Southwestern Monuments Monthly Report

Field Reports From the Men on the Job

WHITE SANDS By Tom Charles, custodian
Alamogordo, New Mexico

Visitors this month, 6,720.

I was pleased with Doc Halladay's jibe, in the September report about the White Sands count. "Doc" is a privileged character as far as White Sands is concerned. After his trip last year, he paid the Sands one of the highest compliments ever given the monument.

When it comes to White Sands enthusiasts we have had but few who topped our friend Doc Holladay; Dr. Gilbert Grosvenor perhaps, who went home and gave us 17 pages in the National Geographic, and maybe the woman in Turner, Maine, who stole the Turner County flower show last fall with a White Sands table. She probably had less and gave more than any other one of our 300,000 visitors up to date. But let me put Doc right; it is the visitor at White Sands who is the enthusiast--we simply count the cars.

Our outstanding accomplishment this month has been the completion of the blacktopping of the parking area, the roads to the residences and utility area, and the three miles into the sand. It is a swell job and Mr. Underhill got away on October 15 leaving instructions to keep the loose chips properly swept and uniform.

Joe has been helping Johnny haul the cedar butts and the poles for the telephone line and I think that job is about completed. The actual work on the line, I understand, is held up for approval.

The 23 miles of new construction on Federal Highway No. 70 is progressing rapidly. The grade has been completed, and a beautiful grade it is. The cluster of headquarters buildings with the American flag in front will greet the eastbound tourist fully a mile before he reaches headquarters. If this setup doesn't stop him, he is hopeless. The approach is perfect.

Our registration is down to 1120 for the month, that is less than one-third of what it was in August, and Joe's daily count on the road shows an average of 2.6 cars per hour which is about one-third of his hourly average of 7.5 cars in August. So this month's count is not so good. Using the same percentage of registration that we have used for the past two or three months, we have had 6,720 visitors this month.

In the registration book, this month, we note the names of some Park Service celebrities whom we failed to meet for one reason or another. Among these are Mr. and Mrs. Milton Swatch of Santa Fe; C.G. Abbott, Smithsonian Institute, who was with Chuck Richey; Charles F. Gurner, Washington. Then we had Hub and Ruby Chase of Bandelier; Jack Diehl and wife, Raymond Higgins and wife, of Santa Fe; and Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Gable Chief of Park Operations, Washington, D. C. and Mr. and Mrs. Gable thoroughly enjoyed the Sands, I think.


AZTEC RUINS By T. C. Miller, custodian, Aztec New Mexico

Visitors this month, 973.


October opens our new travel year with a slight increase in travel due to the Grand Lodge of New Mexico in assembly held here October 10 and 11 with initiatory degree held in the Great Kiva of the Aztec Ruins. More than 400 people attended the Grand Lodge, and the Aztec Ruins was alive with Odd Fellows and Rebekahs for three days.

The custodian regrets that he was absent from the monument on sick leave from the afternoon of September 28 to October 16 inclusive and missed all those file people. However, I have had many fine reports on the service rendered by Ranger Brewer and the guides during my absence, which proves that if a fellow builds up a good organization it can function just as well without him as it can with him. My doctor gave me no choice in the matter and advised me to submit to an operation for appendicitis. I am back on the job now and, while I am still a little below normal, I am gaining fast and have begun to feel fine again.


After a season of unusual length and great growth of fruit and flowers, Monday October 17, brought the first killing frost here, the temperature going to 26°. The two following mornings were still colder reaching the mid twenties and finished the job of ending plant growth for 1938.

The season has been one of unusual production for both farmer and fruit grower and, for the latter, one of prosperity.

The foliage of the trees is showing great beauty and variety of color. A table of weather statistics follows:

Max. temp85 on Sept. 30Clear days14
Min. temp24 on Oct. 19Partly cloudy days10
Precipitation.90 for monthCloudy days6


This work has proceeded with a five man crew and to date Rooms No. 1 through 11, excepting 8 and 9, have been waterproofed and the walls capped around the individual roofs of the rooms. We are now working on Room 9. This room had a concrete slab over the beams on the roof that was badly cracked and the roof of the room was almost a total loss. We found, after cleaning the room, that the concrete slab was in such bad shape that the concrete had to be removed leaving only two good beams intact. We hope to finish this waterproofing job some time next month.


Concessionaire Alexander and his wife, Rocky Mountain National Park, were monument visitors September 24. Gordon Vivian, Archeological Foreman Mobile Unit, was here looking over our waterproofing job September 28. Mrs. Ruby Warheim, secretary to Superintendent Boles of Carlsbad Caverns, was here October 10 and 11. Custodian McKinney was here on same date.


Much has been accomplished on general cleanup over the monument including repainting the flag pole, also the painting of the east side of the comfort station is about 50 percent complete. All activities in the monument have been inspected by the custodian regularly.

For the month beginning October 1 and ending October 22, 973 people entered the monument in 278 automobiles coming from 35 states, the District of Columbia, Territory of Alaska, and the following foreign countries: Austria, Canada, France, Germany, Holland, Poland, and Scotland.


Ranger Brewer was detailed to inspect Yucca House and Hovenweep National Monuments on October 22.

Yucca House was found to be in good order. No recent vandalism is in evidence and the fence is in good shape all around. As per your request, Yucca House was photographed and negatives will be forwarded to your office promptly. The reason your files do not contain good photos of this monument probably lies in the fact that Yucca House does not lend itself pictorially, a good background showing the Sleeping Ute Mountain minimizes the ruin, and a close-up of the house reveals very little character. Shots were made, so we'll see what we have after they are developed.


By J. W. Brewer, park ranger

There's a touch of fall in the air at Hovenweep. The bloom is still on the sage but there's an early morning - late afternoon snap in the air.

The sheep coming off the mountain have not yet reached the monument and all the groups visited are looking mighty good. All are well posted; the cloth signs that were forwarded to the writer at El Morro last year were sent on to Aztec where Cal stored them and had them put up by Pete in conspicuous places. Pete has done a good job of sign posting here, and together with the boundary signs put up last year the areas appear to be well marked.

No additional vandalism was observed at any of those fine ruins, Cool Spring House group was omitted), but time and rainfall are taking their toll.

Bulletin 80 (B. A. E.) shows a photograph of Horseshoe House with a solid wall; the writer's report (1937) shows the same wall with a great gaping hole torn through it by pot-hunters, a photograph today would show an increase in the size of this hole due to rocks falling from the ragged arch.

A little ID - CCC stabilization right now would do much to preserve this small edition of "Sun Temple".

Many of the rim rock houses should be stabilized as soon as possible. So many places look like an hour's work done soon might forestall a week's job later on. Boss, let's have some preservation for Hovenweep, we sure need it and some boundary extension.


SAGUARO By Carleton S. Wilder, temporary ranger, Box 2708, Tucson, Ariz.

Visitors this month, 1,300, estimated.

My activities since reporting for duty on October 17 have consisted primarily of getting my living quarters fixed up, and trying to get the monument in shape for visitors. The lack of care during the past year is making the latter a slow job.


No evidence of vandalism, or specifically woodcutting, has been observed. The one large picnic area was in bad condition due to heavy use and no provisions for refuse disposal. This area has been pretty well cleaned up. A shelter at the Speedway entrance was taken down, and the surveying tower will be removed entrance was take down, and the surveying tower will be removed this week. The fence has apparently been run into near this gate and a new fence post is needed. I'll get to this soon.

The roads are in good shape, showing very little sign of washing. Several of the bad spots have been fixed temporarily and I'll try to get at the others a little later. Some four miles of improved, graded road is in good condition at the south entrance. The south picnic area is clean and orderly.


The signs at the entrances are scarcely legible and need repainting, something I'll do as soon as I get green paint. Maps at entrances need replacing also. I have not put up signs directing visitors to ranger cabin yet, waiting until I can plan to be there more often.


I have stopped in at Randolph Park at the CCC camp twice, but have not been able to get information as to their plans. Part of the camp is to be transferred to Tucson Mountain Park. I hope that does not mean curtailment of work at Saguaro.

