REPORT OF THE SUPERINTENDENT OF THE HOT SPRINGS RESERVATION.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR,
SIR: I have the honor to respectfully submit my annual report as Superintendent of the Hot Springs Reservation for the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915.
While there is no positive historical data fixing the date of discovery of these hot springs, it is presumed from legendary traditions handed down that they were discovered by the nomadic primitive races and their healing waters were used for man generations before the adventurous Ponce de Leon set foot upon the Western Hemisphere. From the most reliable historical data available it is believed that these now famous Hot Springs were visited in 1541 by De Soto and his proud, chivalric band of Castillians, who were the first white men to drink from the "Fountain."
As nearly as can be established from truthful history the first white settlers came in the year 1800. Dunbar and Hunter of the Lewis and Clark Expedition visited the Hot Springs in 1804, and their report shows that they found an open log cabin and a few huts built of split boards, which had been erected by persons resorting to the springs for the restoration of their health. A cabin was built there by Manuel Prudhomme in 1807, and he was joined in the same year by John Purciful and Isaac Cates, who camped here and engaged in hunting and trapping.
From this time the fame of the springs began to spread and each year added to their patronage. Toward the end of the twenties there were permanent settlers at the springs. In 1832 four sections of land were reserved by the Government, with the hot springs near the center, and in 1878 this land was platted and sold to various claimants with the exception of that which now comprises the permanent Hot Springs Reservation and all of the hot springs. At the time of this subdivision the Government retained a large number of city residence lots, practically all of which have since been sold from time to time at public auction by order of the Secretary of the Interior, after due advertisement. None of these lots, however, were within the bounds of the permanent reservation, but located in the city proper.
The Hot Springs Reservation now contains an area of 911 acres, consisting of five units, viz, Hot Springs, North, West, and Sugar Loaf Mountains, and Whittington Lake Reserve Park, but the hot water springs issue forth only from the west slope and at the base of Hot Springs Mountain, which embraces 264 acres, and the 46 springs, with an average daily flow of 826,000 gallons and an average temperature of 135° F., are confined within an area of 500 by 1,400 feet.
Situated, as it is, in a spur of the Ozark Mountains, which are noted for their beauty, the natural scenic conditions are all that heart could wish, and to sufferers of various diseases it offers thermal radioactive water and climatic conditions unequaled, and no mineral waters yet discovered can show as great a number of cures or such a range and variety of ailments which the human body is heir to that yield to their almost miraculous influence.
The wisdom of the retention, control, and supervision of these springs under the fostering care of the National Government has been fully demonstrated during the years which have elapsed since its title was established. The trust reposed in the Government by the people has been guarded with extreme care. The springs are now the property of the people, free from monopoly and extortion, and within the reach of all. The obligation assumed carried with it responsibilities which have been discharged in a manner befitting their protection and benefit, and is a guaranty that in future years this priceless boon to suffering humanity will be administered with characteristic fidelity to the end that it may remain the common heritage of all mankind.
Upon assuming charge of the reservation as superintendent August 4, 1914, I was fortunate in finding a corps of efficient employees who have been of great assistance in the proper administration of the affairs of this office.
The problems with which we have to contend are entirely different from those encountered in any of the other national parks, by reason of the fact that a large portion of the 125,000 or more visitors annually call at the superintendent's office for information and advice relative to doctors, bathhouses, hotels, etc. This information given is necessarily general in character, and in most cases a circular of general information issued by the department and a list of the registered physicians is furnished to the applicant. A large number of these persons are sick, debilitated, or nervous, and extreme care is taken to see that all receive kind and courteous treatment, which is highly appreciated by the visiting public. The visitor is the principal asset in Hot Springs, and should be treated with due consideration and made to feel at home up on his arrival.
Economy is practiced in the expenditure of funds, and practically all improvement work is done by day labor under direct supervision from the superintendent's office, thereby saving the profits that would otherwise go to contractors and giving the Government full value received for every dollar expended.
A complete daily report is rendered by the manager of each bathhouse, showing the name, home and local address, attendant, and doctor, if any, of each purchaser of a bath ticket, together with the total number of baths given each day, supplemented by a sworn monthly statement of the business of the bathhouse, and then at the end of each fiscal year a sworn annual statement is submitted by each bathhouse and the Arlington Hotel, showing the total receipts, itemized expenditures, and net profits for the fiscal year just closed; all of the monthly and annual reports are carefully checked immediately upon receipt, and any discrepancies discovered are called to the attention of the lessee or manager and corrected at once. These reports, taken as a whole, furnish data for a complete, accurate, and comprehensive record of the business of the bathhouse.
During November, 1914, the Hot Springs Reservation was signally honored by a visit from the Hon. Bo Sweeney, Assistant Secretary of the Interior, accompanied by Mr. W. B. Acker, assistant attorney in the department, who for many years has been closely connected with the National Park Service. While here they had an opportunity of meeting, by appointment in the superintendent's office, a large delegation of the city's most prominent business and professional men, and after each citizen had expressed his views relative to the different matters pertaining to the best interest of Hot Springs and the Government reservation, the Assistant Secretary took up the different matters separately, which had been under discussion, and handled them in such an able and practicable manner that his remarks were the subject of much favorable comment by those present.
This visit was made at a most opportune time, during the week in which the Arkansas State Fair was held here, at which time there was a large attendance of people from all sections of the State, headed by Governor Hays and staff, together with nearly all other State officials, all of whom were delighted with the interest the department was taking in this resort.
A few days later in the month, on Thanksgiving Day, we were honored by a visit from the general superintendent and landscape engineer of national parks, Mr. Mark Daniels, whose eminent reputation in his chosen profession had preceded him. It is to be regretted that during his two days' stay it rained almost continually, thereby preventing him from viewing the reservation under favorable conditions. However, he expressed himself as highly pleased and prophesied a great future for this resort. I do not think there is a more advantageous place in this country for a landscape engineer to display his genius, nor one where his accomplishments would be enjoyed to a fuller extent by a greater number of America's health-pleasure seekers than on the Hot Springs Mountain from which flow the far-famed hot waters of mysterious healing.
Also, in the latter part of September of the same year, the reservation was visited by Mr. T. Warren Allen, chief of the Division of National Park and Forest Roads of the Department of Agriculture, who made a tour and thorough inspection of the system of mountain roads on the reservation, and took occasion to express himself favorably on their general condition.
