From Folsom to Fogelson:
The Cultural Resources Inventory Survey of Pecos National Historical Park
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Pecos Archeological Survey 1997 Site Data Form, Manual, and Glossary (continued)




Communal pueblo - a 100+ room pueblo

Pueblo - a masonry and/or adobe structure with 6 to 99 rooms

Small Structure - a masonry and/or adobe structure with 1 to 5 rooms. For specific types of structures, refer to the possibilities included below or use Other and specify the type in the comments (e.g., pump house, torreon, barn).

Tipi Ring/Stone circle - circular arrangement of Stones originally placed to weigh down or brace the margins of a pole-and-hide or pole-and-brush structure. The diameter of the circle may be quite variable, from about 2 meters to 5 meters or more.

Rockshelter (w/architecture or modification) - rockshelter that contains architectural remains or has been altered for habitation; structural remains within the rockshelter can be either free-standing or abutting/incorporating the rockshelter walls and/or ceiling into the structure form.

Pitstructure - a subterranean or semisubterranean structure, typically indicated by a shallow circular depression; may find burned jacal, ash deposits, and/or early ceramics eroding out of associated deposits.

Kiva - ceremonial room occurring either as 1) an isolated circular subterranean structure indicated by a large circular depression, 2) within a plaza area, also as a large circular depression, or 3) within a pueblo roomblock, most likely as a large, square or D-shaped corner room.

Shrine - ceremonial feature, often circular or C-shaped arrangement of rocks or low walls (upright slabs, uncoursed stone, and/or coursed masonry).

Euro-American structure - Habitation structure associated with Euro-American occupation

Outbuilding - Euro-American structure of non-habitation function, but function is unknown; often associated with a habitation structure (e.g., barn, stable, etc)

Unknown depression - a structural depression of unknown function and/or origin (e.g., can't tell whether its a pithouse, kiva, rootcellar, but is the remains of some type of a subterranean or semisubterranean structure.

Unknown structure - a structure of unknown function/indeterminate type

Possible structure - this category should be used for archeological remains that suggest a structure location (rubble, debris, and/or mound areas) but the nature, extent, and condition of the remains make this a questionable assignment. Use of this category reflects lower confidence than the other structure entries listed above. If you are certain the feature is a structure, but you don't know what type, use Unknown Structure.

Other structure - category for structures that don't fit into the designated types. Use this category for rare, unforeseen, and/or very specialized structure types. Specify type in comments (e.g., torreon, mill, outhouse, dugout/root cellar).

Architectural Feature

Wall - a wall section of unknown function; could include an isolated wall segment, a retaining wall (nonagricultural), or a wall extending from an otherwise enclosed structure.

Stone circle - use for a circular arrangement of rocks that does not appear to be structural (see tipi ring discussed above), and is of unknown function.

Storage unit/cist - small constructed surface or subterranean features, or natural- or wall-enclosed bedrock cavities for which a storage function is presumed (small size, lack of fireblackening,).

Windbreak - typically small, low, uncoursed masonry wall, linear or semicircular, built to provide protection from prevailing winds; often located adjacent to boulders or bedrock outcrops.

Other architectural feature - category for architectural features that don't fit into the designated types. Use this category for rare, unforeseen, and/or very specialized feature types. Specify type in comments (e.g., gameblind, tent anchors, mealing bin, plaza)

Fire-related features

Firepit/hearth - often indicated by a small concentration or circular arrangement of rock or upright slabs (may be burned or firecracked); charcoal and ash may be visible.

Ash and/or charcoal deposit - just as it sounds; likely to be found in association with, or as a remnant of, an eroding hearth feature or midden deposit

Firecracked rock concentration - a concentration of broken and/or burnt stone of indeterminate origins (possibly from a roasting pit or kiln).

Firecracked rock, burned adobe - concentration of firecracked rock and burned adobe scatter of unknown origins (possibilities might be a collapsed burned structure or above ground kiln).

Other fire-related features - category for fire-related features that don't fit into the designated types. Use this category for rare, unforeseen, and/or very specialized feature types. Specify type in comments (e.g., roasting pit, kiln, horno).

Unknown/Other Rock features

Rock alignment (nonagricultural) - linear arrangement of rock that is of unknown function (also see Agricultural Features).

Rock concentration/scatter - a scatter or concentration of rock/rubble of unknown origins.

Vertical/upright slab(s) - isolated upright slab(s) of unknown function

Cairn - rock pile that appears to have served as a marker, such as along a trail or property boundary

Quarry (lithic) - source and procurement area for lithic materials. Bedrock quarries are often indicated by depressions and rock scars and the presence of impact tools such as mauls and hammerstones. Cobble quarry areas are indicated by the presence of primary reduction artifacts (hammerstones, tested cobbles, primary flakes) among natural cobble deposits.

