From Folsom to Fogelson:
The Cultural Resources Inventory Survey of Pecos National Historical Park
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Pecos Archeological Survey 1997 Lithic Manual/Coding Guide and Form


PECO# (3 num): The PECO number as assigned by your crew chief

Component # (1 num): Use component number as assigned on the main site form.

Recorder (3 char): Enter initials of person doing the analysis

Date (7 - date): Recording date by day, first 3 letters of month, last two digits of year (10JUN93).

Time (2 fields 2 num ea): Total time it took for lithic analysis, enter hours:minutes (2:30). This is analysis only. NOTE: During the initial stages of the survey, we will want to know how much time we take to set up and collect the grids and/or samples - write this time down in parentheses next to total time (only one analyst needs to do this).

Feature sampled (5 char): The type and number of the refuse scatter that was sampled (as assigned on the main site form, i.e., Mixed ceramic and lithic scatter 1-80-01).

Sample# (2 num): The number of the sample area. Sample areas will be numbered sequentially per refuse scatter (i.e., 80-01 might have two samples: 01 and 02; and 83-01 might have one sample: 01). Use 00 for "Items of Interest" outside sample areas

Sample type (1 num):
1 Lithic and ceramic
2 Lithic
7 Other (explain)
NA For "Items of Interest" outside sample areas
NOTE: Items of interest (i.e., projectile points) and all groundstone not associated with any sample collection area but that are worthy of analysis should be analyzed and recorded on a separate Lithic Inventory Form. In filling out this form (for these general site/nonsample artifacts), the Sample # should be entered as "00", Type will be "n/a", and Dimensions will be entered the same as the refuse scatter dimensions minus the other sample areas.

Dimensions (2 num fields - 4 digits w/1 decimal ea. - 000.0 x 000.0): dimensions of the sampled area, length x width to the nearest tenth of a meter. If sample consists of multiple grid units show number of units in parenthesis followed by the dimensions of the individual units; e.g., (5) 2 x 2m.

Pickup (3 num): Total number of artifacts picked up in the sample collection.

Analyzed (3 num): Total number of artifacts analyzed from sample (aim for 30). This number should not include any artifacts that were analyzed from outside sample area (i.e., groundstone, diagnostics, etc).

Sample NFL/Nonflaked lithic (2 num): Total number of nonflaked lithic (NFL) analyzed from within the sample area

Other FL/Flaked lithic (2 num): Number of flaked items from the sample pickup that were not selected as part of the random sample analysis but were analyzed because they were unusual or of interest. These flaked items should be recorded after the sample artifacts - skip a few spaces and clearly mark as "not in random sample" (can add a separate page if appropriate). Artifact numbers for these in-pickup-but-not-in-random-sample artifacts items do not need to be contiguous with the sample artifact numbers.

*Assemblage Summary (200 char): Summarize lithic assemblage - briefly discuss material and functional types, reduction stages, diagnostics, spatial distribution, general observations. Since we only need one assemblage summary per scatter, for scatters with multiple samples, provide the assemblage summary on the first lithic form only and leave blank on subsequent forms.


Artifact # (2 num):

This provides an item number for each artifact analyzed within the sample. Comments concerning any of the artifacts should be cross-referenced using this number. As mentioned above, flaked artifacts of interest that were in the sample pickup but not chosen in the random sample should be listed after the sample artifacts and clearly separated and labelled as "not from the random sample".

Material type (3 num):

100 Igneous, undifferentiated
110 Granite
120 Diorite
130 Basalt
131 Vesicular Basalt
140 Andesite
141 Rhyolite
150 Obsidian, undifferentiated
151 Obsidian, Polvadera
152 Obsidian, Jemez
153 Obsidian, Jemez opaque
200 Metamorphic, undifferentiated
210 Quartzite
220 Gneiss
230 Schist
240 Diabase
250 Fibrolite
300 Sedimentary, undifferentiated
310 Siltstone, undifferentiated
311 Siltstone - Stone Type 1: dark reddish gray micaceous siltstone.
320 Sandstone, undifferentiated
321 Silicified sandstone/Orthoquartzite
322 Sandstone - Stone Type 2: pink arkosic sandstone, coarse with large soft sandstone pebble and light gray feldspar pebble inclusions.
323 Sandstone - Stone Type 3: coarse reddish brown micaceous sandstone.
324 Sandstone - Stone Type 4: pink micaceous sandstone, medium to very coarse.
325 Sandstone - Stone Type 5: medium grained, red or white, nonmicaceous
330 Limestone
331 Dolomite
350 Shale
360 Chalcedony - use for translucent cherts
370 Chert, undifferentiated
371 Pedernal chert - white/gray with red, black, yellow dendritic inclusions
372 Alibates Flint
373 Petrified wood
374 Chert, nonlocal
380 Conglomerates
400 Other (specify)
410 Quartz
420 Hematite
430 Turquoise
999 Indeterminate