For the Fourth of July celebration this year, Hot Springs had the distinguished honor of a visit from the Vice President of the United States, Mr. Marshall, who was accompanied by his wife. His visit here was the cause of a large and patriotic gathering being held at the State Fair Grounds, where he delivered an address which was highly appreciated by the large crowd who had the opportunity to hear him.
Mr. Marshall took a deep interest in the Government's possessions at Hot Springs, visiting this office, the bathhouses, and the Army and Navy General Hospital.
These visits from Government officials are beneficial in many respects and bring about a better understanding as to physical conditions as they actually exist.
It is expected that Hon. Stephen T. Mather, assistant to the Secretary of the Interior, and in charge of national park affairs, will visit Hot Springs and the reservation during the fall of the present year, which will be of immense value to both the department and the reservation.
It is also earnestly hoped that Hon. Franklin K. Lane, Secretary of the Interior, will find it convenient to visit this place in the very near future, as I feel that this is the most valuable reservation owned by the Government because of the fact that it affords an opportunity for restoration of health of hundreds of thousands of its citizens who are afflicted with ailments in which these life-giving waters are indicated.
In all, it is estimated that approximately 115,000 persons visited Hot Springs during the past year.
The nefarious practice of drumming patients to doctors was started in Hot Springs some 40 years ago when visitors were forced to reach there by means of the old-fashioned wild western stage coach. The drummers in those days would ride out 10 miles or more on horseback and meet the stages coming in and solicit the passengers to the different hotels, and later to some doctor, who would split his fee with the drummer.
During the past 10 years the department has promulgated rules and regulations setting forth conditions under which registered physicians may prescribe the baths, which, if followed to the letter, would eliminate the practice of drumming; but this office has experienced much difficulty in getting evidence sufficiently strong in character, as viewed by the department, to justify the removal of any of the doctor's names from the registered list for some time past.
When evidence of drumming is taken by the superintendent against any doctor the same is submitted to the Federal registration board, which in turn reviews it and transmits it to the department, together with such recommendation as in their judgment the case may warrant. The Federal registration board is composed of three members appointed by the Secretary of the Interior.
Even though the desired results have not been attained with regard to drumming, the constant investigations being made by this office has deterred this practice to a great extent, and it is safe to say that conditions have been much improved during the past two years. Drumming as it now exists is usually consummated through a "confidence game"; that is to say, the visitor will be approached by some person shortly after his arrival at the boarding house, who secures the confidence of the visitor, perhaps by telling him that he had the same trouble himself when he came here. The strange visitor will almost invariably ask who his doctor is, and usually employs him, thereby drumming himself. The proprietor of the boarding house is the person who receives the split from the doctor. However, vigilance by this office has reduced drumming to such an extent that it is now confined to a very few doctors.
THE OERTEL SYSTEM OF MOUNTAIN CLIMBING.
On the roads on North Mountain and Hot Springs Mountain courses have been laid out for a scientific system of mountain climbing known as the Oertel system of graduated exercise, the same that is used at Bad Nauheim, Germany. The courses are indicated by stone monuments, finished with apex tops and painted, 300 feet apart. These monuments have the number cut on the face of each stone on two sides and are set so the patient can easily see the number or distance he has walked either coming or going. There are four courses on roads marked in this way and the number on each monument is painted in the color used for the course on the map.
A map 8 by 10-1/2 inches has been prepared and may be procured by physicians at a nominal cost. Each course is represented in colors, yellow being used for a course comparatively level; green, for a course slightly inclined; blue, for a course moderately steep; and red for a course very steep. This map has a space on the back for the physician's directions and signature, so that the physician can prescribe in an accurate manner the distance and course required, according to the condition of the patient.
Course No. 1, slightly inclined and shown in yellow on the map, starts at the corner of Fountain Street and Central Avenue and extends up Happy Hollow (Fountain Street) to monument 18 intersecting course No. 3, at North and Hot Springs Mountain divide.
Course No. 2, shown in green on the map, starts at monument 5 and Government monument No. 36 on south line of Fountain Street at entrance to Hot Springs Mountain road and extends to monument No. 30, terminating at the drinking pavilion and tower at the top of the mountain where it joins course No. 3.
Course No. 3, shown in blue on the map, begins at junction of Canon Street and Central Avenue and extends to monument No. 33 at the pavilion and tower at the end of course No. 2. It traverses parts of North and Hot Springs Mountain roads.
Course No. 4, shown in red on the map, begins at the main entrance between Maurice and Fordyce bathhouses and extends up mountain walks to monument No. 8 on Hot Springs Mountain road, intersecting course No. 2. This is the steepest course.
This system of exercise is applicable to patients whose heart action is impeded by deposits of fat and is effective in preventing fatty infiltration from becoming localized in the heart. It is, first of all, a preventive measure and can be employed with advantage to improve the general nutrition of the heart. Even in cases where fatty deposits have occurred it is of great value, as it also is where the compensation has been already established by milder means.
In short, it may be said this system is beneficial to all incipient heart troubles, especially those of a myocardial nature.
Some of the other physiological phenomena noticed are the following: Acceleration of the heart rate; acceleration of breathing; elimination of an additional amount of carbon dioxide and increase of intake of oxygen; increase of power of healthy heart muscle and muscles of respiration; increase of capillary circulation; increase of normal blood pressure in proportion to amount and degree of exercise.
So far known this is the only system of this kind in the United States. In connection with the baths it should be a great boon to patients suffering from such ailments as will be benefited by this method of treatment.
In making the survey and map for this system of exercise all of the roads and walks on Hot Springs, North and West Mountains, have been surveyed, measured, and accurately located on the map, which is of material benefit to all persons requiring reliable information as to distances, locations, etc.
Among the more important improvements on the reservation during the past fiscal year are the following:
Completion of a reenforced concrete reservoir under the Fordyce Bathhouse, having a capacity of approximately 70,000 gallons, which is connected up with the main impounding reservoirs for the storage of the hot water on the reservation.
Completion of the installation of water service on top of Hot Springs Mountain, near the Hot Springs Mountain Observatory at a cost of approximately $1,040. This system consists of a pressed brick pump house, near the cooling tanks of the Army and Navy General Hospital, equipped with electric motor and pump, a line of 2-inch galvanized pipe, a 500-gallon cypress tank, and a drinking fountain and other connections in the drinking pavilion on top of Hot Springs Mountain.