A Mr. McCarthy, road foreman for Pima County, tells me they are planning to put through a road from the south entrance to the Vail and Colossal Cave Road.

Work is progressing on the link from Broadway to the south entrance. There's about three miles to go.


The Catalina and Santa Ritas are open and offer good deer hunting this year. I talked with several friends in Tucson who are in touch with members of the hunting fraternity and they agreed that it is pretty well understood in Tucson that the Rincons and Tanque Verdes are closed. This next weekend, the third in the hunting season, I'll check with the ranchers to find if there has been any hunting activity, and attempt more active patrol. There is the probability that some who have failed to get their deer will try at the end of the season to get one on the monument. The entire west boundary and west part of the north boundary are posted, and parts of the south boundary approaches. The east boundary (Benson side) offers a problem that cannot be handled with just one man on the job.


I have made very little effort to contact visitors as yet. Several contacts were made during the day spent working at the Speedway entrance, and several at the cabin. I do not know how I'll ever get the exact number who enter the monument, or even an approximate number. Here is a breakdown of what little information I have for four days:

Registered: 29 people. Total states and territories represented, eight: Mississippi, Alabama, Arizona, Wisconsin, Nebraska, Illinois, Minnesota, and Alaska. Two parties of seven people for total time of 30 minutes.

I would guess that from 150 to 175 people have been through the monument during this one week. The problem is to get the local visitors to register. I think a notice in the Tucson paper stressing the importance of registering in about three or four weeks, together with announcement of the facilities available will help.


The Park Service has a real friend in William Bray, Supt. of Buildings and Grounds at the University of Arizona. He not only turned the University's building over to me for quarters, but supplied bed, table, chairs, water barrel and 40 pieces of window glass. Just told me to submit a list of things needed.


WUPATKI By David J. Jones, park ranger, Tuba Star Route, Flagstaff, Arizona.

Visitors this month, 230.


Visitor travel to the monument reached a new October peak with a total of 230 visitors although this represents a considerable decrease over last month. Those who visited both the Citadel and the Wupatki ruins total slightly more than half of all the individuals who registered. Looking to the future, I can see great increases in the number of our visitors as a result of the improvement of Highway 89. Local observers believe that within the next year or so travel on this highway will increase two or three times.


Max. temp88°Precipitation.10 in.
Mean max71.2°
Min. temp33°
Mean min48.2°
Anemometer reading4733.8 miles since Sept. 24

The weather man seems to be unable to make up his mind. Early in the month the temperatures began dropping, and for a while we had typical grey winter days with occasional snow and sleet storms on the San Francisco peaks. Now, however, the days are as sunny and pleasant as during the summer months. Our heaviest and only real rain was one tenth of an inch on October seventh. A sleet storm from the Peaks turned into rain before getting to Wupatki.


Approach roads to the monument are all in good condition except for that between here and Sunset Crater. Due to the lack of moisture, the cinder road is dangerous to the inexperienced driver. October 11 we came back from Flagstaff in the evening to find two women waiting for us. They had gotten stuck on the cinders near Sunset and instead of walking back to Sunset (three miles), they walked the 14 miles to Wupatki which required about six hours. One of them, not in any too good health, collapsed after receiving nourishment. It was then necessary to place a mattress in the truck and take her to town; we arrived there at midnight.

The next morning, with the help of CCC boys, I took the car out of the cinders. While the women admitted that it was all their fault, the experience was none too pleasant, and might have been dangerous to the one. In two issues of the "Coconino Sun" the poor condition of the road was brought to the attention of the local people.

Wupatki spring was checked again on the 23rd and found to flow 640 gallons per 24 hours, an increase of 100 gallons over last month. With the coming of the snows, the flow should increase for the next few months to about 900 gallons per 24 hours, if our previous measurements are representative.

On October 10, a government trapper came to the ruin. He accused some of the local Navajos of stealing his traps. He had tracked them to this point and was very sure of his evidence. I, knowing the character of the boys, was a bit dubious. After talking with them and going over the evidence again, he found that the boys had nothing to do with the traps. We did, however, find that the son of one of the transient Navajos had taken traps from this man last summer. These were returned.

The engineering crew headed by A. W. Shirley left on the 29th to do some work at Sunset Crater and then go on to another job. They did not finish with all the necessary topograph, but the survey is supposed to continue under the direction of the engineer from Camp NM-5-A. Mr. Shipley has not been able to do anything because of a lack of equipment.

The BPR survey of the road between here and Highway 89 has not started yet, but is planned for the first of November.

At the suggestion of Naturalist King, I am going to submit my idea for a "nature trail" to illustrate points of interest along the roads within the monument between Wupatki and Sunset Crater. Having overcome objections at Casa Grande by calling the nature trail there a "desert trail", I am wondering whether or not I should call this one the "Cinder trail". Also planned for the coming month is a report on the possible features of interest which should be considered in planning a Sunset-Wupatki loop road. Objections to Lyndon Hargrave's proposed bird trap for Wupatki were overcome and I am now having merchants in Flagstaff save onion sacking which will replace the more expensive fish netting.


NPS inspections were made by Al Kuehl and H. Langley of the Branch of Plans and Design. Dale King and Hortensin from headquarters visited us and we solved many problems we could not straighten out by letter during the last six months.

Mr. and Mrs. W. E. Reynolds of the Treasury Department and Floyd Williams of the Post Office Department of Washington, D.C. visited the monument on October 5.

Mr. and Mrs. E. M. Cravin, New York, made several trips to Wupatki during the month so that Mr. Cravin could paint here. Needless to say we enjoyed them. Mr. Cravin is one of the few artists who seems to be able to get a feeling of distance in his pictures, a factor which in my opinion will make or break a picture of this country.

Other visitors included Dr. Smith and Capt. Norman of NM-5-A, Donald Collier, and Miss Mary Erickson, an ornithologist from the University of California.


Of the 230 visitors to the monument, 176 registered at the Citadel and 96 at Wupatki. Deductions were made for those who registered at both places. On 45 field trips 129 persons were contacted for an average 77.6 minutes. Three individuals stayed overnight.


Troubles with the ventilation in our refrigerator room had no sooner been eliminated by a no-down-draft ventilator designed by the architect at NM-5-A, than the refrigerator began acting up. The flame will burn, but will not cool the box. Fortunately it is cold enough that we can get along without it.

The stone water trough at the Wupatki tank was completed by the CCC boys, and a box for the pick-up was constructed in the carpenter shop.


SUNSET CRATER By David J. Jones, park ranger, Tuba Star Route, Flagstaff, Ariz.

Visitors this month, 1,000, estimated.


A total of 447 visitors registered at Sunset Crater during the month as compared to 1,000 estimated attendance in 1937, and 287 registered in 1936.

The survey party headed by A. W. Shirley located triangulation stations at the Crater in preparation for a survey.

It has been interesting to note the decrease in complaints on the register since the installation of the new one on September seventh. To date there have been only two complaints, one suggesting further development of the area and a rebuttal to this. In the old register there would have been several hundred by this time. I attribute the lack of complaints to the fact that the new register is neat and makes an attempt to give information. It has a smooth surface which invites the scrawler of names and the carver. Yet the register is just as new as when we put it in place. This is a fact which I think should be given consideration.

Always in the discussion of an unattended exhibit, the point of vandalism arises. My idea is that if we put in nice looking, well prepared exhibits, they will not be vandalized. We have taken one step in this direction with the register-- the next move should be to install an unattended exhibit to settle the question of vandalism once and for all.


PIPE SRPING By Leonard Heaton, acting custodian, Moccasin, Arizona

Visitors this month, 268.

Again I tackle one of my hardest jobs at the monument, that of getting out my monthly report so that you can get a clear picture of what is going on up in the "Arizona Strip". There has been no great change take place this month at the monument and not so much to report outside of the visit of the N.P.S. officials on September 27.


