From Folsom to Fogelson:
The Cultural Resources Inventory Survey of Pecos National Historical Park
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Table E.1. List of tree-ring symbols and abbreviations.

Sample type:
1/4, 1/2, 5/8, 7/8, 1-inchcore sample diameters.
cccharcoal (specimen is carbonized)
fragfragment (broken or rotted piece)
V-cutsample taken as a V-cut in side of element
wedgesample is a wedge-shaped cutting.
xscross cut sample, often resulting in a complete cross section of element. Provides analyst with the best sample possible.

Appended to xs samples: type of beam end (BE) present, if original.
BTBeaver tail end. Most common type of stone and steel ax cut end.
IRREGspecimen is irregularly stone ax cut.
NF or Flatspecimen is nicked flat removing evidence of stone ax cuts.
RNDspecimen rounded from ax cutting.
SAStone-ax cut; specific type of cutting is unknown or does not fit other categories.

DFDouglas fir
PPponderosa pine
SFspruce or true fir

Ring condition:
Complacent Little patterning is evident in the sample so that dating is difficult if not impossible. Common among trees with a plentiful precipitation supply (e.g., cottonwood and high-altitude conifers).
Compressed Outer rings are so narrow that distinguishing patterning or the absence of rings is not possible. In dated samples, a "+ +" symbol would be used.
Erratic Ring growth is erratic and difficult to match patterning for dating purposes. Common for juniper growth and may include partial, double, or missing rings.
Missing rings Two or more growth rings are absent, which can be attributed to erratic growth and/or to drought conditions.
Short The number of rings is too few to adequately date and cross reference. Usually less than 30-50 rings.

Terminal Ring:
I Incomplete outer ring (tree died during growing season). Growing season varies by species and area.
C Complete outer ring (tree died during dormant season). Dormant season varies by species and area.

Date symbols for the inside date: Field observation by author noted in a subscript.
ppith present
npnear actual pith (old usage).
fpfar from actual pith (old usage).
±ppith ring is present but because of the difficult nature of the specimen, an exact date cannot be assigned to it (common among juniper specimens).
±the innermost ring is not the pith ring and an absolute date cannot be assigned to it. A ring count is involved.

Date symbols for the outside date: Field observation by author noted in a subscript.
+Cannot be dated with certainty because one to five rings may be missing.
+ +The outermost rings of a sample cannot be dated. Typically, the rings are uniformly small, making it impossible to recognize patterning in ring widths or to identify missing rings. This pattern reflects very slow growth and is the mark of a dying tree. Dates with this symbol are considered derived from deadwood.
vvDefinite evidence for a cutting/death date is absent and it is unknown how many outer rings have been lost.
vA subjective judgment that the outer ring is at or is within 1-5 years of the actual tree death date. Typically considered a death or near death date, but weakest in confidence.
rLess than a full section is present but the outermost ring is continuous around the available circumference. Considered a death date, but more confident than above.
cThe outermost ring is continuous around the entire circumference. Considered a death date but more confident than above.
LA characteristic surface patination and smoothness, which develops just under the bark, is present. Considered a confident death date.
GBeetle galleries are present on the surface of the specimen. Considered a death date of greater confidence than above.
BBark is present. Considered the strongest affirmation of the actual death date, unless a "+" or "+ +" is also present (for this or those above).
TENTTentative date. Ring series too short to cross verify.

Sources: Symbols after Ahlstrom (1985) and Windes and McKenna (2001).

Table E.2. Tree-ring samples from the park pithouses, Arrohead Pueblo, Forked Lightning Pueblo, and Rowe Pueblo.

     Table E.2. (PDF Format)

Table E.3. Wood elements sampled from Pecos Pueblo.

     Table E.3. (PDF Format)

Table E.4. Wood specimens inventoried at Pecos Pueblo 1998.

     Table E.4. (PDF Format)

Table E.5. Wood elements sampled from the Pecos Churches and Convento.

     Table E.5. (PDF Format)

Table E.6. Wood structural elements sampled from San Miguel del Vado.

     Table E.6. (PDF Format)

Table E.7. Wood elements sampled from Hispanic homesteads.

     Table E.7. (PDF Format)

Table E.8. Wood structural elements sampled from the Village of Pecos, Las Colonias, and Terrero.

     Table E.8. (PDF Format)

Table E.9. Wood specimens collected from Kozlowski's Stagecoach Stop and Trading Post.

     Table E.9. (PDF Format)

Table E. 10. Use of tree species through time in the Upper Pecos River Valley.

     Table E.10. (PDF Format)

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Last Updated: 13-Feb-2006