Minor repairs at the Government free bathhouse, including a coat of pitch to the roof and repairs to the plastered walls in the building.
Removal of old iron light poles from the reservation front to points on Reserve Avenue between the Army and Navy Hospital and the superintendent's official residence, these poles having been supplanted by an up-to-date "white-way" lighting system on the reservation front.
The equipment of the tennis court at Whittington Lake Park and the fence were renewed and repaired.
Extensive and needed repairs to concrete walk on Bathhouse Row.
Burning of all underbrush and thorough cleaning of west slope of Hot Springs Mountain during the early spring.
Repainting and repairing floors and other portions of the interior of the superintendent's office.
Laying of approximately 200 linear feet of 18-inch drain tiling at Whittington Lake Park to better provide for surface drainage on that portion of the reservation.
Construction of 290 linear feet of rubble stone retaining wall, topped with Alabama limestone coping, on Reserve Avenue from Army and Navy Hospital grounds to grounds occupied by superintendent's official residence, this wall being 18 inches in thickness and averaging 3 feet in height.
Portion of work on new road, recently authorized by the department, leading from road on top of North Mountain to junction of Crag and Ramble Streets. This road affords an outlet from the system of mountain roads on Hot Springs and North Mountains to the northern portion of the city of Hot Springs, by way of Ramble, Ravine, and Dell Streets; approximately 600 feet of this road were completed in June, 1915.
Construction of 6,645 cubic feet of retaining walls and 3,638 square feet of gutters along roads and in ravines on Hot Springs and West Mountains.
Distribution of 453 yards of gravel and 22 yards of soil on the mountain roads.
In addition to the above improvements completed, the department has recently authorized the paving with cement of the main entrance to the reservation leading off Central Avenue between the Fordyce and Maurice bathhouses, including sidewalks and gutters on both sides, the construction of two concrete foot bridges, walling up of ravines with rubble stone and cement, construction of retaining walls and concrete gutters and the installation of drain tiling on West Mountain, and the construction of approximately 6,000 feet of retaining wall and concrete gutters along the reservation side of the road leading through Happy Hollow, Fountain Street, to a point to be determined on Hot Springs Mountain, all of which work I expect to have completed early this fall.
There are at present 30 regular employees engaged in the administration, maintenance, protection, and care of the interests of the reservation. All of these employees were appointed from Arkansas under civil-service rules. A complete table showing the name, designation, and compensation of each employee follows:
Employees of the Hot Springs Reservation.
During the past fiscal year there have been but two changes in the personnel of the reservation employees, the present superintendent having succeeded Capt. Charles R. Trowbridge on August 4, 1914, and David W. Poda, laborer, having been appointed April 21, and entered upon duty April 27, 1915, to the vacancy caused by the death of Thomas Goins April 13, 1915. Also, on July 1, 1914, the salary of the clerk-stenographer in this office was increased from $1,000 to $1,200 per annum, and the salary of the supervisor was increased from $1,200 to $1,320 per annum.
RECEIPTS AND DISBURSEMENTS.
The receipts and disbursements on account of the Hot Springs Reservation during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915, were as follows:
GOVERNMENT FREE BATHHOUSE.
The Government free bathhouse has been operated during the past year, in accordance with the acts of Congress of December 16, 1878, and March 2, 1911, for the use of the indigent, with the results shown in the following table:
Baths given at the Government free bathhouse during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915.
LEO N. LEVI MEMORIAL HOSPITAL AND BATHHOUSE.
This building was completed and opened to the public November 1, 1914, on which date the hot water was turned on for the use of the bathhouse. This is a modern hospital structure and has been erected at a cost of more than $100,000.
The bathhouse is modern in every detail and is operated exclusively as a charitable institution, as the rules of the association prohibit the taking of any person who has means. It is nonsectarian and any worthy person can be admitted, provided he complies with prescribed requirements. A staff of able physicians give their services free of charge for the benefit of the institution.
The annual report from the Levi memorial bathhouse shows that from November 1, 1914, to June 30, 1915, there were given 1,670 baths at a total cost to the association of $1,153.90, although I believe from a perusal of the report that some of this expense is chargeable to the hospital rather than to the bathhouse. It is an extremely hard matter to arrive at the exact expenses for the reason that the two departments are operated as a whole.
During my incumbency I have endeavored to carry out the rules and regulations prescribed for the different bathhouses, and I may add that almost without exception I have had the hearty cooperation of the managers in so doing.
I feel safe in saying, without fear of contradiction, that Hot Springs has the finest bathing facilities to be found anywhere in the world. There has been expended within the past four years approximately three-fourths of a million dollars in bathhouses and equipment, which includes the installation of the most scientific and improved methods as well as complete and sanitary equipment for bathing.
The total receipts of the bathhouses for the fiscal year have been $200,629.21, which is approximately a decrease of 15 per cent as compared with the receipts of the previous year, but this is not attributed to a decrease in the popularity of this resort but rather to the depressed condition which is existing throughout the country on account of the European War. The total expenditures of the bathhouses have been $144,878.20, and the net profits are given at $57,936.49. There were given 480,227 paid baths, 1,812 complimentary baths, 125,988 free baths at the Government free bathhouse, and 1,670 free baths at the Levi memorial bathhouse, making a total of 609,697 baths given in Hot Springs bathhouses during the past fiscal year.
On March 1, 1915, the new Fordyce bathhouse was opened to the public, after having been built and equipped at a cost exceeding $200,000.
The Hale bathhouse was completely remodeled and opened to the public January 1, 1915. To reconstruct this house cost more than $50,000, and it has been opened to cater to persons desiring baths at a moderate cost. It has all the facilities necessary for sanitation and is equipped with all the essentials for giving the baths. However, it lacks many of the accessories which are enjoyed in the higher-priced houses.
The Arlington and Eastman bathhouses, which were reconstructed last year, have been kept up to the standard and run in keeping with the hotels with which they are connected.
The Imperial and Buckstaff bathhouses, which have been in operation for more than three years, have also been kept up to the standard and operated in such a manner as to give the public the best of services.
The Maurice bathhouse, which was opened in the same year as the two above mentioned, has submitted plans and specifications for extensive improvements, which, when completed, will cost approximately $15,000. These plans have been approved by the department and work has been commenced. This is a first class bathhouse, operated along the same lines as all the other bathhouses charging the same rate.