There has been a gradual dropping off of the visitors to the fort, 69 for October as compared with 117 for September. The local travel has been more, due to the fact that the stock sales are on and herds being moved to the winter range, count 179 for the month. Then we have had 20 use the camp area for lunching and camping.

Among the visitors were N.P.S. officials: Dr. Charles N. Gould, W. B. McDougall, Harvey Cornell, Al Kuehl, all of Santa Fe, New Mexico; Edwin McKee, naturalist, of Grand Canyon National Park; and Mr. Harold Hawkins and Mrs. Hawkins from the Washington Office. These men were here on September 27 looking over the ground for a proposed nature trail and geological exhibit on the hill back of the fort.

The visit of these men was greatly enjoyed and I want them to come again and stay longer if they can find the time.

O. H. Coleman of the Arizona State Land Department was a visitor on September 23.


My weather record shows that we had a number of cloudy and stormy days the forepart of the month putting snow in the mountains and ending up with a good killing frost the night of October 16. There have been ten stormy and cloudy days, seven partly cloudy days, and 15 clear days this month.


I continued to use the dump truck and six boys cleaning the diversion ditch of sand that was washed in by the August storms. This was finished October 10. Thinking that we needed some materials for some of the other projects more than we needed to use the money to fill in the wash, I turned the truck and four boys back to the camp, keeping two for the rest of the week to do some cleaning up of woods and dead trees at the monument. At present I haven't any of the CCC boys working for me.

On October 14, 65 new boys came in to fill up the camp and by Sunday night 15 of them had gone over the hill headed for home.


I have destroyed two house cats this past month and still have several more to get that have been brought in by some of the CCC boys from the nearby towns. I have out some No. 4 steel traps in which I hope to get them (the cats).

The leaves on the trees are turning yellow and it won't be long till they are all off, filling up the ponds, ditches and the lower rooms of the fort when the wind blows.

With the exception of having my winter wood and coal supply, I believe the monument is in good shape to withstand the winter this year, and I am planning work so that I will have something to do no matter what kind of weather we have.


GRAN QUIVIRA By George Boundey, custodian, Gran Quivira, New Mexico

Visitors this month, 259.

In the yearly report, we estimated visitors for October as 150. We exceeded that number by 109.

Weather for the month has been windy with some cold nights. On the night of October 9 we got a heavy freeze which destroyed all the late beans and caused a tremendous loss to farmers.

Regional Engineer Diehl and wife visited the monument on September 25. Mr. Diehl inspected the pumping system and the roads, and most of the month has been spent in making the suggested improvements.

The heavy rain of the summer caused a small lake to form down near the village but now that the water is practically dried up, the birds are coming to the monument and it keeps one of us busy filling up the bird baths. There are only about 12 species of birds represented but they come in by the hundreds.

Mountainair business men went to Santa Fe one day last week and brought back with them several display cases and a quantity of the material excavated by the University of New Mexico at the ruins of Quarai. Temporarily the material will be on display in the Mountainair auditorium.

The work of excavation at the Abo ruin seems to be going on satisfactorily but owing to the later occupation of the ruins by Mexican people, very little of the Indian and Mission material has been found. Considerable repairs are being made to the portion of the Mission wall still standing and many of the smaller rooms are being cleaned out.

Plans are being made in Mountaineir to improve the roads leading to several ruins in that vicinity thus making them more accessible to the traveling public.

CHIRICAHUA By Frank Fish, custodian, Douglas, Arizona

Visitors this month, 484.

The copper industry shows an improvement as to prices during the month, and it is reported the Shattuck Denn Mine near Bisbee is preparing to start operations again. A number of road projects are under construction and are being let for construction in the near future. Range conditions are better than they have been for a good many years in the county. Cattle are fat and some stockmen were able to put up hay due to the abundance of grass on their ranges. Some restocking has been done in areas of abundant feed.

The weather has been dry and warm with cool nights. Killing frosts have occurred in the higher elevations of the Chiricahuas. Showers occurred on the first and third of the month. Leaves of deciduous trees and shrubs are turning color due more to the dry weather than any cold.

Visitors show a decided decline over the corresponding period of last year. Comparative figures follow:

OctoberCars VisitorsOut of
TripsAttendance Total Min.
Guide Ser.
1936131484101 583133155
1937184727169 703992662
Loss of Gain-53-243-68 -2-86-493

A mistake was made in travel figures for the month of September. Visitors for the month to the 23rd inclusive numbered 819 instead of 576.

Approach roads have been in good shape but dusty. The oil surfacing has been completed from Elfrida to McNeil and recent word informs us an additional 10 miles will be surfaced from McNeil to Douglas. Upon completion of this 10 mile section, there will be continuous pavement from Douglas to a point 10 miles north of Elfrida. The Willcox-Monument road has been re-aligned, graded, and ditched. It is expected that construction will start soon on a county road through Apache Pass to top the Benson-Stein's Pass road that is under re-alignment and grading operations preparatory for surfacing.

Deer hunting season opened October 16, and to date no known trespassing has occurred on the monument. Two boys were warned to keep out after they had unknowingly entered on the south boundary.

We have attempted to get in contact with sportsmen camping near the boundaries and give them information concerning the area with the rules and regulations pertaining to hunting. Local people have helped us immensely by informing all parties they contact and this aid is appreciated and it is felt has done a lot of good.

Park Service officials visiting the monument this month were; Al Bicknell, Jack Haile, Al Kuehl, and Charles Carter.

Maps for gas installations are being prepared for the approval of the Director and will be forwarded to Coolidge in the near future.

A number of young Chiricahua Red Squirrels have been noticed lately. These squirrels appear to be more numerous than in the past.

At the Faraway Ranch one can ride close to the deer that have been raised in the orchard. The other evening two does and a young buck were noticed harvesting Ed's and Lillian's apples.

Speaking of apples, it seems a CCC enrollee recently purloined some green ones and the lieutenant, finding them on him, appropriated them. However the lieutenant started munching the sinful fruit and early the next morning called in the aid of the doctor. Needless to say the "Doc" fixed him up and the lieutenant was able to eat supper the next evening.


CHIRICAHUA CCC By William Stevenson, project superintendent, Douglas, Arizona.

Four hundred square yards of rock banks were sloped on Bonita Highway three and one-half miles north of the Sugar Loaf truck trail intersection. Materials were used to widen fill sections. Six hundred square yards of banks were sloped one mile west of Bonita Park. Rock materials were used in the elimination of borrow pits, and dirt was used in dressing fill slopes.

A gravel pit was opened near the rock quarry and one-half mile of Bonita Highway surfaced near the monument boundary. Ditches and culvert basins were cleaned between the Administration Building and the monument boundary.

Work was resumed on the Administration Building furniture and exhibit cases October 17. It is hoped that this project now can be carried through to completion without further interruptions. The carpentry crew worked the entire month fabricating benches, cabinets, doors, etc., for the utility group at Casa Grande National Monument.

Jack Haile inspected the camp October 19 and 20. Al Kuehl and Charles Carter arrived October 19 and layed out the landscaping work for the Headquarters Area. Mr. Carter will remain several days to draw up plans.

On October 8, 59 enrollees were received as replacements.


BANDELIER By C. G. Harkins, custodian, Box 669, Santa Fe, N.M.

Visitors this month, 613.


Visitors to Bandelier totaled 613 arriving in 192 cars from 21 states and seven foreign countries. Washington, D. C. had 15 representatives. There were 59 field trips and 41 museum parties with 6,050 minutes spent in the field with visitors and 770 minutes in the museum; our field trips had 231 visitors and the museum showed a total attendance of 147 visitors.


The month of October has been very fair with cool nights and warm clear days. A very heavy rain storm on October 7 washed the road quite badly, and it was necessary to send a crew of men with a truck to the Otowi Hill Road to repair that section of highway.

The road oiling of the entrance road has been completed and the clean-up is proceeding satisfactorily along the right-of-way.

Visitor travel has been way below normal, the only reason we have to offer is that there are no tourists traveling.

