The Library of Congress >> To Preserve and Protect

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NOTES

1. Stewardship: The Janus Factor
Nancy M. Cline

1. Miles Harvey, The Island of Lost Maps: A True Story of Cartographic Crime (New York: Random House, 2000), 23.

2. Ibid., 83.

3. Ibid., 113.

4. Abby Smith, The Future of the Past: Preservation in American Research Libraries (Washington: Council on Library and Information Resources, 1999), 15.

5. "The Cultural Value of Books: United States of America v. Daniel Spiegelman, Defendant," Gazette of the Grolier Club, n.s. 50, 1999, 9-25.

6. Susan Allen, "Preventing Theft in Academic Libraries and Special Collections," Library and Archival Security 14 (1997): 40.


2. Learning to Blush: Librarians and the Embarrassment of Experience
Werner Gundersheimer

Karen Gundersheimer, Richard Kuhta, and A. E. B. Coldiron made many helpful suggestions in the preparation of this chapter.

1. Nicholson Baker, "Deadline: The Author's Desperate Bid to Save America's Past," The New Yorker, July 14, 2000, 42-61.

2. For a convenient selection of Tanselle's writings on this topic, see his Literature and Artifacts (Charlottesville: The Bibliographical Society of the University of Virginia, 1998), especially section 2, which includes three articles: "Reproductions and Scholarship" (1989); "The Latest Forms of Book-Burning" (1993); and "The Future of Primary Records" (1996).

3. Edward Tenner, When Things Bite Back: Technology and the Revenge of Unintended Consequences (New York: Knopf, 1996).

4. Jutta Reed-Scott, Preserving Research Collections: A Collaboration between Librarians and Scholars (Association of Research Libraries, Modern Language Association, and American Historical Association, on behalf of the Task Force on the Preservation of the Artifact, 1999). On the increasing importance of special collections in the research library environment, see also Werner Gundersheimer, "Against the Grain," RBM: A Journal of Rare Books, Manuscripts, and Cultural Heritage 1, no. 1 (2000): 14-26


3. As Strong as Its Weakest Link: The Human Element
Laurie Sowd

This chapter incorporates information developed by Wilbur Faulk, senior project manager for the Getty Conservation Institute. Many of his ideas for training security officers appear throughout this chapter and were developed for a session the Huntington presented at an American Association of Museums annual conference entitled "If You Don't Feed the Staff, They'll Eat the Visitor."


4. Developing a Plan for Collections Security: The Library of Congress Experience
Steven J. Herman

1. The grids are presented on the Library of Congress Web site. They show a protection prioritization matrix of physical security controls for the five tiers of risk and the five life cycles that collection items go through at the Library Definitions for the physical security controls are included, but dots within the matrix are omitted. See <lcweb.loc.gov/bicentennial/symposia_preserve>


5. Creating a Culture of Security in the University of Maryland Libraries
Charles B. Lowry

Lori A. Goetsch, director of public services at the University of Maryland libraries, made a significant contribution to the preparation of this chapter


6. Building a National Preservation Program: National Endowment for the Humanities Support for Preservation
Jeffrey M. Field

1. Margaret Child, "Programs, Priorities, and Funding," in Preservation Issues and Planning, ed. Paul N. Banks and Roberta Pilette (Chicago and London: American Library Association, 2000), 63-81.

2. Gordon Williams, The Preservation of Deteriorating Books: An Examination of the Problem with Recommendations for a Solution, report of the ARL Committee on the Preservation of Research Library Materials: September 1964 (Washington: Association of Research Libraries, 1964).

3. Nancy Gwinn, "CLR and Preservation," College & Research Libraries, March 1981, 104-26.

4. Warren J. Haas, Preparation of Detailed Specifications for a National System for the Preservation of Library Materials: Final Report (Washington: Association of Research Libraries, 1972).

5. National Endowment for the Humanities, Office of Preservation, Preservation Programs Guidelines and Application Instructions (Washington, 1986).

6. George F. Farr, Jr., "NEH's Program for the Preservation of Brittle Books," in Advances in Preservation and Access (Westport, Conn.: Meckler: 1992).

7. National Endowment for the Humanities, Chairman Lynne V. Cheney to the Honorable Sidney R. Yates, April 19, 1988.

8. Sophia K. Jordan, "A Review of the Preservation Literature, 1993-1998: The Coming of Age," Library Resources & Technical Services, January 2000, 4-22.

9. Janet Gertz, "Selection for Preservation in the Digital Age: An Overview," Library Resources & Technical Services, April 2000, 97-104.