The Majestic and Moody bathhouses, the former having been rebuilt three years ago and the latter over a year age, are both first class bathhouses, in good condition, well kept, and operated, in connection with their respective hotels, in a manner to give entire satisfaction to the public.
The Great Northern bathhouse was closed to the public May 15, 1915, this being the date on which the lease expired.
The Hot Springs bathhouse was closed to the public September 30, 1914, the lease having expired more than a year prior to that date. The property was later sold by the owners to the Arlington Hotel Co., and the expired lease has therefore not been renewed.
The Rector bathhouse was closed to the public June 30, 1915, plans having been submitted to and approved by the department last November for the remodeling of this bathhouse, but this being so near the beginning of the season the lessee was given verbal permission to continue though the season, which was done and the bathhouse closed on the above date in order that the same might be remodeled in accordance with the approved plans.
The St. Joseph's Infirmary bathhouse is comparatively speaking a new bathhouse, having been overhauled about a year ago, and is thoroughly equipped to cater to the first-class patronage which the infirmary enjoys.
The Rockafellow bathhouse, which is operated in connection with the Rockafellow Hotel, also enjoys a considerable patronage from adjacent hotels and boarding houses, and has been kept in good condition, having been repainted and renovated throughout just prior to January 1, 1915.
The Alhambra bathhouse, the lease of which expires February 29, 1916, is operated at a moderate price in order to cater to persons not desiring to pay more for baths. This bathhouse is a substantial brick structure, but it will probably be necessary at the expiration of the lease to make extensive repairs.
The Pythian sanitarium and bathhouse (colored) was completed and opened to the public December 27, 1914, although it was expected to open December 16, 1915. Water rent has been paid from that date, which was also the date of the lease. This is a good house. Considering the price charged, the administration of baths there will compare favorably with baths given in other low-priced houses.
The Ozark sanatorium bathhouse, while a small one, is entirely sanitary and operated in a manner satisfactory to its patrons. The lessee had intended to erect a sanatorium in connection with the bathhouse, as was the case before the fire, but as yet has not fully completed his arrangements.
Three of the four remaining frame bathhouses on the reservation, the Ozark, Horseshoe, and Magnesia, the leases on which have long since expired, have been given until September 30, 1915, to prepare and submit plans for the construction of new and modern bathhouses on these sites. The fourth, the Lamar bathhouse, is the best of the frame houses and has until December 31, 1916, to continue on its present lease.
I am pleased to report that in the matter of the rebuilding of the Superior bathhouse, plans therefor are practically matured and a company is being formed for the purpose of building on the Superior bathhouse site a sanitary bathhouse, to cost not less than $50,000, to operate with a moderate rate for baths to cater to persons desiring baths at popular prices. It seems at this time that rebuilding of this bathhouse is practically assured, as the plans have been approved except as to some minor details.
The Park bathhouse, which was destroyed by the fire of September 5, 1913, has not yet been rebuilt and the water rent thereon has been remitted until December 31, 1915.
Close supervision has been maintained over the bathhouses and attendants during the past year and frequent inspections have been the means of improving the service. The bathhouse managers are unaware of the times when these inspections are to be made, and in that manner can be seen just what service the bathhouses are giving from time to time and the degree of cleanliness maintained at all times. Advertising matter of all kinds whatsoever has been eliminated, and altogether it is believed an entirely satisfactory condition exists. All reports made by the bathhouses are full and complete and the records in this office are valuable, not only to the office but to persons desiring to locate friends whose address otherwise they are unable to obtain.
The following tables, showing the details and results of the operation of the bathouses, have been compiled from the reports and other data on file in this office.
There are at present 18 bathhouses in operation in Hot Springs, with the following rates, approved by the Secretary of the Interior, in effect therein:
Rates at bathhouses.
Half tickets for 10 baths are sold in all the bathhouses, and quarter tickets for 5 baths are sold in many of the bathhouses, at one-half and one-fourth, respectively, of the rates shown above. Also, in addition to the rates shown, there is a uniform attendants' fee, approved by the Secretary of the Interior, of 15 cents for a single bath, $3 per course of 21 baths, which fee is collected by the bathhouse manager and by him accounted for to the attendant.
There are at the present time 26 leases of hot-water and ground privileges, and two have been discontinued, as shown in the following table:
Hot-water and ground leases.
Business of bathhouses for fiscal year ended June 30, 1915.
Total receipts, less redemptions, of bathhouses, by months, for fiscal year ended June 30, 1915.
Fees received by bath attendants in the bathhouses during the fiscal year ended June 30, 1915.
RADIOACTIVITY OF THE WATERS.
In 1904 the Secretary of the Interior authorized Dr. Bertram B. Boltwood, of Yale University, to report on the radioactivity of the waters. The following résumé of Dr. Boltwood's conclusions appeared in the Annual Report of the Secretary of the Interior for 1904:
* * * The results of the electroscopic tests of the gases obtained by boiling the waters were very satisfactory, as they showed that the waters at Hot Springs are radioactive to a marked degree; and from other tests, taken to determine the properties of the emanation from the waters, it was found that the properties of these radioactive gases were identical with those of the radium emanation.
On the other hand, when water from which the gas had once been taken was boiled a second time, after being allowed to stand, no radioactivity was detected in the gas obtained from the second boiling, and it was therefore concluded that little or no radium salts existed in the waters. This conclusion was strengthened by the fact that a test of the residue of the waters which had been left by evaporation also failed to disclose any sign of radioactivity of this solid substance. A sample from the tufa deposit, formed by some of the springs on issuing from the ground, was also tested, and it was found that the amount of radium contained in 100 grams of tufa was less than one one-millionth of the quantity of radium, associated with an equal weight of uranium in pitchblende. Samples of the gas which arose from the springs were also tested, and its radioactivity was found to be less than of an equal volume of gas obtained by boiling the waters from the springs. The following conclusions are reached by Dr. Boltwood as to the result of his investigations:
1. The waters of the springs on the Hot Springs Reservation are all radioactive to a marked degree.
2. The radioactivity of the waters is due to dissolved radium emanation (a gas), and not to the presence of salts of radium or other radioactive solids.
PHYSIOLOGICAL TESTS OF THE WATER.