Quarry (building material) - source and procurement area for architectural stone and construction materials (ie: gravel, rip rap, fill etc.).

Quarry (clay) - source and procurement area for clay and mortar sediments used in pottery and architectural construction.

Other feature - category for rock features that don't fit into any of the other designated types. Use this category for rare, unforeseen, and/or very specialized feature types. Specify type in comments.

Agricultural/Water Control/Ranching Features

Terrace - rock alignments or walls (one to a few stones high) built perpendicular to the slope direction ("on contour"), to control surface runoff and downslope movement of soils. If there are a series of terraces, encode each terrace individually.

Checkdam - linear arrangement of stone (one to a few courses high) built across drainages for the purpose of slowing runoff and perhaps capturing water and soil. Checkdams often occur in a series, encode each dam individually.

Note on recording Terraces and Checkdams: If it can be determined or estimated, record the tillable/usable area behind each terrace or check dam on the site form, as well as the degree of slope on which the terrace(s) or checkdam(s) is found

Grid garden - rectilinear arrangement of rocks, often contiguous, forming a grid-like pattern; built to help retain soil and water in garden plot areas; typically single course alignments.

Ditch/Acequia - channel used to divert and direct water from a water source, typically to agricultura areas.

Reservoir/catchment - natural and/or modified (excavation, damming) catchment or basin used as a water collection area.

Corral - livestock enclosure, can be constructed of wire fencing, upright posts, logs and brush, drylaid rocks and/or natural features.

Pen - small livestock enclosure, typically used to contain one or two animals; construction materials as listed for corral, size is distinguishing factor.

Fence - linear barrier, typically wire and post or board, possibly stone; often used to separate pastures or to delineate property boundaries.

Other agricultural/water control/ranching related features - category for agricultural/water/ranching related features that don't fit into the designated types. Use this category for rare, unforeseen, and/or very specialized feature types. Specify type in comments (e.g., well, feed trough, orchard, haystack)

Bedrock features

Natural shelter (unmodified) - natural cave, overhang, or recess in cliff face, bedrock outcrop, or boulder face that provides some protection from the elements, usually associated with short term, temporary, or seasonal use. Use this category for unmodified rockshelters without structural elements (otherwise see Structure Type Rockshelter above).

Grinding area - an abraded/polished surface resulting from grinding activities.

Sharpening surface - an abraded/polished/incised area resulting from repeated contact of a stone (or bone or wood) implement across a bedrock surface for the purpose of sharpening or shaping.

Petroglyphs/Pictographs - rock art panel(s). Self-explanatory the "Construction" and "Fabric" section below will distinguish the presence of pictographs vs petroglyphs. Number and describe by panel rather than by individual elements.

Inscriptions - written or incised text, usually names and dates

Other bedrock feature - category for bedrock features that don't fit into the designated types listed above. Use this category for rare, unforeseen, and/or very specialized feature types. Specify type in comments (bedrock pit, bedrock mortar, posthole, beam socket).


Hand/toeholds - small, often shallow depressions pecked into a vertical or sloping bedrock face to provide more stable footing and hand grips than provided by the natural rock surface.

Trail - footpath associated with human travel (not cattle or game), can be indicated by a devegetated area and linear depressions/soil erosion (associated features might include cairns, steps, hand-and toeholds, and rock art).

Steps - stairs cut into bedrock and/or constructed with masonry or lumber, usually to provide easier access across steeply sloping surfaces.

Road - cleared, constructed roadways associated with motor vehicle use (do not need to record modern roads or two tracks as sites, see Cultural Landscape form).

Two track/wagon track - worn passageway associated with repeated motor vehicle and/or wagon use. May include visible ruts.

Other transportation features - category for trail/road/transportation features that don't fit into the designated types listed above. Will be used for rare, unforeseen, and/or very specialized feature types. Specify type in comments (e.g., bridge, railroad bed).


Other - this category is a catchall for any other feature types not covered by the other entry codes, presumably will be used for rare, unforeseen, or highly specialized features. Make sure you specify in comments

Unknown feature - it ain't natural but you have no idea what it is..explain in comments.


Coursed masonry - stone laid in distinct rows one on top of another, often overlapping, with or without the addition of mortar, both unshaped and/or shaped stones may be used.

Uncoursed/piled masonry - randomly placed stones, no distinct rows, stones are often of variable size and shape

Masonry, not further specified - masonry was used but construction method is unknown.

Single course - was originally constructed as only one stone high, stones may or may not be abutting

Vertical slab(s) - stones placed on edge, upright.

Jacal - wattle and daub, mud applied over woven posts, twigs, and/or reeds (can be used for walls or roof closing material).

