advertise an alternate by which the wing called "Museum Room" could be left out in order to come within the money available. Museum cases have been delivered and most of the exhibit materials prepared. No exhibits have yet been installed in the new building, but shipment of some of the completed exhibits is expected at an early date.

During the year the headquarters library has been considerably improved through classification and cataloguing. A number of new volumes has been added and reference books have been distributed to the field stations as much as possible.

For a long time it has been felt that more emphasis should be given to natural history phases of work in Southwestern Monuments. In line with this viewpoint several bird banding stations have been established; natural history collections in plants, flowers, trees, etc., are being built up; file systems have been inaugurated; stamped labels for identification of features along trailsides have been installed; museum cataloguing and exhibits installation are progressing more rapidly than formerly; and reference books have been secured. This work is being carried on in addition to public contacts duties which require well over half the total time of the headquarters staff of the Naturalist Division.

Notable improvements have been made in museum exhibits especially at Casa Grande. Exhibits in the Skylight Room have been rearranged with the addition of three excellent horizontal section exhibit cases; a comparative Pottery exhibit has been installed by Naturalist King; Mr. Caywood has added Tree Ring charts and other material; the Natural History and Indian baskets displays have been cleaned up and generally improved; and arrangements are perfected for supplies and materials, office space, and working room.

During February, March, and a part of April, 1935, Park Naturalist Robert Rose worked on special detail with the Field Division of Education, Berkeley. As a part of his duties there the following work was accomplished: (1) Exhibits were prepared for the new museum at Aztec on Asiatic Migration Theory, Prehistoric Peoples of the Southwest, Southwestern Archeological Field, Section through Rubbish Mound, and Early American History of Aztec Region; (2) botanical labels were worked into final shape for manufacture on the stamping machine; Cremation Burial Model specifications were worked out with technicians and the project of making the model advanced; printing and photographing work was planned and followed up; and (3) a general Educational Development Plan manuscript was prepared as the first important step in a museum and education program for Southwestern Monuments. The completion of this volume is easily one of the important projects of the immediate future.

During April and May Naturalist Dale King was on special assignment in the Berkeley Laboratories. His attention was given to the following work while there: (1) Preparation and installation of archeological exhibits for the California Pacific International Exposition, San Diego; (2) supervisory duties in making of charts, maps, dioramas and special museum exhibits; (3) planning and carrying to completion the manufacture of specimen cases, cabinets and other equipment for museums of Southwestern Monuments; (4) devising maps, charts and relief models; and (5) continuing the output of botanical labels for monuments. A great deal of these supplies and equipment has been sent to headquarters and distributed to the field.

With the appointment of Naturalist Caywood an arrangement has been worked out whereby the equivalent of one naturalist's full time is spent on field work. Mr. Caywood's principal duty is public contacts work. It is well, however, to point out that this plan is a distinct forward step in carrying assistance right into the field where more help should be given. In past years field trips of naturalist staff men have been too short, have been governed in time by somebody else's itinerary, have been made too early or too late in reference to main travel season, have included several times too much territory in a given time, or in other ways been rendered somewhat ineffective. This plan in the course of months makes it such that a naturalist will have spent several weeks close to the problems of each individual monument, something that is most necessary in giving tangible assistance to field men in their problems. Some monuments having limited museum space need charts, relief maps, dioramas and other materials that will help in the presentation of those monuments to the public. It is hoped that good along these lines will be accomplished as a result of keeping one of the naturalist staff in the field continuously.

Miscellaneous contacts:

Contacts through illustrated lectures made by the park naturalist during the year include (1) the Parent Teachers Association of the Aptos Junior High School, San Francisco; (2) the Tucson, Arizona, Rotary Club; (3) the Tucson, Arizona, Kivanis Club; (4) the Heard Museum, Phoenix, on one of the series of six programs given during the winter months; (5) the Florence, Arizona, Union High School; (6) the Coolidge, Arizona, Womens Club; and (7) the Chiricahua CCC Camp, two programs.

Additional lecture contacts made by Naturalist Caywood are as follows: (1) Tucson, Arizona, American Legion Luncheon Club; (2) Dedication of the Smoke Museum, Prescott; and (3) Sedonia Hill CCC Camp.

