Cultures at a Crossroads: An Administrative History
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(1) Water discharging from Big Spring (27.77 gallons per minute) and the Historic Spring (5.67 gallons per minute) totals 33.44 gallons per minute. This is the total amount flowing into the Interlocked Pools. The 7.70 gallons per minute from Upper Meadow Pool goes to Cattlemen. Total 41.14 gallons per minute, is present water yield at Monument.

(2) Any material increase in available water at the Monument hinges upon cleaning Tunnel Spring entrance and constructing a flume. The greatest possible increase: 41.14 gallons per minute might be increased to 44.56 gallons per minute, less than 10 percent increase over the present available water.

(3) No further extension of the Tunnel into the hill should be permitted under any circumstances. Tunnel Spring emerges 22 feet lower than Big Spring and directional trend of fracture and joint system strongly indicates connection between the two springs.

(4) This water difficulty is not between merely the Heatons of Moccasin, and the Indian Service. The Cattlemen's Association is made up of 13 signatures with Heaton Brothers as only one of them. Heaton cattle rarely make up more than one-fourth all of the cattle that figure in this water problem.

(5) The Indian Service bases their claim to the waters and are contesting legal rights of Cattlemen solely on the wording of the Presidential Proclamation, which wording was in all probability inserted by that Service when the Proclamation was being prepared. They seem to interpret "use waters" to mean ALL water, and the Indian Service seems to pass up the statement " . . . subject to all prior valid claims . . "

(6) The National Park Service, it seems, is not aware that its future needs will require a large portion of all available water on the Monument after Cattlemen are recognized. Our Service should, it seems, remember that the Heads of the Mormon Church — not merely Heatons — are interested in the complete historical restoration of Winnsor Castle and its setting of trees, orchards, meadows, and gardens. Mr. Mather's dream was to carry out this beautiful restoration. It seems to fall short of this future program would mean breaking the faith of the whole Mormon Church in the National Park Service and Mr. Mather. We must realize the magnitude of this intense interest in Pipe Sprig. It is the whole Mormon Church and its leaders. Let's not make the grave mistake of underestimating this interest in Pipe Spring National Monument.

(7) Under Arizona Water Law, and according to the Proclamation, the National Park Service accepted Pipe Spring Monument lands "SUBJECT TO PRIOR VALID CLAIMS" and there seems little reason to presume that the Indian Service OWNS the waters there now. The amount they receive, it seems, would be contingent upon whatever SURPLUS is left after Park Service rights (acquired through transfer from private ownership) are preserved. These Park Service needs are, and will be, more than mere "culinary water, and possibly enough for a cow and chickens, and the small meadow."

(8) The Cattlemen appear to have had legal rights to water under Arizona Water Law prior to the establishing the Monument. This would appear to be one of the "prior valid claims" which we, as owners of the land, should recognize in accordance with the Proclamation.

(9) During the Summer of 1933, the Indian Service has been getting three-fourths of the 33.44 gallons going into the Interlocked Pools, except for small tourists' needs and water used by the Laborer's household.

(10) The Park Service Meadow has been getting one-fourth of the same water after the small amounts taken are deducted.

(11) It seems definitely established that the Indians are irrigating less than one-third the land their three-fourths of the water would irrigate if the Indians made the best use of available waters.

(12) At Two-Mile Wash, if developed, the Indians could be cultivating 8 times the crops now being cultivated. Less than 3 acres are now cultivated, where possibly 25 acres could be irrigated if pipe were installed and farming were efficient.

(13) THE INDIANS CERTAINLY ARE NOT IN DIRE NEED OF A FEW MORE GALLONS PER MINUTE AT PIPE SPRINGS. If efficiently used, their present waters would irrigate from 3 to 8 tImes the amount of land they now have under cultivation.

(14) Re-allocation of the Laborer's times to Civil Service Custodial grade and appropriation for residence and maintenance of the Momment would, in two weeks after operation, remove all trace of the pioneering appearance from the Monument.

(15) Landscape architects should cooperate with us at once in working out definitely the future needs in trees, meadows, orchards, and gardens for an historical restoration of the Monument. The Engineers should then promptly have some one familiar with Irrigation Engineering submit figures on water the National Park Service needs for this restoration, and for residential and tourists' needs. We will then know just how much water we can turn over as surplus above our needs to the Indians.

Finally, solving the administrative problem at the Monument is only a matter of increased appropriations for (1) re-allocation of the Laborer position to Custodian or Park Ranger; (2) residence for the Custodian; (3) maintenance of the Monument premises; and (4) restoration of the Monument Setting as it was in past days. Such bringing of the property up to Park Service standards and maintaining those standards is contingent upon retention of rights we now have to Pipe Spring waters. The entire Mormon Church has a live interest in this most important historic landmark to their early pioneers. The Mormon Church fully expects us to bring the property up to Park standards by a full and complete restoration of Winsor Castle and its setting. To accomplish this end, most, if not all, of the water to which we now have legal right will be needed. Whatever is then surplus can be utilized by the Indians.

Respectfully submitted,          

Robert H. Rose,     
Assistant Superintendent.


     Frank Pinkley,

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Last Updated: 28-Aug-2006