This month was 320 below a like month in 1937. The road from Pojoaque has been in the worst possible condition and in order to reach Santa Fe a detour around by Espanola has been necessary on several occasions. There is a general movement in Santa Fe by business men for a new highway, or major improvements to the present Highway 285 from the south. Improvement of this highway would increase our visitor travel to the monument as this highway would give an outlet to southern Colorado through Taos.

The visitors to the monument at this time of year are by far the hardest to interest in guided trips, they much prefer to go by themselves as they are nearly all local people from Santa Fe with friends from the East. This type of visitor is hard to dispense with and, if we are to insist on their being guided, they resent this attitude of the Park Service, mainly due to the fact they have been here several times before and would rather do the telling in front of their friends than have some one else do it.

Hunting season is approaching. Deer and turkey are quite numerous, occasional signs of bear are noted in the dust of the trail along the upper reaches of the canyon. Juncos have returned to the canyon, the first being noted on October 12. Also the quail planted here last spring have been observed above the Ceremonial Cave, that is, some of them have, apparently about a dozen escaped the bob-cat that dug into their pen.

A summary of the weather follows:

Days clear23Mean Maximum68.87
Days cloudy3Mean Minimum35.67
Days partly cloudy5Mean52.27
Max. temp83Precipitation1.41
Min. temp24


On October 5, a 15 minute interview about Bandelier was given over Radio K O B in Albuquerque. The program reached several thousand people some who had never heard of Bandelier. This interview was heard throughout New Mexico and a number of visitors have remarked about hearing it. Several letters have been received commenting on the program along with two telegrams of congratulations in addition to verbal comments by a number of visitors who had listened in on the program.


A three in oil matt was laid on the road to the residential area also new curbing and protection walls were placed in the vicinity of the residential area. These improvements were very necessary and eliminate a great deal of dust around the residences in addition to the general improvement of the area.


Two days were spent in company with Forestry Foreman Fulton on insect control work, a report of which has been forwarded to headquarters under separate cover.


Mr. and Mrs. Hugh Miller, Coolidge, Arizona; Mr. and Mrs. Charles L. Gable, Washington, D.C.; A. H. Montgomery, Santa Fe; Larry Miller, assistant landscape architect; J. H. Diehl, regional engineer; Charles A. Richey, Santa Fe; Mile F. Christensen, Santa Fe; and S. S. Kennedy, Washington, D. C.; were on the monument during the month.


A number of labels have been received from the Western Museum Laboratories in Berkeley to be put in place in the unfinished exhibits thereby bringing the museum that much nearer completion.


BANDELIER CCC By James Eden, acting project sup., Box 6669, Santa Fe, N. M.

Final completion is still being withheld on the Lobby and Sales Room unit of the Operator's Development pending installation of the heating system.

Painting and staining of the Operator's Residence has been completed during the month. The installation of the kitchen unit, floor furnace, fuel tank, and the basement floor will make this a 100 percent completed project.

The first plaster coat has been completed on Cabin "A" group and at the present time the finish coat of plaster is being put on. All doors and windows are now prepared and ready for installation.

Plumbing fixtures have been installed, and rough plastering has been completed on Cabin "B" group, of the Operator's Development.

Wall construction of the Comfort Station has been completed to viga height. This building is now ready to be roofed.

In addition to the work on the various units of the Operator's Development, the carpenter crew has been busy all month preparing furniture for installation in the Development. Under the Furniture Project, 55 tables and chairs have been colored and stained and are ready for installation in the dining room.

Quarrying of building stone, for use in wall and floor construction, has gone forward all month.

Skilled Laborers Gardner and Bridgeman, electricians, have put in time during the month hooking up the electrical circuits to Cabins "A" and "B", and the Comfort Station.

A new member was added to the personnel of this camp on October 24. Robert S. Harris entered on duty on this date as Engineering Foreman and at the present time is in charge of the Rock Quarry Crew.


BANDELIER FORESTRY By James T. Fulton, forestry foreman, Box 669, Santa Fe, N.M.


During the past week, discussions have been held with both foreman and leaders concerning fire hazards around our projects and in buildings occupied or used by CCC personnel. Although we have had weekly fire hazard inspections for a long time, we felt that recalling fire prevention practices to everyone's attention would be a good thing in view of the fact that over a period of time such things can become vague and also in view of the fact that winter is upon us with its increase in fire hazards within and around buildings.

In addition, we have adapted the self-inspection fire report, which was included within the new safety book, to our particular needs.

The water in our fire barrels has been treated so that it will not freeze. We have hopes that our personnel is still more fire-conscious and, as a result, will readily detect fire hazards and keep them non-existent.


WALNUT CANYON By Paul Beaubien, junior archeologist, Flagstaff, Arizona

Visitors this month, 934.

There were 1,314 visitor contacts, and 56 campground users. The 136 percent contact is non too high as it would be possible to have a 300 percent contact with one CCC boy at the museum, one at the observation point, and one down on the trail.

Al Kuehl and Harry Langley inspected the monument on October 1. I met Drs. Gould and MacDougall at NM-5-A, October 4. October 6, Jack Haile made a thorough inspection of the projects here. I was away on annual leave from October 8 to October 23 and missed, among others, Hugh Miller and Dale King. Charles Amsden called during my leave period, and I was sorry to have missed him. J. H. Tovrea is here now, locating a pipe line to bring water from Flagstaff to the monument.

I would like to commend some one for the way the monument was kept during my absence. Everything was cleaner and neater than when I left.

I understand there has been some winter weather, but we are now enjoying the finest weather of the year, there is no wind and the days are clear and cool. The trees have changed color, but the leaves haven't fallen yet. All we need is more visitors.

Several deer have been shot around the monument boundaries. Three bucks and two does have stayed near the stone quarry, and had become rather familiar with the crew working there. One of the bucks was shot recently, and ran to the quarry. The hunter followed in a car, and brought the buck down as the boys looked on. As the quarry is outside the monument boundaries, the hunter was perfectly within his rights in killing this practically tame deer.


CHACO CANYON By L. T. McKinney, custodian Chaco Canyon, New Mexico

Visitors this month, 403.

Another travel year has rolled by, and this seems to be the first month of a new one. I remember in my last October report I was trying to think of something to write. Twelve months have passed and I'm still trying to think. Anyway, I'm still in God's Country, even if you seldom hear from me. Things are still looking pretty fine over here, 'though frost has nipped plants a bit.

I left the Bright Spot of the Southwest this month and went to Albuquerque to get supplies and to see Carroll Miller who was laid up in the hospital after a hard summer's work. Carroll looked fine when I saw him in the hospital, and seemed to be doing fine also. He seemed to be well cared for, as there were about half a dozen good-looking nurses hovering around him. Carroll said the doctor took out everything except his appetite and a dread of next summer's travel. Anyway, he's back home and everything is fine except for the fact that measles have invaded the Miller domicile.

There have been several Brass Hats, as you called them, around this past year, Boss, but I can't see any changes so far. I still have the same amount of water gaps to repair, tumble weeds to burn, roads to repair, garbage pits to dig, ramadas to repair, gates and fences to mend, but this can all be done while I'm hibernating this winter.

I believe there are only two men beside myself in the Southwestern Monuments that really know how much country there is to cover in this monument. They are Hugh Miller and Charles Richey, who took a look at it, whether they wanted to or not.


The S.C.S. is still doing a lot of planning for future work within the Chaco, if we can ever secure a CCC Camp so that we can help them out on the labor situation. The S.C.S. is a grand Service and has been doing its part and ours too for the past four years. The reason this monument was set aside, was because of the wonderful ruins to be found here. And it is much better to show them to the visitors, than to show them where they used to be.


A year ago I spoke of the CCC's making old Bonito lift up her head. Well, she looks like she's sprouting a new crop of feathers. As Dr. Hewitt said a few days ago, "I think you've improved Bonito a 100 percent in its looks, since you removed the concrete capping". We're not trying to improve its looks; it can't be done by white man or Navajo. We are only trying to retain its looks, and I think Gordon is doing the best work that can be done.