The pronounced benefits, in certain conditions, derived from the proper use of the Hot Springs water have been fully recognized both by the medical men and the laity. The therapeutic value of these waters in certain diseases appears to be well established by the concensus of opinion of the many bathers who have been benefited and by physicians who have had an opportunity to observe the effects of the use of these waters.
The department has during the past caused to be made an analysis of the chemical contents of these waters, but the physiological action has never been scientifically determined with reference to the effects of the baths on either the normal or diseased subject. The baths have been given emperically for such ailments as they seem to benefit, based on the clinical experience of physicians who have prescribed the waters and observed in this way the results. No physician who is thorough and looks for the best results from the medicines he gives would think of prescribing a drug whose physiological effects and therapeutic value had not been scientifically proven and described. So a large number of physicians throughout the country hesitate to send their patients to this resort, believing, without an authentic physiological report, these waters to be of no more value than ordinary hot water.
Suitable investigation by the department, reported by the department as authentic, would change this attitude. I believe that an exhaustive experimentation should be made along the following lines:
1. To test elimination, it should be made before the subject takes the baths, using perfectly healthly subjects to get the true physiological effect, the total solids eliminated by the kidneys within twenty-four hours, this to be done on several subjects and successive days. Then these subjects should be given the baths and the total urinary solids determined each day; also an estimate by weighing the subject before and after the sweat, of the solids eliminated through the skin (the specific gravity of the sweat to be used in making this test), and added to the total urinary solids eliminated. This has not been done and can not be done without great trouble and expense, as healthy subjects would have to be employed.
2. To test the constructive effect of the increased cell activity of the blood-making system anemic subjects should be selected and a hæemoglobin percentage and a white and red cell count made before beginning the baths and again after every few baths, say, every third, fifth, or seventh day. In the meantime a regular diet should be observed and no medicines be given which would affect the hæmoglobin or the blood-cell count.
This briefly outlines the first steps that would be taken in case a physiological test should be made, and it is estimated that approximately two years would be required to complete the work.
In view of the many thousands of people who visit Hot Springs annually for the benefit of the baths, and for the information it would give the physician who could prescribe more rationally and not empirically, I am decidedly of the opinion that an investigation should be undertaken and conducted completely with the object of ascertaining what definite and demonstrable physiological effects the water is capable of producing.
As the result of my observations and information gathered during my administration of the affairs of the Hot Springs Reservation for nearly a year past, I am firmly convinced that this is the most valuable holding in the possession of the General Government on account of its life-giving and healing thermal springs and that in the near future Congress should provide liberally for the extensive improvement and beautification on an elaborate scale of the Hot Springs Mountain. In order that this matter may be laid before Congress intelligently I recommend that the general superintendent and landscape engineer of National parks, Mr. Mark Daniels, be authorized to cause to be prepared a complete and comprehensive plan and estimate of cost for the permanent improvement of the Hot Springs Mountain on a scale that would, when completed, surpass any of the European resorts. The work necessary to carry out a plan of this magnitude would of necessity extend over a period of several years and Congress could each year make an appropriation sufficient to complete that portion of the plan which might be deemed most advisable. Experience has demonstrated that work done systematically is much more satisfactory than if done haphazard. I have in mind several prospective improvements which I would be glad to discuss with the general superintendent, looking to their incorporation if feasible in a general plan as outlined above.
I have been surprised to find from personal conversation with visitors from all sections of the United States what a small proportion of the inhabitants as a whole have any knowledge of the Hot Springs Reservation, Ark., or the properties of its waters. To remedy this condition and give to the vast number of persons throughout the country who are afflicted with diseases in which these waters are indicated and the efficacy of which is demonstrated by the Government at the Army and Navy Hospital here each year, I would suggest that some more effective method of publicity be adopted by which such persons could be reached with true information relative to the merits of Hot Springs as a health resort. Every effort should be made to convey to suffering humanity reliable information as to just what health features this Government has to offer for their benefit and relief.
As the department is so thoroughly familiar with the urgent necessity for the rebuilding or reconstruction of the present free bathhouse, I respectfully recommend that steps be taken at the earliest possible date looking to the rebuilding or reconstruction of this house along modern and sanitary lines in order that suitable baths may be provided for persons who come to Hot Springs and are unable to obtain means with which to pay for baths. It is believed that the new bathhouse should be constructed on the present site and it is possible that the present foundation and walls might be used in its reconstruction. However, this is a matter to be determined later. I have recommended that the amount of $75,000 be appropriated for this purpose, this estimate being based upon the cost of a houses which have been constructed on the reservation during the past four or five years.
I wish to renew the recommendation heretofore made for an appropriation of $237,840, which has been based on a scientific estimate, by the Government for the construction of a storm sewer and surface drainage system in the city of Hot Springs to care for the drainage from the reservation.
I also wish to renew the recommendation of an appropriation of $96,595, also based upon a scientific estimate, for the construction of a sewer system in Hot Springs to provide for the sewerage from the reservation.
A modern comfort station should be erected convenient to Bathhouse Row, preferably near the free bathhouse also, as in that way the necessary janitor work could be performed by the employees of the bathhouse.
It is recommended that Fountain Street, bounding the Hot Springs Mountain Reservation on the north, be paved with some suitable material from Central Avenue to a point even with Government Monument No. 36, at which point Fountain Street connects with the system of roads on Hot Springs Mountain; also Reserve Avenue, bounding the reservation on the south, should be similarly paved from Central Avenue to point even with monument No. 26, which would carry the pavement just beyond the grounds occupied by the superintendent's official residence. It is believed that the property owners on the opposite side of these streets from the reservation would be willing to pay their proportionate share for such a valuable and needed improvement.
It is recommended that Congress cede Whittington Lake Park to the city of Hot Springs for use as a municipal park, and in the event the city declines to accept the trust the Secretary of the Interior should be authorized to divide the park into lots and blocks in his discretion and offer the same for sale at public auction. This park is far removed from the reservation proper, and while it would be a valuable adjunct to the city it is believed that its retention by the Government is impracticable, as expenditures by the Government for improvements in the future should be confined to the Hot Springs Mountain Reservation and its immediate vicinity.
I also recommend the completion of the system of rubblestone retaining walls and gutters on North and West Mountain Roads, and also that these roads be graveled in many places, which is now necessary on account of the heavy rains having disturbed the surfaces.