Special Visitors:

Among special visitors and visiting parties during the year we find the following are noteworthy:

At Aztec:— Pupils of the Santa Fe Indian School and classes from the Ft. Lewis, Colorado, High School.

At Bandelier:— (1) Curator K. M. Chapman of the Laboratory of Anthropology, Santa Fe, and thirty University of New Mexico students; (2) A. E. Stedman, retired Vice-President of the American Railway Express Co.; (3) a student tour from Drake University; (4) Dr. and Mrs. E. B. Gresser of Bellevue Hospital, New York City; (5) Dr. Wm. Mann, Director of the Washington Zoo; (6) Dr. E. S. Larson, Professor of Petrography, and Dr. Kirk Bryan, Associate Professor of Physiography, both of Harvard; (7) Dr. Sylvanua G. Morley, famous authority on Mexican Archeology; (8) Horace M. Albright, Vice-President of the American Potash Co. and former Director of the National Park Service; (9) Faculty and students of the Santa Fe Brown Moor School for girls; (10) Miss Sheila MacDonald, daughter of former Prime Minister MacDonald of England; (11) one hundred Indian girls from 13 different pueblos; and (12) about seventy-five members of the American Association for the Advancement of Science.

At Canyon de Chelly:— Mrs. Anna Wilmarth Ickes, and John D. Rockefellow, Jr., and son David.

At Casa Grande:— (1) Miss Frances Gillmor, Co-author of Traders to the Navajos; (2) Charles A. Amsden, author of Navaho Weaving; (3) Charles G. Dawes, former Vice-President of the United States; (4) Charles Schwab, famed Industrialist; (5) about 450 members of the Brotherhood of Railroad Engineers; (6) General John J. Pershing; (7) Dr. and Mrs. Arien Nelson, Department of Botany, U. of Wyoming; (8) Dean Byron C. Cummings, U. of Arizona; (9) Dr. W. D. Strong of the Smithsonian Institution; and (10) Dr. H. C. Bryant, Assistant Director:

At Chaco Canyon:— (1) Ernest Thompson Seton and twenty-nine students of the College of Indian Wisdom, Santa Fe; (2) Mr. Hillis L. Howie, Director of Childrens Museum Expedition, Indianapolis, and party of thirty; (3) a party of faculty and students of Beloit College, Wisconsin; (4) Professor Clyde Kluckhohn and seventy-eight students from the University of New Mexico; (5) Lieut. Vincent Hill, World Traveller, Lecturer and Author; (6) John D. Rockefellow, Jr., and son David; (7) Professor and Mrs. Geo. S. Monk of the University of Chicago; (8) Junior Class of the Aztec High School; (9) Dr. A. V. Kidder, Carnegie Institution; (10) Dr. and Mrs. H. S. Gladwin of Gila Pueblo, Globe; and (11) Dr. Donald Scott of Peabody Museum, Harvard.

At Chiricahua:— (1) Dr. E. D. Ball, Economic Zoologist and Dr. J. J. Thornber, Botanist, both of the University of Arizona; (2) Senator Ashurst, Arizona; (3) Congresswoman Greenway, Arizona; and (4) Governor Moeur.

At El Morro:— (1) Faculty and students of Antioch College, Ohio; (2) Mrs. Anna Wilmarth Ickes; and (3) Prof. Donald Brand and history students from the University of New Mexico.

At Montezuma Castle:— (1) Dr. H. C. Graham and Geology class from the University of New Mexico; and (2) Thomas C. Poulter, second in command of the Byrd Antarctic Expedition.

At Navajo:— (1) Prof. Byron C. Cummings; (2) Jimmie Swinnerton, Cartoonist; (3) Irwin Cobb, writer; and (4) John D. Rockefellow, Jr., and son David.

At Tumacacori:— Senor Plutarco E. Calles, Former President of the Republic of Mexico.

At White Sands:— (1) Dr. E. B. Howardof, the University of Pennsylvania Museum; (2) Dr. Ernst Antevs, famed authority on glaciation; (3) Dr. M. K. Garner of the Department of Zoology, Earlham College, Indiana; (4) Dr. F. W. Emerson, Zoologist of the New Mexico State Normal, Las Vegas; (5) Mr. W. R. Leigh, Artist of the American Museum of Natural History; (6) Frances S. Dean, Assistant Chief Editor, National Park Service; (7) Dr. H. C. Bumpus, President of the American Association of Museums; (8) Dr. Kent, President of New Mexico A. & M. College; and (9) Mr. Gilbert Grosvenor, Editor of the National Geographic Magazine with Mrs. Grosvenor and daughter.