The approach roads from both directions are in the worst condition they have ever been in since they were first roads.


We have certainly missed the Hastings since they departed from the Chaco the latter part of last month, and will be looking forward to having them return next spring. But there is a possibility that Homer will be picked as a permanent man someplace, before that time. If he doesn't return to Chaco, it will certainly leave a hole that will be hard to fill.


The University has quit building with rock, and has started building with adobe.

Dr. J. F. Zimmerman, President of the University, was a visitor this month. With him were Dr. Edgar L. Hewitt, director of the School of American Research; Dr. E. H. Wells, president of the New Mexico School of Mines; Dr. H. W. James, president of the State Teachers College; and Dr. Gossard, president of the Las Vegas Normal School.


The maximum this month as 88°, the minimum 20°, and precipitation was .30 (rain and hail). On the evening of October 20 we had a trace of snow, the first snow this year. There were six cloudy days this month, eight partly cloudy, and the balance clear. We had a killing frost on three nights this month.


Last October 23, the Rock measured 2-4/32 inches on east end, 2-8/32 inches on center, and 2-6/32 inches on west end. The 24th of this October, the Rock measures 3-16/32 inches on east end, 3-22/32 inches on center, and 3-9/32 inches on west end. I'm not measuring it twice a day at present. I may be able to, later on.


There was a slight increase (12 visitors) over last October. There were 403 visitors through the monument this month, coming in 113 motor vehicles.


Dale and Mrs. King seem to be our only Park Service visitors this month. It's funny how business takes them to summer climate when nights begin to get frosty in Chaco.


The two new pit toilets were completed and put in use for the public this month. They were all complete last month except for a little more painting. The old pit toilet that was built in the front yard of the custodian's residence, during PWA days, has gone with the wind.

A new pump for our water supply was received and installed, and is now working very satisfactorily.

I had a call from the freight agent a little while ago, telling me that my new underground gas tank was at the station. We will probably go in after it, and also the gas pump, which is at Gallup. These will be installed, no doubt, this week.

A six-by-six foot coal house was built adjoining the museum (blacksmith shop) on the south side, and I have already filled it with coal. Walls of the bath room in the custodian's residence have been re-kalsomined, the woodwork painted, and some repair to the plumbing has been done.

The new Ford pick-up was delivered this month, by Dale King, and the old one returned to headquarters. The new car is very satisfactory, and is greatly appreciated. Thanks Boss!


MONTEZUMA CASTLE By Earl Jackson, custodian Camp Verde, Arizona

Visitors this month, 601.

During the month, 29 states and Washington, D.C. were represented. Visitors arrived in 203 cars, and four on horseback.


There have been no Park Service visitors this month. On October 5, a bus load of 31 people came down from Flagstaff. This was a party from the fifth grade of the College Elementary School under the charge of Ivernia Tyson. On October 21, P. K. Hooker, of the Bureau of Agricultural Economics, Washington, D.C. arrived, accompanied by Philip Geisinger and Arthur Upson of the Forest Service, Tucson, Arizona.


Precipitation0Min. temp30
Days cloudy10Mean maximum85.7
Days partly cloudy7Mean minimum43.2
Max. temp99

Travel was off 133 visitors as compared with October of 1937. That "O" for precipitation undoubtedly tells part of the story. Without a drop of rain this month, the roads have become more corrugated, dusty, and rough than I have ever seen them. They are so rough that under 40 miles per hour your teeth rattle loose, and over that speed you are playing with the hereafter. To cap all this, the Cornville approach to Highway 79 is still partly under construction.

Beaver Creek, which started running in August, has again given up the ghost, going as far as the pond in front of the Castle and stopping.


Routine cleanup of grounds has been performed. In the garage area, part of the flat was scoured and accumulated detritus of years was gathered and disposed of.

We have become an official U. S. Weather Bureau station now, with the installation this month of a new thermometer shelter, and removal of the old homemade one.

Some of the old repair work on two doorways in the Castle was in bad condition, so this was taken out and repaired by Ranger Alberts.

An incinerator pit was dug by Ranger Alberts, and half the removed dirt put on our old trash pile in an array where it has served as an erosion check.

Thirteen "No Hunting" signs were put up along the boundaries. The most important boundary points are now posted.

A bookcase for government publications was made and installed in the custodian's office.


On October 10, the custodian and H.C.W.P. returned to duty from annual leave. Our leave was spent in New England. That country put on quite a show for visiting Westerners. We were traveling New England when it experienced its worst disaster in history, with a terrific combination of flood and hurricane. Although caught in the midst of all this, we have no mishaps.


While on annual leave, the custodian and H.C.W.P. visited the Peabody Museum in New Haven, the American Museum of Natural History in New York City, and the Field Museum in Chicago. Various officials of these institutions were contacted, all of whom were most courteous and helpful, and considerable information on museum preparation technique for snakes and insects was obtained, as well as a lot of new slants on museums.

Most of the information obtained on preparation of insects for exhibits as life mounts was in the form of suggestions rather than as tried and true technique. We were much surprised to find that our little 75 cent homemade insect case and the insects with which we have filled it from our own work here at Montezuma Castle constituted the most effective insect exhibit we have seen. This is not intended as a boast, but as a statement of fact. Our homemade life mounts of insects had retained form, and in some cases, color, better than those we saw in the East.

The most comprehensive data we obtained on insect preparation was by letter from Richard Lewis Post, head, Department of Entomology, Ward's Natural Science Establishment, Inc., Rochester, New York.

The reason for all this talk about insects is because I wish to stress a very significant point: we have established at Montezuma Castle, after a year's trial, the proof that a display of native insects of the larger and more spectacular varieties, in life poses, is one of the strongest drawing cards of the whole museum. Some people will look at the insects and ask questions about them for 15 minutes, while at least 80 percent of the visitors of all ages are definitely interested in them. So if anybody else in this organization wants to add a lot of tone to any natural history adjunct to his museum, let us urgently suggest that he tackle the preservation of insects and their exhibition in life poses. You can make your own case for a dollar, and if you don't know anything about how to fix your insects, you at least know almost as much as the scientists do about it.

During the month, several new formulae have been mixed, and some insects prepared in them. We don't know yet how the specimens will work out, but four new ones are on exhibit.

While we were at the American Museum of Natural History, one of the technicians gave us an excellent articulated skull of a water moccasin. This looks almost exactly like a rattlesnake skull, coming from the same family as it does, and this skull has been mounted and placed in our museum here to facilitate explanations on how poison fangs work.


Overnight campers are about through for the season. We have had two or three parties this month, but none lately.

Conditions in the valley are looking up again, with the increase in copper prices. Building activity however seems limited to government projects.

A proposed relocation of the road via Cornville from Highway 79 to Beaver Creek, then on to Montezuma Castle and Camp Verde, has recently been staked. Plans are definitely laid for eventual oiling of the road all of this distance. The staked relocation eliminates a great number of bad curves on the road, one of which is on the monument.

Once this road is paved past Montezuma Castle, the Park Service can really begin to worry about the condition of the ruin. There will be so many more visitors to it that eventual wearing out will be much hastened, unless by that time it is closed to visitors or protected from the wear and tear of their traffic by steel catwalks through the building.

We certainly hope we will not be delayed too long in getting something definitely done on this matter, and something built under the lower front rooms. Because, visitors or not, those lower front rooms are going to fall if not braced.


CASA GRANDE By A. T. Bicknell, custodian Coolidge, Arizona

Visitors this month, 2,471.


Days clear15Maximum temp.100
Days partly cloudy9Minimum temp.32
Days cloudy6Mean max. temp.93.6
PrecipitationTMean min. temp.52.0

Beginning October 4, the temperature here at Casa Grande have been considerably lower than the past five months; on the first, second, and fourth, the maximum was 100 degrees, even; but since that time, 92 degrees is the highest reading. Several nights during the month showed minimum readings of less than 40 degrees, the closest to freezing being 32.3, recorded on the 17th.

