A History of Pipestone National Monument Minnesota
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The Indian occupancy of the area and earliest use of catlinite from the quarries has long been discussed, but archeological studies over the past 30 years have greatly improved knowledge in this field.

interpretive program in quarry

The proto-Mandan people who once frequented the area are not believed to have used catlinite. The first quarrying here was probably done by people associated with the Oneota Aspect, about 1600 to 1650 A.D. In earliest historic times these tribes were known as the Iowa and the Oto.

Quite early in historic times the Sioux (or Dakota) moved to the west and southwest. They were better armed than the Iowa and Oto through their trade contacts, but restrained on the north by the Cree and pressed from the northeast by the Chippewa. By about 1700 A.D. the Sioux were in control of the Coteau and remained so until the end of tribal days about a century and a half later. Catlinite received its most widespread use during Sioux times.


A History of Pipestone National Monument Minnesota
©1965, Pipestone Indian Shrine Association
pipestone/sec2.htm — 04-Feb-2005

Copyright © 1965 by the Pipestone Indian Shrine Association and may not be reproduced in any manner without the written consent of the Pipestone Indian Shrine Association.