The terms of a recent act of Congress make it necessary to obtain specific appropriations for the maintenance of passenger-carrying vehicles in the Government service, and I have therefore to recommend an appropriation of $500 from the revenues of the reservation for the care and maintenance of passenger-carrying vehicles on the Hot Springs Reservation for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1917. This estimate contemplates the feeding, shoeing, and other care of the one horse, and the repair and maintenance of the two passenger-carrying vehicles now in use on the reservation and also the purchase of one new four-passenger vehicle which will be required before the expiration of the fiscal year 1917.
CITY OF HOT SPRINGS.
The city of Hot Springs is a municipality governed under State and municipal laws. The Department of the Interior exercises no control or supervision over any matters connected with the city.
It is situated in the midst of beautiful surroundings and enjoys all the modern facilities of cities ten times its size, although its resident population is only 16,000. Its new public utility service is unsurpassed and managed in a most satisfactory manner. It has splendid churches of every denomination, and the new Methodist, recently constructed at a cost approximating $100,000, is probably unsurpassed for its size throughout the South. The hotels are modern in every respect and the boarding houses are cozy and inviting and the prices are moderate. Furnished apartments and cottages can be obtained at a moderate cost. The climate is good the year round, and the elevation of the city proper is 600 feet above sea level and the surrounding mountains 500 to 600 feet higher than the city.
The large area burned on September 5, 1913, has been nearly all rebuilt, mostly with modern and ornamental brick structures, which tends to show a prosperous and healthy condition.
In conclusion, I wish to state that from thex standpoint of a disinterested physician I have the utmost confidence in the hot waters as a curative agency, and I predict for Hot Springs a most brilliant future as a health-pleasure resort and that each succeeding year will bring a greater number of visitors. The municipality of Hot Springs as well as its citizens should at all times work hand in hand with the General Government, and by this means of concerted action its world-wide reputation will be assured. Many disagreeable features have been eliminated by the city during the past few years and conditions generally improved.
Closing this, my first annual report, I have the honor to be,
WILLIAM P. PARKS,
The SECRETARY OF THE INTERIOR.
RULES AND REGULATIONS, WITH ALL AMENDMENTS THERETO, UP TO AND INCLUDING JUNE 30, 1915, FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF ALL BATHHOUSES RECEIVING HOT WATER FROM THE UNITED STATES RESERVATION AT HOT SPRINGS, ARK.
RULE 1. Bathhouses or hotels will be allowed such number of tubs as the Secretary of the Interior may, in his discretion, deem proper and necessary for the public service and the amount of hot water will justify.
RULE 2. The constant flow of hot water for vapor or other baths, even during business hours, or the unnecessary waste of water in any manner, is strictly prohibited, and will, if continued after written notice from the superintendent to stop such waste of water, be considered by the department sufficient grounds for the cancellation of the lease of such offending lessee.
RULE 3. Rentals must be paid quarterly, in advance, at the office of the superintendent, and if not paid within five days from the beginning of each quarter the supply of water may be cut off.
RULE 4. The charge for baths at the different bathhouses shall be at the rates fixed by the Secretary of the Interior, and no bath tickets shall be sold for more than said rate, and then only to such persons as intend to actually use them for bathing. The rate or rates so fixed for baths shall include, without extra charge, the supplying of each bather with one clean sterilized sheet to envelop the body of the bather while in the bath hall and cooling room. In event of charges in a less amount being exacted for baths, such new rate shall at once be reported to the superintendent, and when approved by the department shall thereafter become the maximum rate. No bath ticket shall be sold except at the office of the bathhouse where the bath is to be given, and tickets must show the date when issued, the serial number, the number of baths for which issued, the full name of the purchaser, and the amount paid therefor. Bath tickets shall be redeemable for the same proportionate price for which they were sold, when presented by the original purchaser: Provided, That when less than seven baths have been taken on any ticket presented for redemption the bathhouse may charge the rate for single baths for the number of baths taken on said ticket. No bath ticket or part of a ticket shall be reissued after having been redeemed. No bathhouse receiving water from the Hot Springs Reservation will be permitted to issue complimentary bath tickets, except that bathhouse lessees may, on written permission of the superintendent, issue complimentary bath tickets in such cases as in his judgment justify such action. The renting and selling of bath robes, towels, soap, toilet articles, or articles of merchandise in bathhouses is prohibited.
RULE 5. The owners or managers of bathhouses receiving waters from the Hot Springs Reservation are prohibited from bathing in said bathhouses persons stopping at any hotel, boarding house, or rooming house which has a drummer or solicitor on trains or the owner of which drums or solicits on trains, or drums or solicits business for doctors, or who has employed in or about such house any inside man or person engaged in drumming or soliciting business for doctors or bathhouses; also the owners or managers and the employees of such bathhouses are absolutely prohibited from either directly or indirectly drumming for doctors or reflecting on or questioning the integrity of the hot-water supply of any other bathhouse, or of claiming superiority of its own supply of hot water over that furnished from the springs on the reservation to other bathhouses. Upon evidence of violation of this rule, the superintendent shall report the facts, with his recommendation, to the Secretary of the Interior, looking to the shutting off of the water from any bathhouse or canceling the lease, as the department may determine.
RULE 6. Owners and managers of bathhouses receiving waters from the Hot Springs Reservation will provide in their respective bathhouses the requisite number of head bath attendants, who, under the supervision and direction of the superintendent of the Hot Springs Reservation, shall supervise the administration of baths, the treatment of patients, matters of hygiene and sanitation in the bathhouses, and the work of bath attendants generally. Bathhouse attendants shall be allowed to charge for their services not exceeding 15 cents for a single bath, $1 per week, or $3 per course of 21 baths, to be collected for the attendant by the bathhouse manager and properly accounted for by him to the attendant. The duties of the attendant shall consist in the administration of the baths in strict accordance with the bathing directions of registered physicians and in lieu of these as ordered by the superintendent. They shall be required to clean and care for such parts of the bathhouse as may be assigned them by the manager, subject to the approval of the superintendent, to keep themselves in a neat and cleanly condition both in person and in dress, and to make good any damages accruing from breakage or neglect of duty. They shall not be required to handle helpless individuals, rub mercury, furnish mops, brooms, or cleaning materials, furnish or launder towels, mitts, sheets, or robes; pay for the services of the porter or perform work which properly belongs to him, or incur any expense whatsoever incident to the operation of the house not specifically authorized. It shall be optional with the bather whether employ an attendant or not. No person shall be employed or permitted to serve or occupy space in any bathhouse as a mercury rubber or as a masseur without the approval of the superintendent first had and obtained; and every person so employed or serving shall be subject and amenable to the rules and regulations the same as attendants and other bathhouse employees.
