Cultures at a Crossroads: An Administrative History
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When the Pipe Spring National Monument administrative history project began in 1995, two Park Service historians were assigned to research and co-author the monument's history, Regional Historian Mary S. Culpin and myself. Culpin was by far the more senior historian and is acknowledged Service-wide as an authority on the history of water rights in national parks. Her expertise was important as the monument sought to document and gain perspective on resource issues at Pipe Spring. Culpin was instrumental in defining the scope of the project, successfully lobbied for initial funding, and actively participated in gathering primary research materials during 1995 and 1996. Her pending resignation from the Park Service, however, forced her to withdraw from active participation in the project in 1997. She continued to serve in an advisory capacity through the preparation of the history's first draft in late 1998 and provided much constructive comment.

During the research phase of the project, staff at all the archives and libraries visited were very helpful. In particular, I want to thank the following people: Vicki Black Webster, Southeast Utah Group, who assisted Culpin's and my work with the monument's archival collection even as she was busily reorganizing it; Pierre M. Cantou, Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) in Phoenix, who graciously allowed access to BIA records in the midst of an office move; and Rosemary Sucec, for locating and copying Pipe Spring documentation in BIA offices in St. George and Ft. Duschene, Utah. The following people also offered assistance with archival collections: Karen Underhill at Northern Arizona University's Cline Library; Pat Etter at Arizona State University's Hayden Library; Tony Marinella at the Museum of Northern Arizona; Pat Fesler and Steve Floray at Zion National Park; and Don Snoddy at the Union Pacific Museum.

Other Park Service staff who reviewed and commented on the draft manuscript were Chief Chuck Pettee, Water Rights Branch, Water Resources Division, and Bureau Historian Barry Mackintosh, National Center for the Cultural Resource Stewardship Partnership Programs. Aside from the author, only one other person was required to read and reread multiple copies of the draft, and that was the monument's Chief of Interpretation and Resource Management Andrea Bornemeier. In addition to providing constructive comments and corrections, she tirelessly searched out answers to questions that lingered after I had exhausted all other sources. In many of these efforts she had the support of other monument staff and I wish to express my appreciation to them as well.

In addition to internal review, a manuscript draft was submitted to two other historians: Dr. Reba Wells Grandrud, Acting Director of the Arizona Historical Society, Central Arizona Division, and Utah historian Charles S. Peterson. Both provided very helpful comments to the author and in a number of instances raised provocative questions worthy of future research. I also thank Tribal Administrator Angelita Bulletts, Civilian xi.Conservation Corps veteran Jack Harden, and former Park Historian Jim McKown for reviewing portions of the manuscript. I am particularly indebted to Martie Sucec for her careful editing as well as to Lori Kinser for expertly formatting the manuscript and preparing it for publication.

A number of former employees and people living in communities near Pipe Spring National Monument contributed to this report through their willingness to be interviewed. For their interviews, I am grateful to the following people: former Zion National Park Superintendents Warren F. Hamilton and Robert C. Heyder, former Pipe Spring National Monument Superintendents Bernard G. Tracy and William M. Herr, former monument employees Melvin Heaton, Nora Heaton, Adeline Johnson, Leonard P. Heaton, Grant Heaton, Jack L. Harden, Park Guide Debra Judd, and two now-retired Park Service officials, Architect A. Norman Harp and Civil Engineer William E. Fields. For taking the lead in joint interviews with members of the Kaibab Paiute Tribe I want to thank Dr. David E. Ruppert, Park Service ethnographer. I am also thankful to the following members of the Kaibab Paiute Tribe for sharing their stories: Gloria Bulletts-Benson, Carlos Bulletts, Fred Drye, Vivienne Jake, Warren Mayo, Dolores and Gevene Savala, Lita Segmiller, Ila Bulletts, Angelita Bulletts, and Amelia Segundo.

During the course of time it took to complete research and write the administrative history, I worked under the supervision of three men: former Team Coordinator Robert L. Moon, former Acting Program Manager Richard J. Cronenberger, and current Program Manager William P. O'Brien. Without Moon's initial sanction and support in 1996 to work at home part-time on the project, followed by Cronenberger and O'Brien's subsequent support for the arrangement, it would not have been possible for me to devote the kind of concentrated attention the project required. For their support and for my co-workers' genial acceptance of the arrangement, I am very appreciative.

Finally, I am indebted to Superintendent John W. Hiscock for doing whatever was needed to ensure the success and completion of this study. In addition to making sure all the necessary funds were available to see the project through to completion, he fostered an environment at the monument that made working with him and his staff a continual pleasure. His meticulous review of the draft manuscript and searching questions reveal his training in law and history, at times spurring me to dig yet another layer deeper into the complexities of Pipe Spring's history. Of paramount importance to him was that the history be balanced and objective in its consideration and interpretation of historic events. To the extent to which I have achieved such a perspective, I owe much to those people cited above; to the extent that any lapse may have occurred, I take full responsibility.

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Last Updated: 28-Aug-2006