A great deal of important and useful work has been accomplished under the Emergency Conservation Program during the year. The Bandelier camp has been in operation since November, 1933. Early in June, 1934, a second camp came under the supervision of Southwestern Monuments with the transfer of Camp SP—6—A from near Tucson to Chiricahua where it be came Camp NM—2—A. The actual work accomplished by the Chiricahua Camp by June 30, 1934, was small because several weeks were required for getting organized, the equipment lined up and the men accustomed to their new jobs. The work accomplished at the two camps will now be listed.

At Bandelier we find the following projects completed except for a few in progress at this writing: (1) Construction of Guest Cabin and remodeling Ranger's Quarters; (2) Trails to Ruins; (3) Upper and Lower Falls Trail to Rio Grande; (4) Upper Canyon Trail; (5) Short Circle Trail making accessible Tent Rocks, Loomis Cave and Talus House; (6) Completion of Entrance Road Project; (7) Fencing of Detached Section; (8) Digging Flood Control Ditches; (9) Construction of a number of foot bridges, vehicle bridges and horse bridges across El Rito de los Frijoles; (10) Quarrying rock for buildings, parking area curbs and retaining walls; (11) grading and installation of parking area and curb; (12) program of trail cleanup; (13) shrub and tree planting around parking area and administration unit; (14) construction of cattle guards on main entrance road; (15) program of debris burning; (16) completion of Camp Ground and Headquarters area Comfort Stations together with sewer systems; (17) clearing out of operator's buildings, relocation of barns, corrals, etc.; (18) Insect Pest Control and Erosion Control, Work; (19) completion of camp sites, fireplaces, tables, etc.; (20) surfacing of walks and driveways; (21) completion of a two-car garage; (22) camp ground extension; (23) completion of Headquarters Building; (24) development of Park Service utility area; and (25) checking of new invasion of Eastern Tent Caterpillars.

Checking over work completed at Chiricahua except for a few projects lasting into the new year, we find the following: (1) putting final touches on the Bonita Canyon—Massai Point road which was constructed while the monument was under U. S. Forest Service control; (2) preparation for the Official Dedication of the new road on Labor Day, 1934; (3) construction of telephone lines through Rhyolite Canyon and from Sugar Loaf to camp ground; (4) Trail to Sugar Loaf Mountain; (5) Water and Sewer projects in the public camp ground and in Bonita Canyon; (6) Truck Trail from Massai Point to the base of Sugar Loaf; (7) foot trails about Massai Point and dressing down the embankment at Massai; (8) construction of shop buildings; (9) water development in Echo Canyon and lineal survey of Echo Canyon Trail; (10) development of camp ground roadway, tables, fireplaces, Meinecke Plan parking space and other facilities; (11) headquarters area landscaping, water lines and reservoir; (12) Spring Station water development; (13) construction of Echo Canyon Trail; (14) Road Scar obliteration; (15) camp ground comfort station, road dips, and masonry headwall near headquarters; (16) Sarah Deming Trail; and (17) initiation of surveys making cross sections for flattening slopes and improving stability of Bonita Canyon Highway.

Public Works Program:

The most important accomplishments under Public Works for the year include: The Museum and Administration Building and Great Kiva Restoration at Aztec Ruins; completion of Naturalist's Residence, water system extension and walls construction at Casa Grande; completion of equipment shed and garage, stream revetment, sewer system, steps to cliff and cliff trail at Montezuma Castle; fencing, completing the parking area and walls construction at Tumacacori; grading and plating of entrance road and parking area, and drilling of well at Gran Quivira; starting of boundary fence at Chaco Canyon. At Canyon de Chelly the contract has been let for the residence and garage and progress has been made on the water and sewer project. Rim and Crater trails have been constructed at Capulin.