A very light shower, less than .01 inch in the gauge, occurred on the first, but with that exception, no rain fell during the entire month. Several rather bad dust storms blew up during the month, the worst on October 15, when it was almost impossible to see across the parking area to the picnic ground during a portion of the afternoon.


Although visitor travel is up considerably over that of last month, it is slightly below that of October, 1937. However, the figure is considerably higher than for October of 1934, '35, '36.

The average party time is higher, by .6 minute, than that during September; this finally breaks the pendulum swing that had been occurring for the past seven months, with the average party time being up one month, and down the next.

Average time of parties in the ruins did drop slightly below that of last month, but the increase in the time spent in the museum brings the total trip time above that of September, while September had already topped that of August. Boss, I'm afraid that some of the fun of writing up visitor statistics will now be gone, unless this month should just mark a pause, and the up and down averages commence again next month.

Mrs. Bicknell returned from her summer on the coast on October 10; then, on the 21st, Custodian Bicknell and Mrs. B. left for a few days vacation in Long Beach; they plan to return sometime this week.


Park Service visitors to the monument during the month were: Jack Haile and Al Kuehl; Ted Cronyn, ranger from Tumacacori; and R. B. Lattimore, acting superintendent, Ft. Pulaski N.M., Savannah, Georgia.


E. H. Davis, of Mesa Grande, California, an old friend of Mr. Pinkley's, visited the ruins and museum, while a house guest at the Boss' residence. Phoebe Rogers and Mrs. C. G. Salisbury, from up in the Navajo country, visited the monument. Bill and Sallie Lippincott were in for an afternoon on their way to take over the management of the Kinteel (Wide Ruins) Trading Post, which they recently purchased.


October travel: 1938 - 2471; 1937 - 2482; 1936 - 2045.

Of the 2,471 visitors in 842 cars, 1,936 were contacted on guided trips through the ruins, the museum, or both. Three hundred twenty five parties were conducted through the ruins for an average time of 35.5 minutes per party. In the museum, 220 parties were conducted for an average of 24.2 minutes. (See "Casa Grande Visitor Statistics", under the Headquarters section of this report.)

The number of picnics and special groups visiting the monument took a sharp increase over that of the past few months. A total of 441 people, made up 55 separate parties, made use of the picnic grounds during the month.

Special groups picknicking on the monument were as follows: October 1, Tucson Indian Training School, 19 children, two adults; October 10, Coolidge High School faculty, 25 members; October 11, Eloy School faculty, 12 people; October 12, Casa Grande high school faculty, grade school teachers, and members of the school board and their families, about 50 in number; October 15, twenty seven Papagos from the Indian Training School in Tucson; October 21, eighteen members of the Pima tribe, from the training school at Sacaton; October 23, the Cooldige Church of Chirst held an afternoon picnic at the monument with 45 attending; September 29, Campus Training School of Tempe, 22 children and seven adults.


Visitor travel by states is as follows: of the 1,652 people who signed the register, 887, or 53.7 percent were residents of Arizona; 263 persons, or 15.9 percent were from California. Other states showing more than 20 visitors during the month were Texas, Oklahoma, Illinois, Ohio, Colorado, Missouri, New York, Pennsylvania, and Kansas. Michigan still fails to show the usually expected number of visitors, and we are curious to know why. In all, visitors from 42 states, the District of Columbia, Canada, Mexico and France signed the register during the month.


1 Four drawer file cabinet.
4 Sectional bookcase sections.


Job #50 - Shop: The cement window ledges were poured, a workbench installed, and doors and windows hung. Man days expended - 22.

Job #51 - Warehouse: The door and window frames have all been set, the exterior plastering completed, and the window ledges poured. Man days expended - 56.

Job #52 - Oil House: The roof of the wash-rack was completed during the month and the remainder of the inside wall plastered. The doors have been made, but are not as yet hung, nor are the windows glazed although the steel frames and sash have been installed. Man days expended - 2.

Job #53 - Guide Service: Rodgers, Coyle, and Sheffield are still acting as regular guides, although Coyle spent part of the month in the Phoenix Indian School hospital recovering from an appendectomy. He returned to duty on October 5, but in his absence a new man, Scott Hall, broke in as a relief man and will continue to act in this capacity when needed. Savage is still help Gene Stonehocker in the shop while Mungerro is acting as temporary clerk in the Headquarters office, and Vic Scholz runs the mimeograph and makes himself generally useful in the naturalist office. Man days - 138.

Job #62 - Equipment Shed: The walls of the building and the front supporting pillars have now been completed to the plate line. Man days expended - 112.

In addition to the above numbered jobs, 84 man days were expended in the erection of the new educational building at the camp, which is now completed except for the two gable ends, the partitions and the exterior painting.

Three man days, plus two Saturday mornings for the whole crew, were spent in cleaning up the camp generally, making new walk and driveway borders of stone set in cement and whitewashed, and in painting the interior walls of the mess-hall, wash-room, and store-room. The fire equipment was also repainted and moved to a new location nearer the center of the area.

Safety meetings were held each Thursday evening; attendance 100 percent.

Chaplain Hurt was a camp visitor on the 18th and religious services were held in the evening with an attendance of 18 men.

Camp Inspections were as follows:

October 10 - Major Roark, from Corps Area Headquarters, at Ft. Bliss, Texas.

October 13 - J. Haile, CCC Coordinator, from Phoenix.

October 18 - Lt. Kieling, from NM-2-A, and Chaplain Hurt.

October 24 - Captain Meadows, of the Arizona CCC District Headquarters, in Phoenix.


NAVAJO By Milton Wetherill, in charge Kayenta, Arizona

Visitors this month, 50.

I took over the work at Be-ta-ta-kin Sept. 22 and found quite a bit of necessary work to be done on the trails. Most important was cleaning us the rock which had fallen from above the spring. There has been some talk about this rock falling, but I knew of several others that have fallen which did more damage. The trail near the camp ground had washed during the fall rains and it was necessary to fill in several places. The trail at present is in good shape.

Interesting visitors for September were Alice Eastwood and John T. Howell, California Academy of Sciences, San Francisco, California, and Esabel McCracken, San Francisco, California. Alice Eastwood was at the Almo Ranch, Mancos, Colorado, in 1889. She collected plants at Mesa Verde and in all four states at the four corners from 1889 to 1894.

Earl Morris and family with friends were in, Earl has made several visits to Navajo in the past years. After visiting Be-ta-ta-kin, they departed for Rainbow Bridge. Aleth R. Huyett of Washington, D.C. was in with Bill and Katherine Wilson. Also, Dr. W. Rodgers of the Museum of San Diego, San Diego, California.


TUMACACORI By Louis Caywood, custodian Box 797, Nogales, Arizona

Visitors this month, 916.

October has been the month of in-between-seasons. No hot days nor any cold days have marred the autumn season. One or two days of dust storms were the only disagreeable features of the month.

Travel for this season has been normal with a total of 916 visitors coming in 243 cars. Of this number 829 were contacted or a percentage of 90.5. The figure of 916 is an increase over 801 for the month of October, 1937.


Mr. Theodore Cronyon went off duty at noon, October 5, to take accrued leave before reporting for duty at Canyon de Chelly National Monument. No one has yet been appointed to fill Mr. Cronyn's place.


Three cases were cleaned and painted and the glass fronts were placed on these. This row leaves a remainder of only two cases which do not have the glasses placed. Light boards were placed over two cases completing them. Besides the few unfinished exhibits and the plastering where the plaster had to be removed in order to place the recapitulation of the museum:


1 & 2No.No.Yes.
4 (Diorama)Yes.No.No. (Temporary)
6 (Elec Map)No.Yes.No. (In Berkeley)
7 (No exhibit - removed from set up)
9 (Diorama)Yes.Yes.Yes.
10Yes.Yes.Yes. (Except for label)
11 (Diorama)Yes.Yes.Yes.
13 AYes.Yes.No.
13 B (Diorama)Yes.Yes.No. (Temporary)
13 CYes.Yes.No.
14 (Proposed allegorical mural)No.
17 (Diorama)Yes.Yes.No. (Temporary)
20 & 22Yes.Yes.No.
21 (Mass Diorama)Yes.Yes.Yes.


