Pecos Archeological Survey 1997 Lithic Manual/Coding Guide and Form
PECOS ARCHEOLOGICAL SURVEY
Component # (1 num): Use component number as assigned on the main site form.
Recorder (3 char): Enter initials of person doing the analysis
Date (7 - date): Recording date by day, first 3 letters of month, last two digits of year (10JUN93).
Time (2 fields 2 num ea): Total time it took for lithic analysis, enter hours:minutes (2:30). This is analysis only. NOTE: During the initial stages of the survey, we will want to know how much time we take to set up and collect the grids and/or samples - write this time down in parentheses next to total time (only one analyst needs to do this).
Feature sampled (5 char): The type and number of the refuse scatter that was sampled (as assigned on the main site form, i.e., Mixed ceramic and lithic scatter 1-80-01).
Sample# (2 num): The number of the sample area. Sample areas will be numbered sequentially per refuse scatter (i.e., 80-01 might have two samples: 01 and 02; and 83-01 might have one sample: 01). Use 00 for "Items of Interest" outside sample areas
Sample type (1 num):
1 Lithic and ceramic****************************************
NOTE: Items of interest (i.e., projectile points) and all groundstone not associated with any sample collection area but that are worthy of analysis should be analyzed and recorded on a separate Lithic Inventory Form. In filling out this form (for these general site/nonsample artifacts), the Sample # should be entered as "00", Type will be "n/a", and Dimensions will be entered the same as the refuse scatter dimensions minus the other sample areas.
Dimensions (2 num fields - 4 digits w/1 decimal ea. - 000.0 x 000.0): dimensions of the sampled area, length x width to the nearest tenth of a meter. If sample consists of multiple grid units show number of units in parenthesis followed by the dimensions of the individual units; e.g., (5) 2 x 2m.
Pickup (3 num): Total number of artifacts picked up in the sample collection.
Analyzed (3 num): Total number of artifacts analyzed from sample (aim for 30). This number should not include any artifacts that were analyzed from outside sample area (i.e., groundstone, diagnostics, etc).
Sample NFL/Nonflaked lithic (2 num): Total number of nonflaked lithic (NFL) analyzed from within the sample area
Other FL/Flaked lithic (2 num): Number of flaked items from the sample pickup that were not selected as part of the random sample analysis but were analyzed because they were unusual or of interest. These flaked items should be recorded after the sample artifacts - skip a few spaces and clearly mark as "not in random sample" (can add a separate page if appropriate). Artifact numbers for these in-pickup-but-not-in-random-sample artifacts items do not need to be contiguous with the sample artifact numbers.
*Assemblage Summary (200 char): Summarize lithic assemblage - briefly discuss material and functional types, reduction stages, diagnostics, spatial distribution, general observations. Since we only need one assemblage summary per scatter, for scatters with multiple samples, provide the assemblage summary on the first lithic form only and leave blank on subsequent forms.
Artifact # (2 num):
This provides an item number for each artifact analyzed within the sample. Comments concerning any of the artifacts should be cross-referenced using this number. As mentioned above, flaked artifacts of interest that were in the sample pickup but not chosen in the random sample should be listed after the sample artifacts and clearly separated and labelled as "not from the random sample".
Material type (3 num):
Color (2 num): Give the color of the raw material. This is especially important for cherts.
Cortex % (3 char): The percentage of total artifact surface that is cortex (i.e., if all of dorsal face of flake is cortex, percent would be 50%).
Platform type (3 char): can list two, i.e., 2/3 (see attached figure)
0 Not applicable/absent
Condition (1 num)
For tools, indicate if the artifact is intact or how much is missing:
For debitage, indicate the debitage category (use hierarchy shown below [Sullivan & Rozen 1985]):
HT/Heat Alteration(7char): some of definitions based on Museum of NM 1990
1 Crazing - minute surface cracks, often crosshatched, caused by rapid heating/cooling or by processing specimen that doesn't heat or cool evenly (too thick). Care should be taken in using this code since some stream rolled cherts can develop microcracks under the cortex that are difficult to distinguish from crazing.
2 Potlidding - concave flake scars caused by the removal of piano-convex flakes; resulting from rapid heating causing moisture within the material to vaporize and explode outward
3 Luster - change in luster resulting from thermal alteration; difficult to detect due to natural luster variability and should be used conservatively and only when luster differences between facets are visible.
4 Discoloration - Color change resulting from heathing; use conservatively since natural coloration can be varied.
Use-wear (3 char): Record the dominant uses visible. Use hand lens if necessary. The category can accept up to 3 characters for two types of use, separated by a slash (see Glossary for definitions)
1 MicroflakingTechnological type (2 char): see Glossary for definitions
Functional type (3 char) (see Glossary for definitions).
Projectile Points will be assigned functional codes in a different way from other artifact types in order to get more information from the single code. Projectile point codes will be 3 digits long.
The first digit will always be "4". This will help alert the analyst that the item is a projectile point.
The second digit will be used to denote size and can be:
Use indeterminate when there is not enough of the item to put it into one of the other size categories. There are no actual thresholds for the large and small categories at this time, determinations can be subjective and can be cross-checked with dimensions.
The third digit will be used to denote general form. The values are as follows
A large side-notched point will be coded 434, a small stemmed point will be 421, a large lanceolate point will be 438, and a fragment of an undifferentiated point of unknown size will be 410.
Size (mm): Measure the total size of all artifacts with calipers to the nearest millimeter (large items such as metates can be measured with a tape.). Measure length and width as if you were placing the artifact in a box that exactly fit its maximum dimensions and measure that box. Thickness should be measured at the widest point perpendicular to the box.
Length (4 num)
Comments: Use this space to comment on any unusual features of the item and to explain any uses of "other".
Artifact # (2 num): Provides item number for each artifact analyzed. Comments concerning any of the artifacts should be cross-referenced using this number. Any nonflaked stone artifacts analyzed from outside the sample area should be entered on a completely separate form (labelled Sample 00).
Material type (3 char): See materials for flaked stone above
NFL/Nonflaked lithic type (3 char): see Glossary for definitions
Condition (1 char) Indicate if the artifact is intact or how much is missing.
Size: Measure length, width, thickness of complete artifacts only (mm) -
Length (4 num)
Cross section (2 char): for manos and metates
# of Grinding Surfaces (1 num): Indicate # of grinding/use surfaces, 0-4. Enter "9" if indeterminate
Comments (50 char): Use this space to identify any unusual features of the item and to explain uses of "other"
General Comments (250 char): Use this space to comment on any interesting features of the entire lithic assemblage. If discussing an individual artifact, be sure to refer to its Artifact #.
Last Updated: 13-Feb-2006