Emergency Roads and Trails, Appropriation 4x391:

Since this appropriation continues into the next fiscal year and the work is of a continuing nature, there will be few items that can be reported as completed. Road equipment has been procured at Bandelier, Chiricahua and White Sands while at the latter monument actual post-construction has been carried on for some time; entrance road repairs have been accomplished at El Morro and Montezuma Castle; and trail work is progressing at Navajo, Tonto, Wupatki and Walnut Canyon.

FERA Accomplishments:

Among useful work accomplished under FERA in Southwestern Monuments we find the following deserving of note: (1) at Capulin the boundary fence has been completed and guard rail and retaining wall have been built about the parking area; (2) at Casa Grande the boundary on the south and west has been fenced and adobes made for the future utility building; (3) at El Morro, trails have been gravelled, trails drainage improved, cliff steps made, trail monument guides installed, roads improved and the water reservoir cleaned out; (4) at Tumacacori adobes for walls have been made; and (5) at Chaco the approaches to the Chaco bridge which were washed out in flood were replaced.


Under Minor Projects, maintenance and Current Repairs fall the usual items of repairs to buildings, fuel and oil upkeep for electric plants and motor vehicles, upkeep on trails and camp ground facilities and other items. At Aztec some maintenance has been accomplished on the entrance road; at Casa Grande the old quarters in Compound A were remodeled to provide two apartments; a graded road has been constructed to the utility area; at Chaco Canyon the water line of the Custodian's Residence was connected to the University of New Mexico line; Chaco now has telephone communication since the Indian Service line across the monument has been completed; at Chiricahua a survey crew has completed a project of topographic mapping; at El Morro a water line has been laid from the water cove to enable ranchers to obtain water during very dry weather; at Yucca House—Hovenweep periodic inspections have been made and repairs done on the fences and gates; at Natural Bridges the U.S.G.S. has established bench marks and reference lines; at Pipe Spring cattle guards have been installed, fencing erected, and planting and general cleanup accomplished; at Tonto the State of Arizona has cooperated in maintaining the entrance road at Tumacacori a telephone has been installed in the Custodian's Residence and the pump and water line repaired; at Walnut Canyon surveys have been carried out for trails, parking area and camp ground; and at Sunset Crater a reconnaissance survey of the proposed entrance road was finished.

New Equipment:

Under the regular appropriation equipment purchases during the year consist of mimeograph machine, a few needed typewriters, file stacks, office desks and other furniture and two Ford V—8 Pickups, one for Canyon de Chelly and the other for Chaco Canyon.


One of the events that is becoming traditional in the Casa Grande Valley area of Arizona is the Easter Sunrise Service held annually at Compound B, in the Casa Grande National Monument. In the services the natural stage-like setting of the Compound is used. Several hundred persons attended the service held on Easter Sunday of 1935.

The Brotherhood of Railroad Engineers held their annual convention in Tucson this year. A trip to Casa Grande National Monument comprised one of the main features on the entertainment part of their program. Via Southern Pacific special train they came 450 strong. Transportation to the monument and back to the train was furnished by the Coolidge Chamber of Commerce. Dividing the throng into groups of about 40 persons each the situation was met very efficiently. Many fine words of appreciation were received for the manner in which the monument personnel handled the emergency.

The Official Dedication of the Bonita Canyon road to Massai Point in Chiricahua National Monument on Labor Day, September 3, 1934, was probably one of the greatest events of its kind ever held in Arizona. Nearly 8,000 people were in attendance. Among speakers on the program were Senator Ashurst, Congresswoman Greenway, Governor Moeur and Chief Engineer Kittredge. The road makes more accessible a famed scenic area known locally as the Wonderland of Rocks. All arrangements were carefully planned in advance and the success of the occasion was assured largely on account of attention to all details of preparation.


The School of American Research and the University of New Mexico have maintained a summer school of Archeology in the Chaco Canyon for a number of years. During the summer of 1934 excavations were carried on at Chetro Ketl and Kin Klitso. The principal project at Chetro Ketl was the preservation and stabilization of the great East Tower of the pueblo. Work was also done at Yellow House in the Canyon. In the 1935 season two crews worked, one at Uni Vida and the other at Talus House #1 at Chetro Ketl.