Color (2 num): Give the color of the raw material. This is especially important for cherts.
01 Black11 Pink
02 Brown12 Purple
03 Buff/Beige13 Red
04 Clear14 Red w/white
05 Gold15 Red w/grey
06 Green16 White
07 Grey17 White w/grey
08 Grey w/white18 White w/pink
09 Dark Grey19 Orange/rust
10 Light Grey20 Other (describe in comments)

Cortex % (3 char): The percentage of total artifact surface that is cortex (i.e., if all of dorsal face of flake is cortex, percent would be 50%).
0 0 (None)2 25-50%4 90 - 100% (All)
1 1-25%3 50-90%

Platform type (3 char): can list two, i.e., 2/3 (see attached figure)
0 Not applicable/absent
1 Single faceted/flat
2 Multifaceted
3 Abraded
4 Cortical
5 Retouched
6 Crushed
7 Collapsed
8 Lipped
9 Unknown

Condition (1 num)
For tools, indicate if the artifact is intact or how much is missing:
1 Less than 50% there3 Broken but all there (pieces fit together)
2 More than 50% there4 Complete

For debitage, indicate the debitage category (use hierarchy shown below [Sullivan & Rozen 1985]):
5 Complete Flake7 Flake Fragment
6 Broken Flake8 Debris
Artifact TypeDebitage
Single Interior FaceDiscernible Not Discernible
Point of Applied ForcePresent Absent
MarginsIntact Not Intact
Debitage Category Complete Flake (5) Broken Flake (6) Flake Fragment (7) Debris (8)
HT/Heat Alteration(7char): some of definitions based on Museum of NM 1990
1 Crazing - minute surface cracks, often crosshatched, caused by rapid heating/cooling or by processing specimen that doesn't heat or cool evenly (too thick). Care should be taken in using this code since some stream rolled cherts can develop microcracks under the cortex that are difficult to distinguish from crazing.
2 Potlidding - concave flake scars caused by the removal of piano-convex flakes; resulting from rapid heating causing moisture within the material to vaporize and explode outward
3 Luster - change in luster resulting from thermal alteration; difficult to detect due to natural luster variability and should be used conservatively and only when luster differences between facets are visible.
4 Discoloration - Color change resulting from heathing; use conservatively since natural coloration can be varied.

Use-wear (3 char): Record the dominant uses visible. Use hand lens if necessary. The category can accept up to 3 characters for two types of use, separated by a slash (see Glossary for definitions)
1 Microflaking
2 Edge Rounding
3 Ridge/edge frosting
4 Polish
5 Striations - perpendicular to edge
6 Striations - parallel to edge
7 Striations - oblique to edge
8 Battering
9 Other
Technological type (2 char): see Glossary for definitions
01 Angular debris/shatter

10 Core, undifferentiated
11 Core, unidirectional
12 Core, bidirectional
13 Core, multidirectional

20 Flake
21 Flake, biface thinning

31 Unidirectional edge, thin (w:th 3:1)
32 Unidirectional edge, thick (w:th<3:1)
33 Uniface, thin
34 Uniface, thick

41 Bidirectional edge, thin

42 Bidirectional edge, thick
43 Biface, thin
44 Biface, thick

50 Tested cobble
51 Cobble tool, undifferentiated
52 Cobble tool, unidirectional
53 Cobble tool, bidirectional

60 Other
BIFACE THINNING FLAKE - need 7 of 10 attributes for complete flakes, 5 of 7 for broken flakes:

1. Platform more than one facet and/or is modified by retouch and/or abrasion.
2. Platform is lipped
3. Platform angle is less than 45 degrees
4. Dorsal scar orientation is parallel, multidirectional, or opposing
5. Dorsal topography is irregular
6. Edge outline is even
7. Flake is less than 5mm thick
8. Flake has relatively even thickness from proximal to distal end.
9. Bulb of percussion is weak (diffuse)
10. Pronounced ventral curvature.