RULE 7. The payment of any sum of money or anything of value, either directly or indirectly, by any bathhouse owner, manager, clerk, or attendant as compensation for drumming customers to any bathhouse, or allowing public drummers, drumming doctors, hotel or boarding-house proprietors who are drummers, or persons who work with them as inside men, to bring persons or show them through, or to loiter in or about any bathhouse is positively forbidden. Upon evidence of violation of this rule, the superintendent shall report the facts, with his recommendation, to the Secretary of the Interior, looking to the shutting off of the water from any bathhouse or canceling the lease, as the department may determine.
RULE 8. The lessee of each bathhouse shall cause to be kept a full and correct daily register of each bath given, the number and kind of bath tickets sold, and the number of complimentary tickets, if any, issued each day, etc., such form of register to be approved by the superintendent and a copy therefrom of each day's business to be forwarded to the superintendent daily. No person shall be allowed to bathe without a numbered ticket being issued and a record of the same being kept, and report thereof, duly certified by the manager, filed with the superintendent on the first day of each month as paid, complimentary, or free baths, together with any information he may have showing a violation of the bathhouse rules and regulations which may be susceptible of proof.
RULE 9. All bathhouses receiving deposits of jewelry, money, or other valuables from bathers must provide means satisfactory to the superintendent of the reservation for the safe-keeping thereof. It is to be understood, however, that the Government assumes no responsibility in the premises. All losses must be promptly reported to the superintendent by the bathhouse manager.
RULE 10. An applicant for baths who is under medical treatment shall not be permitted to bathe in any bathhouse supplied with hot water from the Hot Springs Reservation unless said applicant presents satisfactory evidence that he or she is the patient of a physician who is duly registered at the office of the superintendent as qualified to prescribe the waters of the hot springs, and who is known not to engage in drumming for custom: Provided, That every applicant for baths, not under the care of a registered physician, shall be required to make a certificate to be filed with the bathhouse manager that he or she is not under the care of any physician, and should such applicant subsequently employ, consult, or take treatment from any physical while taking baths, then in such case he or she will immediately notify the bathhouse manager of such fact. The violation of this rule by the owner, manager, or any employee of a bathhouse receiving hot water from the reservation will result in the cutting off of the water from the bathhouse or the canceling of the lease, as the department may determine.
RULE 11. Physicians desiring to prescribe the waters of the hot springs, either internally or through the medium of baths, must first be registered at the office of the superintendent of the reservation, and shall use only such uniform form of bathing directions as meets with the approval of the superintendent. Registration will be accorded only to such physicians as are found by a board designated by the Secretary of the Interior to have proper professional qualifications and character and who do not engage in drumming for custom. No physician who shall engage in the solicitation of patronage through the medium of drummers or otherwise, or who shall engage in unprofessional, disreputable, or dishonest conduct, or is addicted to the drug or other habit which disqualifies him for the performance of his professional duties, shall be or remain registered. In case any person who, in violation of these regulations, bathes or attempts to bathe, or enters or attempts to enter upon the Hot Springs Reservation to bathe, shall have the permit of a physician therefor, such physician shall be liable to the penalties provided in the act of April 20, 1904, unless he is regularly registered, but the bather or person attempting to bathe shall not be liable to the penalties of said act unless it shall be made to appear that he knew or had reason to believe that the physician giving him the permit to bathe was not regularly registered.
RULE 12. If a charge is made to the superintendent in writing, under oath. supported by the affidavits of two or more witnesses, that a registered physician has violated any of the laws or regulations pertaining to the government of the bathhouses receiving hot water from said reservation, the registered physician against whom the charge is made shall be immediately notified by the superintendent of the fact that affidavits have been made and be accorded an opportunity to cross-examine the witnesses on the subject thereof, the presence of the superintendent, and the affidavits so filed, with the answers to such interrogatories as may be propounded by the physician, when completed, shall be duly certified by the superintendent and turned over to the Federal registration board, and thereafter, if in the judgment of the board the facts warrant such action, they will immediately cite the physician to appear before such board on a day to be named, within not exceeding 10 days from date of notice, to show cause why his name should not be stricken from the register of physicians authorized to prescribe the hot waters of said springs, and pending the investigation and final action upon such charges the right of such physician to prescribe the hot waters may be suspended by the Federal registration board. The physician against whom such complaint is made shall have the right to file further written interrogatories pertinent to the issue to such complaints or witnesses, to be answered by them under oath, and may submit within 20 days thereafter counter affidavits in answer to the charges made in the affidavits of said witnesses.
The complainant witnesses may file rebuttal affidavits within 10 days after the service upon them of said counter affidavits, and the hearing of said charges shall be had on the record aforesaid. An appeal from the decision of said board and upon said record may be taken within seven days from such decision to the Secretary of the Interior.
If upon consideration of the complaint the charge is not sustained, the suspension will be immediately removed. If, however, such charge is sustained, or if default be made, the name of the physician shall be stricken from the registered list.
RULE 13. Persons violating any of the foregoing regulations within the purview of the act of April 20, 1904, entitled "An act conferring jurisdiction upon United States commissioners over offenses committed in a portion of the permanent Hot Springs Mountain Reservation, Ark." and the act of March 2, 1907, amendatory thereof will be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor and be subjected on conviction to the payment of a fine, as provided in said act of April 20, 1904, of not exceeding $100, and be adjudged to pay all costs of the proceeding.
RULE 14. All bathhouses shall be kept in a neat, clean, and sanitary condition and all sewage and waste water properly conducted away, and all underdrainage kept in perfect order. The water-closets shall have sufficient and free connection with the public sewers and be kept in the best order and with the best plumbing furnishings and appliances. Lessees of bathhouses on the permanent reservation shall, under the direction of the superintendent, cultivate and maintain the parts of the bathhouse park in front of their respective bathhouses, the space for each to cultivate to be allotted by the superintendent.
RULE 15. Each bathhouse manager, clerk, and attendant shall be required to have a full and complete understanding of the bathhouse rules and regulations before entering upon his duties.