10. Abby Smith, The Future of the Past: Preservation in American Research Libraries (Washington: Council on Library and Information Resources, 1999). Accessed September 27, 2000, at <www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub82/pub82text.html>


7. Safeguarding Heritage Assets: The Library of Congress Planning Framework for Preservation
Doris A. Hamburg

1. The Preservation Heritage Assets Working Group (PHAWG) developed the framework from December 1998 to July 1999. PHAWG members consisted of Doris A. Hamburg, head, Preventive Conservation, Preservation Directorate (PHAWG chair); Steven J. Herman, chief, Collections Management Division, Library Services; Debra McKern, chief, Binding and Collections Care Division, Preservation Directorate; James Schenkel, protective services officer, Office of Security; and Irene Schubert, chief, Preservation Reformatting Division, Preservation Directorate.

2. The grids can be found on the Library of Congress Web site at <lcweb.loc.gov/bicentennial/symposia_preserve>. They show a protection prioritization matrix of preservation controls for the five tiers of risk and the five life cycles that collection items go through at the Library Definitions for the preservation controls are included.


9. Picking Up the Pieces: The Lengthy Saga of a Library Theft
Jean W. Ashton

1. As this chapter explains, determining exactly how much time the thief has spent or will spend in jail is complicated. Our understanding was that Daniel Spiegelman was to be released in April 2001, nearly six years after the initial arrest.

2. United States of America v. Daniel Spiegelman, Defendant. 97 Crim.309 (LAK), United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, April 24, 1998.

3. Stephen Blumberg, convicted in 1990 of interstate transportation and possession of nineteen tons of rare books and manuscripts valued at $20 million, was sentenced to seventy-one months' imprisonment and thirty-six months' parole.

4. Diane Johnson, Le Mariage (New York: Dutton, 2000).

5. Miles Harvey's book is The Island of Lost Maps: A True Story of Cartographic Crime (New York: Random House, 2000).

6. A condensed version of Judge Kaplan's opinion was published as "The Cultural Value of Books: United States of America v. Daniel Spiegelman, Defendant," Gazette of the Crolier Club, n.s. 50 (1999): 9-25. See also Jean Ashton, "What Is History Worth?" Biblio, 3:10 (1998): 26-29, and regular press coverage in the New York Times, 1994-99. Judge Preska's resentencing occurred on May 24, 2000, in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York


11. The Silver Lining: Recovering from the Shambles of a Disaster
Camila A. Alire

1. Haley Enssle and Cathy Tweedie, "Why Can't Facilities Fix This?" in Library Disaster Planning and Recovery Handbook, ed. Camila A. Alire (New York: Neal-Schuman, 2000), 92.

2. Jim Wexler, "Using Broadcast Television to Control a Crisis," Communication World 10 (November 1993), 30.

3. David Zerman, "Crisis Communication: Managing the Mass Media," Information Management 3 (1995): 25-28.

4. Julie Wessling, e-mail to author, September 6, 2000.

5. Patricia Smith, e-mail to author, September 6, 2000.

6. Wessling, op. cit.

7. Smith, op. cit.

8. Nora Copeland, e-mail to author, September 7, 2000.


12. Funding for Preservation: The Strengths of Our Past
Nancy E. Gwinn

1. Elizabeth McCracken, The Giant's House: A Romance (New York: Avon, 1996), 45.

2. Charles Coleman Sellers, Mt Peale's Museum: Charles Willson Peale and the First Popular Museum of Natural Science and Art (New York: W.W. Norton, 1980), 291.


13. Securing Preservation Funds: National and Institutional Requirements
Deanna B. Marcum

1. Jutta Reed-Scott, Preserving Research Collections: A Collaboration between Librarians and Scholars (Association of Research Libraries, Modern Language Association, and American Historical Association, on behalf of the Task Force on the Preservation of the Artifact, 1999), 13. Data from Julia Blixrud, "Preservation Expenditures Level: Microfilming, Staffing Decline," ARL: A Bimonthly Newsletter of Research Library Issues and Actions, no. 201 (December 1998): 14.

2. Martha Kyrillidou, Michael O'Connor, and Julia C. Blixrud, ARL Preservation Statistics 1996-97 (Washington: Association of Research Libraries, 1998), 6.

3. Ibid., 6.

4. Data provided by the National Endowment for the Humanities to the Council on Library and Information Resources, September 29, 2000.

5. Martha Kyrillidou, Trends in ARL Statistics, 1998-99 (Washington: Association of Research Libraries, April 10, 2000). Available through <www.arl.org>.

6. Margaret Hedstrom and Sheon Montgomery Digital Preservation Needs and Requirements in RLG Member Institutions (Research Libraries Group, December 1998). Available only electronically at <www.rlg.org> (revised url: <www.oclc.org/us/en/default.htm>).

7. Jan Merrill-Oldham, Carolyn Clark Morrow, and Mark Roosa, Preservation Program Models: A Study Project and Report (Washington: Association of Research Libraries, 1991)


14. Strategies for Funding Preservation and Security
James G. Neal

1. Judith Panitch, "Special Collections in ARL Libraries," report for American Research Libraries, Research Collections Committee (Washington: Association of Research Libraries, 2001).