At Tumacacori a project of outlining walls and other structures was initiated with the use of a foreman and FERA labor. As the walls were found and defined they were carefully mapped. Thus the principal results netted in the project are preserved.

Of unusual interest to the National Park Service have been the excavations carried on in the so-called Snaketown area near Chandler, Arizona, under the direction of the Gila Pueblo, Globe. Dr. Emit Haury, Field Director, was in charge of field work. Much valuable material was recovered and earlier phases of the Lower Gila Culture have been discovered. The material has been removed to the Gila Pueblo where it will be studied and published upon at a later date.

For more than a year experiments have been carried on in laboratories located at Stanford University, California, in an effort to find a suitable ruins preservative material. Out of more than forty preparations tested some one or two seemed to give promise. Dr. Frederick K. Martius, Research Physical Chemist, has spent some time in the field applying the preservative to ruins walls for actual test. The material seems to be transparent, indurate the surface to which applied, is of low cost and exhibits repellant action to moisture. All of the necessary requirements of a successful preservative for ruins seem to be possessed by this solution. It will be one of the most important discoveries in Southwestern Archeology if a solution having these proper ties stands actual test successfully.


The total number of monuments in the Southwestern Monuments system has remained unchanged at twenty-five throughout the year. None have been dropped nor added in the period. Investigations have been made, however, of areas proposed as national monuments. One of these areas is the Kofa Mountains district of western Arizona in which is found native Washingtonia Palms and considerable wildlife. The other area lies to the southwest of Ajo and has Organ Pipe Cactus as its principal feature of interest. The second area also contains Galliard Bighorn, antelope, deer and other wildlife.

In recent months interest has been aroused in a group of very fine Pueblo IV cliff dwellings located in precipitous canyons of the Sierra Ancha Mountains north of Roosevelt Dam. While these dwellings have been reported to be excellent national monument material no careful study of their possibilities has been made by Park Service representative.

Other areas have been proposed by various agencies. As these are sifted out and given more careful study they will be the subject of reports at a later date.


The substantial upturn in travel is one of the most encouraging facts we have to report for the year. Tourist travel is probably the Southwest's greatest economic assets and when travel is good the business outlook is also brighter.

The close of the year is a good time to take inventory of the weak spots that have shown up in the past and to make suggestions for future improvement. As we survey our district, the following observations stand out as most important: (1) much good has resulted from the special work programs of ECW, PWA and FERA during the year; (2) housing needs for personnel are still rather acute at several monuments; (3) the increased personnel of permanent and temporary rangers is in part helping meet the acute personnel shortage under which the system has labored for years; (4) many monuments having only temporary personnel must be provided with all year positions before basic protectional and educational needs are met; (5) additional temporary and permanent personnel is needed at several monuments now undermanned and handicapped in giving adequate protection and educational services; (6) there is dire need for museum and administration buildings at a number of monuments in order to properly receive visitors, organize tours, house museum exhibits and provide a suitable central station for all educational and other activities, and (7) the monthly reports of custodians and other field men are indicating a deeper, more thorough interest in work than ever before.

In closing this Annual Report for 1935 I cannot refrain from mentioning the fine spirit that has prevailed through the organization during the past year. As we clear away some of the haze still hanging over some of our interesting discussions and arguments there stands out the fact that every man in the organization is giving his best efforts to his job. One of the best thoughts we can leave with our field men as we close this report is found in a statement of David Starr Jordon who once said: "There are no big jobs; the big jobs are merely a collection of small ones done well."

Frank Pinkley
Frank Pinkley,

Coolidge, Arizona,
September 1, 1935.


By Monuments
For the Period October 1, 1934, to September 30, 1935

(1934 Travel Figures entered for Comparison)


Aztec Ruins10,142
Canyon de Chelly650*
Capulin Mountain22,000*
Casa Grande26,776
Chaco Canyon6,068
El Morro2,800*
Gila Cliff Dwellings75*
Gran Quivira4,342
Montezuma Castle18,619
Natural Bridges750*
Pipe Spring8,544
Rainbow Bridge390*
Sunset Crater2,500*
Walnut Canyon10,000*
White Sands33,900*
Yucca House150*

For 1935.


Blank space provides for entry of 1935 travel reported to the Director by wire at the close of September 30, 1935.

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Date: 07-Jun-2010