Miss Mary Lesley and Mr. Stearns were visitors on September 26. Miss Lesley will be remembered for her museum work in the Washington office.

Luis Gastellum made two visits on September 26 and October 23.

Mr. and Mrs. Kenneth Disher and Dr. and Mrs. Norman Gable were visitors on October 18. Mr. Disher is connected with the Indian Arts and Crafts Administration of the United States Indian Service. Dr. Gable is professor of anthropology at the University of Arizona at Tucson.


A lecture attended by 65 persons was given by Dr. Emil Haury on the evening of October 14 at the Tumacacori Museum. Dr. Haury spoke on, "The Indians of Southern Arizona," which he illustrated with slides. Following, a short series of natural color slides were shown depicting the gathering and preparation of the saguaro fruit.

Additional museum lectures are scheduled for November 4 by Dr. Russell Ewing and December 2 by Reverend Victor Stoner. Dr. Ewing will speak on, "The Mission as a Frontier Institution" and Reverend Stoner on, "The Spanish Missions of Arizona."


The oil furnace in the museum building was tested on October 17 and works satisfactorily. The telephone was checked on October 24 and new fuses were placed in the set. The water and electric systems are in good working order.


The plans for the mission garden to be laid out in the patio of the museum have been received. It is hoped that by spring the work will be carried out so that a full season's growth can be developed by the plants.


Must say here that I am not inclined to agree with the Boss in his remark in the September reports "Ruminations" regarding there not being a place in the new streamlined (still incomplete) museum at Tumacacori for the well-worn robe of Padre Kino should it be found. The small glass cases - one on either side of the mass diorama - to my way of thinking would be a good place to put such a robe or robes were they to come into our possession.


EL MORRO By Robert R. Budlong, custodian Ramah, New Mexico

Visitors this month, 274.

Winter moves upon this part of the country slowly but surely, and our visitor travel steadily decreases. Our visitor attendance this month was 274 persons, arriving in 61 cars and two busses. Colder days have been responsible for shorter trips, the trip time dropping rapidly after visitors have passed the northeast corner of the rock and gone around on the colder north side out of the sunlight. Before much longer, very few visitors will attempt the inspection of inscriptions on that cold north side out of the sunlight. Before much longer, very few visitors will attempt the inspection of inscriptions on that cold north side. Our office visits have been few and short, due to the construction of the addition to the old cabin and the consequent crowding of the old room as material was moved around to make space for the work on the cutting through a new doorway.


Apparently more as a promise than just a threat, the skies have scattered a few light flurries of snow at us during the month. Temperatures have gone down, 18 degrees being minimum for the month, and 80 degrees being maximum. We have had but little precipitation, and the local farmers are hoping for good snowfall during the winter, the ground being very dry. During the month we had a few days of very high winds, and the blowing sand made field trips almost impossible.


Bids were received for the drilling of the well, and four prospective bidders inspected the chosen site. Since bids were to close on October 21 at headquarters, we are looking forward with interest to receipt of information on the awarding of the contract for the drilling.


Last month we reported that we expected to start the construction of an addition to the shack the early part of this month. The work was begun on October 3, and foundations of stone and logs placed. By the 6th, all walls were up and the rafters in place ready for the roofing. As we shut down work for that day, we received that Public Works funds had been allotted for the construction of a custodian's residence, work to be started before January first. The new room was completed with little additional expense, and we are now living in it. It measures 16 by 20 feet in size, and is made of condemned railroad ties. Two windows were put in the east, or front side, and the new floor constructed 17 inches below the level of the floor in the old shed, with the result that we have over nine feet of headroom in the front of the new room. Work still goes on, the custodian chinking between all ties with oakum and, while this chinking is not yet completed, the room is livable and gives us the greatest amount of space we have had in four years, with the exception of the space in the de Chelly house, which we occupied but briefly. The custodian is now completing a long table built against the east wall of the new room, under the windows. It is 16 feet in length, and is to be the office desk, laboratory table, lecture table, etc. Quite a little work remains to be done on the room, but this will involve no expense. With anything like a normal winter, construction of the custodian's residence will be interrupted by far-below-freezing temperatures, so the new room will be a blessing during the coming winter.


The latex molding compound was received recently, and preliminary experiments conducted on a fragment of sandstone. Miss Bertha Dutton of the New Mexico State Museum who was visiting here with her father and Miss Hulda Hobbs, also of the Museum, wrote "Paso por aqui" on this fragment of stone, the custodian carved this lightly into the rock, the latex molding compound was applied, and stripped from the stone within a few hours. A perfect impression was obtained every tiny sand grain showing perfectly. This week the first application to one of the newer (1857) inscriptions was made, and a beautiful impression obtained.

Work on the old Spanish inscriptions is to begin the coming week. This progress seems just about perfect for our requirements, and shortly we expect to send to your office the first of the resulting rubber molds. In a few days the custodian hopes to obtain some plaster of Paris to use in making some experimental casts. Detailed records and photographs will be made, of course, for the files. The amount of material received will be sufficient for only a few molds, but the results obtained are of such great value that they will more than justify the expense of the purchase of a quantity needed for the making of molds of each of the early Spanish inscriptions. It is believed that dilution of this material and application of it by spraying will prove most practicable for your purposes, in order to avoid to avoid the formation of air bubbles which occasionally result from application of the material with a brush. Your office will be kept advised of the progress of this work.


Six domestic cats were disposed of during the month, but tracks of others are observed promising a prolonged hunting season. Our two owls now take up but half the space they formerly occupied. During the past week one of them killed and ate the other. The survivor has accordingly been christened "Two-in-One" and seems to be thriving.


The month has been a very busy one, in spite of the dropping off in visitor attendance. Most of the time has been taken up with the construction of the new room, but there has been considerable activity here otherwise. Mr. A. W. Shirley and his crew conducted survey operations here during the month. Incidentally, Boss, the rock must have eroded away remarkably during the past few days. The informational pamphlets that used to be distributed here gave the height of the rock as 300 feet, and when Shirley and his crew measured it, it turned out to be only 189 feet in height. Possibly the cold weather has caused it to contract.

Jack Diehl paid us a quick visit during the month. Last night we had the great pleasure of meeting Carolie McKinney for the first time, she and Lewis having driven down to deliver more of the Latex molding compound Dale had left at Chaco. We enjoyed their visit tremendously. They camped in their new truck, since two other visitors were occupying the new room, and another was occupying the kitchen. I think we need several guest rooms in the new residence to be constructed.

On October 22; a group of 78 pupils from the Gallup high school visited the monument, and were conducted around the inscriptions in three trips.

Our Indian Summer will probably pay us a brief visit, and then we expect increasingly cold weather and snows. The problem of communication with the outside, thought to be solved, becomes something of a worry. The custodian's short wave transmitter, which was being put through rigid tests in Long Island, New York, happened to be right in the path of the recent hurricane that devastated so much of that part of the country. We are sorry to report that to date we have heard nothing relative to whether or not it survived the storm, but are hoping it came through it safely. If it did not, another will be constructed, and it is hoped that communication with the outside will be maintained during the winter, in the event we become snowbound for any length of time.


CANYON DE CHELLY By Johnwill Faris,
Chin Lee, Arizona.

Visitors this month, 131.

Another month rolls around and de Chelly has been simply one grand world of its own. The Indians have certainly been busy with their harvest, drying peaches, corn, storing melons, etc. It is getting to be an old, old story, but Boss, words really can not do justice to the wonders of de Chelly. This is especially true in the spring and fall. Visitors simply marvel at the sights that we are able to show them. If any one monument shows itself and sells itself to the public, it is de Chelly. Pile after pile of corn is seen with from one to several women husking, and, of course, the pile of husked ears with the many colors of the Indian corn. This spread out to dry on both the ground and the hogan tops is truly a sight, especially looking down on it from a five hundred to one thousand foot cliff. One of the sad features of the fall is that the Indians are moving out and it will now be only a matter of several weeks until there will be little life in the canyons until spring. A cold snap about the middle of the month made us all hurry around a bit for fear we might get an early winter. It has broken now and we are going through a wonderful Indian summer. The canyons are both flowing some now and will until spring.