16. Measuring Environmental Quality in Preservation
James M. Reilly

1. The author suggests, for further reading, the following publications: J. M. Reilly, D. W. Nishimura, and E. Zinn, New Tools for Preservation: Assessing Long-Term Environmental Effects on Library and Archives Collections (Washington: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1995), and Donald K. Sebera, Isoperms: An Environmental Management Tool (Washington: Commission on Preservation and Access, 1994).


17. Preservation, Security, and Digital Content
Carl Fleischhauer

1. American Memory is a set of online collections that reproduce historical materials from the collections of the Library of Congress and other participating institutions. The URL is <memory.loc.gov>

2. The Octavo's Web site describes the company's service and lists its CD-ROM publications; <www.octavo.com>.

3. Fred B. Schneider, ed., National Research Council, Committee on Information Systems Trustworthiness, Trust in Cyberspace (Washington: National Academy Press, 1999).

4. Abby Smith, ed., Authenticity in a Digital Environment (Washington: Council on Library and Information Resources, 2000).

5. Clifford Lynch, "Authenticity and Integrity in the Digital Environment: An Exploratory Analysis of the Central Role of Trust," in Abby Smith, ed., Authenticity in a Digital Environment (Washington: Council on Library and Information Resources, 2000).

6. Peter B. Hirtle, "Digital Paleography" (editorial), D-Lib Magazine 6:4, April 2000 at <www.dlib.org/dlib/april00/04editorial.html>.


18. The Coming Crisis in Preserving Our Digital Cultural Heritage
Clifford A. Lynch

Amy Friedlander made many helpful suggestions in the preparation of this chapter.


19. Electronic Information and Digitization: Preservation and Security Challenges
Maxwell L. Anderson

1. Task Force on the Archiviiag of Digital Information, Commission on Preservation and Access and Research Libraries Group, 1996.

2. Jeff Rothenberg, Avoiding Technological Quicksand: Finding a Viable Technical Foundation for Digital Preservation (Washington: Council on Library and Information Resources, 1999).


21. What Can We Afford to Lose?
Abby Smith

1. Laura Price and Abby Smith, Managing Cultural Assets from a Business Perspective (Washington: Council on Library and Information Resources, March 2000), available at <www.clir.org/pubs/reports/pub90/contents.html>


22. National Research Libraries and Protection of Cultural Resources
James F. Williams II

1. American Library Association, Library Administration and Management Association, Buildings and Equipment Section, Safety and Security Committee, Library Security Guidelines (1999) available at <www.ala.org/lama/committees/bes/sslbguidelines/> (revised url: <http://www.ala.org/ala/mgrps/divs/llama/lamapublications/librarysecurity.cfm>>).

2. Anne Mathews, "The Campus Crime Wave," New York Times Magazine, March 7, 1993, 38.

3. "Social Science and the Citizen," Society 31 (March-April 1994), 2.

4. P. Bean, "An Overview of Crime in Libraries and Information Services," in M. Chany and A. F. MacDougall, ed., Security and Crime Prevention in Libraries (Aldershot, United Kingdom: Ashgate, 1992), 13-31.

5. Council on Library Resources, Brittle Books: Reports of the Committee on Preservation and Access (Washington, 1986), 8.

6. Mark Y. Herring, "Archival Treasures: Blessing—or Burden in Disguise?" American Libraries, August 2000, 41-43.

7. Association of Research Libraries, ARL Preservation Statistics, 1998-99 (Washington, 2000), 15.

8. Clifford A. Lynch, "The Role of Digitization in Building Electronic Collections: Economic and Programmatic Choices," in Selecting Library and Archives Collections for Digital Reformatting, Proceedings from an RLG symposium held November 5-6, 1995, Washington, D.C. (Mountain View, Calif.: Research Libraries Group, 1996), 7.

9. American Library Association, Library Administration and Management Association, Library Security Guidelines.

10. Ibid.

11. One of the most highly recommended guides in the field has been recently published by the Research Libraries Group, the Digital Library Federation, and the Council on Library and Information Resources. Entitled Guides to Quality in Visual Resource Imaging, it is "designed to serve the growing community of museums, archives, and research libraries turning to imaging as a way to provide greater access to their visual resources while simultaneously preserving the original materials." The contents include: (1) Planning an Imaging Project, (2) Selecting a Scanner, (3) Imaging Systems: The Range of Factors Affecting Image Quality (4) Measuring Quality of Masters, and (5) File Formats for Digital Masters. Guides to Quality is available at <www.rlg.org/visguides> (revised url: <www.diglib.org/pubs/dlf091/>).



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