The superintendent is authorized to require the discharge of any bathhouse manager, clerk, attendant, mercury rubber, or masseur for bathhouse or doctor drumming, or refusing or neglecting to carry out the bathhouse rules and regulations according to the true intent and meaning thereof.
Any person discharged for cause from a bathhouse or removed at the request of the superintendent shall not be again employed by the same or any other bathhouse or permitted to render service in any bathhouse without the written consent of the superintendent. Managers must promptly report in writing to the superintendent the name of any person so removed.
RULE 16. Automobiles will not be permitted on the roads in the Hot Springs Reservation without the consent of the Secretary of the Interior first had and obtained.
A neatly framed copy of the rules and regulations now in force, together with the prices of baths and attendant's fees, both separately and combined, printed in large black type on white cardboard, shall be conspicuously posted in the office of each bathhouse.
PHYSICIAN'S APPLICATION FOR REGISTRATION.
To the board of physicians appointed by the Secretary of the Interior to pass upon the qualifications and character of physicians to prescribe the waters from the Hot Springs Reservation:
REGULATIONS OF JULY 7, 1900, FOR THE GOVERNMENT OF THE FREE BATHHOUSE.
These baths are provided and maintained by the United States pursuant to the requirements of the act of Congress approved December 16, 1878 (20 Stat., 258), for the use of the indigent only; neither the manager nor attendants are authorized to supply them to others.
The manager of the free bathhouse is required to enforce a strict observance of the following rules and regulations:
RULE 1. No baths will be supplied except on written application made on blanks furnished at the office of the bathhouse, making full answers to the questions therein propounded; then if the applicant is found to be indigent (in accordance with the common acceptance of the word), the manager will issue a ticket good for 21 baths, which may be reissued on the same application if necessary.
RULE 2. Persons using the free baths are required to maintain and orderly deportment while in or about the bathhouse, to abstain from the use of tobacco, either by chewing or smoking, while in the pool rooms, dressing rooms, or office, not to scatter rags or paper on the floor, or to loiter in or about the building after bathing.
RULE 3. The wanton exposure of person or entering any of the front rooms in a nude state, the use of loud, vulgar, or profane language, and the use of rags, paper, soap, or any foreign substance in the pool rooms are positively prohibited.
RULE 4. Persons using these baths are not allowed to stand or sit on or in any way interfere with the water pipes or valves or to stand on the chairs or benches. All persons entering the house are required to clean their feet at the door and avoid as much as possible bringing dirt or mud on the floors. Boys over 5 years of age will not be allowed in the female department during bathing hours.
RULE 5. Any willful or repeated violation of these rules, or any disorderly or contemptuous conduct, will subject the persons so offending to suspension or expulsion, at the discretion of the superintendent of the reservation.
RULE 6. Neither the manager nor the Government attendants shall be allowed to receive or become responsible for any valuables or to charge any fee for any service rendered to bathers which comes within the direct line of their duty.
RULE 7. The manager is required to enforce all the foregoing rules and to maintain good order in and about the bathhouse, to see that all indigent persons applying are supplied with baths, and to make a written report to the superintendent each month on blank forms supplied for that purpose. He may reject any application for free baths if he has reason to believe the applicant has made false answers in his written application, and the aggrieved may appeal to the superintendent of the reservation.
APPLICATION FOR BATHS AT THE GOVERNMENT FREE BATH HOUSE AT HOT SPRINGS, ARK.
DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR.
HOT SPRINGS RESERVATION.
The acts of Congress approved December 16, 1878 (20 Stat., 258), and March 2, 1911, restrict the use of free baths to the indigent; in other words, to persons who are poor, needy, in want, or without means of comfortable subsistence.
Act of March 2, 1911:
"Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of America in Congress assembled, That only persons who are without and unable to obtain the means to pay for baths and are suffering from ailments for which bathing in the water of the Hot Springs Reservation will afford relief or effect a cure shall be permitted to bathe at the free bathhouse on the public reservation at Hot Springs, Arkansas, and before any person shall be permitted to bathe at the free bathhouse on the reservation he shall be required to make oath, before such officer duly authorized to administer oaths for general purposes as the Superintendent of the Hot Springs Reservation shall designate, that he is without and unable to obtain the means to pay for baths, and any person desiring to bathe at the free bathhouse on the Hot Springs reservation making a false oath as to his financial condition shall be deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and upon conviction thereof shall be subject to a fine of not to exceed $25, or thirty days' imprisonment, or both."
Persons desiring to use the free baths are required to answer the following questions, in writing, and sign and swear to the same, giving full name and home address:
STATEMENT OF APPROPRIATIONS FOR HOT SPRINGS RESERVATION FROM MARCH 8, 1877, TO JUNE 30, 1915.
TITLE: PROTECTION AND IMPROVEMENT HOT SPRINGS RESERVATION.1
Revenue fund, derived from water and ground rents and sales of lots and improvements, as provided by act of March 3, 1877, treated by Treasury Department; for bookkeeping purposes, as Indefinite appropriation:
SPECIFIC APPROPRIATIONS BY CONGRESS FROM REVENUE FUND.
TITLE: IMPROVEMENT HOT SPRINGS RESERVATION.1
SPECIFIC APPROPRIATIONS BY CONGRESS FROM REVENUE FUND.
TITLE: SALARIES AND EXPENSES HOT SPRINGS COMMISSION.1
TITLE: PROTECTION AND IMPROVEMENT HOT SPRINGS RESERVATION.1
SPECIFIC APPROPRIATIONS BY CONGRESS FROM MONEYS IN TREASURY NOT OTHERWISE APPROPRIATED.
TITLE: HOT SPRINGS RESERVATION.1
SPECIFIC APPROPRIATIONS BY CONGRESS FROM MONEYS IN TREASURY NOT OTHERWISE APPROPRIATED.
TITLE: CLAIMS FOR CONDEMNATION OF BUILDINGS, HOT SPRINGS RESERVATION.1
SPECIFIC APPROPRIATIONS (INDEFINITE) FROM MONEYS IN TREASURY NOT OTHERWISE APPROPRIATED (SUNDRY CIVIL ACT OF MAR. 3, 1902).
Up to June 30, 1915, in addition to the above appropriations, there has been expended the sum of $464,811.39, under the direction of the War Department, upon the Army and Navy Hospital, located on Hot Springs Reservation.