1. Dorsal scar orientation is parallel, multidirectional or opposing
2. Dorsal topography is regular
3. Edge outline is even
4. Flake is less than 5mm thick
5. Flake has a relatively even thickness from proximal to distal end.
6. Bulb of percussion is weak
7. There is a pronounced ventral curve
Functional type (3 char) (see Glossary for definitions).
00 Not applicable
01 Used Angular Debris
02 Used Core
03 Used Flake
04 Spokeshave
05 Denticulate
06 Awl/borer/perforator
07 Graver
10 Scraper, undifferentiated
11 Scraper, end
12 Scraper, side
13 Scraper, thumbnail
14 Scraper, discoidal
20 Chopper
21 Hammerstone
22 Pecking stone
23 Flaked axe
24 Flaked hoe
30 Drill, undifferentiated
31 Drill, plain shafted
32 Drill, expanding base
33 Drill, lugged
34 Knife, undifferentiated
35 Knife, bevelled
36 Blank/Preform
60 Other (describe in comments)
Projectile Points will be assigned functional codes in a different way from other artifact types in order to get more information from the single code. Projectile point codes will be 3 digits long.

The first digit will always be "4". This will help alert the analyst that the item is a projectile point.

The second digit will be used to denote size and can be:
1 indeterminate
2 small
3 large

Use indeterminate when there is not enough of the item to put it into one of the other size categories. There are no actual thresholds for the large and small categories at this time, determinations can be subjective and can be cross-checked with dimensions.

The third digit will be used to denote general form. The values are as follows
0 undifferentiated
1 stemmed
2 corner-notched, nfs
3 corner-notched, expanding base
4 side-notched, nfs
5 side-notched, expanding base
6 basal and side notched
7 triangular
8 lanceolate
9 other (describe in comments)

A large side-notched point will be coded 434, a small stemmed point will be 421, a large lanceolate point will be 438, and a fragment of an undifferentiated point of unknown size will be 410.

Size (mm): Measure the total size of all artifacts with calipers to the nearest millimeter (large items such as metates can be measured with a tape.). Measure length and width as if you were placing the artifact in a box that exactly fit its maximum dimensions and measure that box. Thickness should be measured at the widest point perpendicular to the box.
Length (4 num)
Width (4 num)
Thickness (4 num)

Comments: Use this space to comment on any unusual features of the item and to explain any uses of "other".

Artifact # (2 num): Provides item number for each artifact analyzed. Comments concerning any of the artifacts should be cross-referenced using this number. Any nonflaked stone artifacts analyzed from outside the sample area should be entered on a completely separate form (labelled Sample 00).

Material type (3 char): See materials for flaked stone above

NFL/Nonflaked lithic type (3 char): see Glossary for definitions
01 Manuport, cobble
02 Manuport, slab

10 Hammer stone
11 Anvil Stone
12 Mortar
13 Pestle

20 Mano, undifferentiated
21 One-hand mano
22 Two-hand mano, undiff.
23 Two-hand mano, trough
24 Two-hand mano, slab
25 Mano, other, comment

30 Metate, undifferentiated
31 Basin metate 80
32 Trough metate 99
33 Slab metate
34 Metate, other (specify)
40 Hafted item, undifferentiated
41 Hoe
42 Maul
43 Axe (ground, not flaked bit)

50 Polishing stone
51 Abrading stone - slab
52 Abrading stone - grooved

60 Shaped stone, undifferentiated
61 Palette
62 Jar cover
63 Cooking slab
64 Architectural slab (door cover, deflector)
65 Ornament

80 Other (specify)

99 Unknown groundstone

Condition (1 char) Indicate if the artifact is intact or how much is missing.

1 Less than 50% there3 Broken but all there (pieces fit together)
2 More than 50% there4 Complete

Size: Measure length, width, thickness of complete artifacts only (mm) -

Length (4 num)
Width (4 num)
Thickness (4 num)

Cross section (2 char): for manos and metates

1 Plano-convex
2 Biconvex
3 Convex-concave
4 Subrectangular
5 Triangular
6 Wedge shape
7 Airfoil
9 Indeterminate
10 Oval

# of Grinding Surfaces (1 num): Indicate # of grinding/use surfaces, 0-4. Enter "9" if indeterminate

Comments (50 char): Use this space to identify any unusual features of the item and to explain uses of "other"

General Comments (250 char): Use this space to comment on any interesting features of the entire lithic assemblage. If discussing an individual artifact, be sure to refer to its Artifact #.

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Last Updated: 13-Feb-2006