This travel month started with a group from the Sierra Club of Southern California. Ten members were in for two and one half days although not on our area that much time. They were a splendid group, and I enjoyed their visit very much. I noticed in showing them around at Antelope House in Del Muerto that one of the recent storms had washed in under our fence built early last spring. This means that some way will have to be provided for protection from washing. The road to Mummy Cave, while never much of a road, is becoming more and more in need of repair and I feel that the Park Service should do something about it if for no other reason than to facilitate inspections. Mummy Cave is certainly one of the main features of the monument. You will hear more about this later in a special report.

While we are on the subject of roads, I might mention that the Indian Service is still working on the Ganado-Chin Lee road and in time this will be a splendid piece of road and will mean that many visitors will be coming in that miss us now. Other approach roads are being improved and there is little doubt but that a short time will mean many more visitors.

General details of the monument have been in line with regular routine. The canyons are dry in the lower portions and running more and more from the upper ends. The various Services have been very cooperative in any thing that has come up, the Indian Irrigation Service, for instance, in helping us with our pump that had an exhaust valve stick and was in need of a reseat.

The visitors for the month total 131 which is about on a par with the same month last year. Several changes will be made in the reports that follow in accordance with recent memoranda. The weather, after all my bragging, is somewhat cloudy and, with a trip up the canyons tomorrow, I am sure hoping it holds off for another day. Will let you know more about this part of it in the next report.


CAPULIN MOUNTAIN By Homer Farr, custodian
Capulin, New Mexico

Visitors this month, 3,500.

We have had approximately 3,500 visitors this month. I have been able to get a fairly accurate count this month as I have been working on the monument most of the time, and have met quite a number of very interested people from Kansas, Oklahoma, Colorado, Texas, California, New York, New Mexico, and possibly more than a dozen other States. Heading the list was one from Arizona, my assistant superintendent, Hugh Miller, accompanied by Jack Diehl from Santa Fe. This is the first trip for Mr. Miller to this monument and he, like Mr. Pinkley, was in a big rush to get back. Both of you are cordially invited to return any time.

Weather has been simply grand all month with some rain and no wind, and very warm all through the month; in fact, the trees here have not as yet lost their foliage. Our big crop of pinon nuts has not turned out so good as we find most of them are blighted. However, the birds and squirrels know the good ones from the bad and we have an extra large number of birds, squirrels, and deer.

I came very near a very large bob cat one day last week on the road, and we still have plenty of porcupines.

The extreme hard wind we had during the summer brought down some 30 or 40 trees just above the road and, as they were dying and becoming hosts for the Ips beetles, they have all been removed and the road has been cleaned thoroughly. With the work I expect to do tomorrow, the road will be in first class condition again.

The fence has all been changed as requested by Mr. Miller and Mr. Pinkley, a certain twenty four inch culvert has been dug up, fill made and relocated as per request of Mr. Diehl. Seven badly washed places have been filled some of them beginning as much as 30 feet below the road and filled to the level of the road with rock and cinders. All in all, the custodian and helpers have never put out such hard manual labor as we have this month for we found so much that really needed to be done. However, the old volcano is just about shipshape again and, after tomorrow, I expect to take it a wee might easier.


NATURAL BRIDGES By Zeke Johnson, custodian
Blanding, Utah

Visitors this month, 91.

Report time comes once more, and I am very happy to say that all is well at this monument. The weather has been ideal for trail work. There have been 91 very interesting visitors, and I have contacted every one. I spent a lot of time with them and enjoyed every minute. I have hiked a lot and talked a lot, but I don't believe that I have done any hiking and talking in vain.

Rufus Johnson, the tree and flower man from Salt Lake City, was here for his fourth trip. He had his wife and two daughters and they were here for two days and nights. We hiked the 13 mile trip. He is very interesting to me as he knows every flower, weed, and bush and calls their names as I would call my kiddies. He always finds new specimens.

Two Dr. Calkins were here from Nebraska. After we had hiked to all of the bridges, they wanted to know what the fee was. I told them that they were as welcome as the flowers in May for what they had seen and what I had done for them. They said that it was the very best show and the most service they had ever received for nothing, and that they thought that Zion and Bryce were not in it at all with this monument for variety. You know, everybody sees things differently, but, of course, I agreed with them.

I was starting on the hike with two men and their wives, and, as we were going down the old trail to Owachomo, one lady asked what caused the rocks to be gone from under the ledge. I told her it was just common wind erosion and the workings of nature. A little further down the trail we came to a place where I had roughly placed five rock steps several years ago and one of the ladies said to the other, "Isn't it wonderful what nature will do! It looks almost as if those steps had been put there by man, but it's easy to see that the other rocks have decayed and left these in shape."

Talk about having to answer questions for the Federal Writer's project; they are coming to me by the sheetfulls. I will just answer one for you:

"How did Devil Canyon get its name?"

Shortly after the pioneers landed in Bluff in 1880, men we sent out to explore the Blue Mountains country and build a road to where Monticello is located, called it Crooked Canyon as the road ran off one rock onto ten. A few years later, the old Danish bishop, Jans Nelson, went to the Blue Mountains after a load of poles, and when he landed back in Bluff, he had a cedar pole rawhided on for a double-tree stick, and a piece of oak for a single-tree. When he was asked how he broke his double-tree he said, "You know Fanny and Billy are too stout and they broke them all up trying to pull my wagon out of that devilish canyon." The name was taken changed to Devil Canyon.

I wish that I could give you the answers to a few dozen other questions. I am always glad to answer, and I believe that I can give them correctly.

Now for the new trail! I took the first party over it on October 20, and I tell you right now that trail will be a joy forever. It is just where I have always wanted it, and it is nearly done, and the boys have done a wonderfully fine job. I wish that Jack Diehl could come and see it; yes, and all of you fellows that are interested in trails. I am just as proud of it as I can be, and I know that the boys have done a very fine job, and that we have saved a lot of money by not having to hire a stone mason. The steps are larger than called for, and we have chiseled four of them into the solid rock, and the whole trail will be much better than I anticipated.

We have blasted out one toilet pit and will shoot out one more before we are through. We are putting them down five feet. We had about three weeks more to go, and will have a little money left to fix up a bit next spring.

I want to thank you, Boss, for all of your kindness to me. The other day several of my friends were with me at the Bridges and one of them said, "Zeke, we hear that you have been asked to quit your job next spring. It is too bad for a young man like you to be retired."

"Yes", I said, "it looks foolish to me to be retired when I am just in the prime of life. Gosh", I said, "I won't be 70 until next April. I am just as able as I was 20 years ago, but I will be glad to do just as my bosses want me to."

On September 12, I took a hike around the same shelf that my camp is located on in Armstrong Canyon, about one mile. In a dry spot underneath a big rock where I was out of the rain, I discovered a skeleton with skull and bones in perfect state of preservation. I went back to camp after my camera, and took pictures of the skull, but haven't had the films developed yet. The skeleton is lying on its right side with the left knee under the chin. If I tell people about it, everyone will want to see it, so I will keep quiet or I will have a job on my hands. The skull is very interesting, in perfect condition, and the teeth are very good and easy to photograph.



The following books were sent out by the Southwestern Monuments Loan Library on August 26, 1938, and have not arrived at destination:

Neararctic Collembola, or Springtails of the Family Isotomidae. #1339
Trees of the National Forests of Colorado and Wyoming #1178.
Revision of the North American Ground Squirrels #1813.

As other copies of some of the above have been issued, the lost shipment may be identified by the volume numbers and by the fact that the three books together constituted the shipment. It is possible that they may have been sent to the wrong monument and if any of the field men have received such a shipment, please notify the Headquarters office. D.S.K.

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Date: 01-Jun-2007