Adobe - adobe construction. The adobe could have been shaped or molded by hand as the wall was built up, shaped by "pouring" within forms along the planned wall alignment, or formed as bricks off-site then built up as coursing with or without additional mortar bedding. In most cases the method may not be discernible, however if it is, describe in comments. Masonry or cobbles may be associated with adobe structure foundations, or in the case of some molded adobe, cobbles can provide a matrix around which the adobe is molded.

Probably adobe - this entry reflects lower confidence than that above. Use if you artifacts and/or a questionable mound lead you to suspect a structure, but there is no rubble suggesting masonry construction, nor any visible adobe.

Excavated - excavated soil or bedrock surface(s) forms part of the structure or feature, as with a subterranean structure or enlarged rockshelter

Natural shelter - rockshelters, overhanging bedrock and/or boulder faces - unmodified

Ground - smoothed by repetitive abrasion with a harder material (i.e., stone)

Pecked - natural bedrock modified by pounding with harder stone to remove irregularities or alter stone surface.

Painted - hopefully self-explanatory; use for pictographs and drawn inscriptions

Incised - engraved or scratched, use for carved inscriptions.

Log construction - structure formed by horizontally placed logs

Frame construction - milled lumber construction

Upright posts - constructed of vertically placed timbers or poles

Other - any other construction method not covered by the above categories; explain in "Comments"...

Unknown/indeterminate (describe in "Comments")


Physiographic Zone

Pecos Valley - the broad, gently rolling valley adjacent to and west of the Pecos River created by the ancient floodplain.

Pecos River - riparian zone flanking the Pecos River, the present day floodplain.

Tecolote Range - foothills of the Sangre de Cristo Mountains east of the Pecos River.

Glorieta Corridor - along upper Glorieta Creek, where the northwest portion of the Pecos Valley pinches out into Glorieta Pass (to be used for Pigeon Ranch Unit).

Apache Canyon - the canyon bottom along the junction of Apache Canyon and Galisteo Creek (to be used for Johnson's Ranch Unit).


Ridgetop - top of a relatively narrow, steep sided linear elevation, often occurring between two drainages.

Ridge slope - slope of relatively narrow steep sided linear elevation.

Saddle - low point on a ridge or shoulder of a mountain, often serves as a divide between streams/drainages flowing in opposite directions.

Knoll - well defined natural rise in elevation that creates a prominent high point above the surrounding more gently sloped terrain

Low rise - a minor though distinct rise in elevation above the surrounding gently sloping terrain.

Flat-gentle slope/plain - broad flat to gently sloping terrain unbroken by marked elevation changes (can be used for the gently sloping expanses of the Pecos Valley - basically the old floodplain).

Talus - slope created by the accumulation of boulders, rock, and scree along the bottom of a steeper slope or cliff.

Bench - relatively flat or gently inclined land, often long and narrow, bounded by a steeper ascending slope on one side and descending slope on the opposite side. Usually applies to an upland feature (also see Terrace).

Cliff face - high steep vertical, severely sloping, or overhanging rock face

Alluvial Fan - cone shaped deposit of alluvium formed where drainage runoff from higher elevations enters lowlands.

Arroyo/Drainage - channel of an ephemeral or intermittent stream

River bottom/floodplain - low lying area along the margins of a drainage, formed by deposition of alluvial sediments.

Terrace - relatively flat or gently inclined, often narrow strip of land parallel to and immediately above an existing drainage, bounded by steeper ascending slope on one side and descending slope on the opposite side, usually applies to 1st or 2nd terrace above the drainage (see Bench for upland features).

Mesilla top - top of small mesa/flat topped elevation, use only for the Pecos Pueblo mesilla

Mesilla slope - slope of small mesa/flat topped elevation, use only for the Pecos Pueblo mesilla

Other - Use only when site topography cannot be described by any other category. Describe landform if this category is used


Alluvial - detrital stream deposits; including the sediments laid down in river/stream beds, floodplains, lakes, and fans.

Colluvial - composed of debris from sheet erosion/slope wash, talus, and other mass movement debris.

Aeolian - wind blown deposits

Residual - material resulting from in situ decomposition of rock

No Deposits - there is no soil deposition at locale, i.e., bedrock is exposed

Other - Use only when deposition cannot be described by any other category. Describe.

Vegetation Zones (adapted from Simpson 1995, Habitat Characterizations)

Grassland - Grasses with less than <2% tree cover. Principle native species: blue, sideoats and hairy grama grasses, ring muhly, ricegrasses, sleepygrass (Stipa robusta), galleta, and threeawn grasses; and forbs of fringed sage and buckwheat. Principal non-native species: wheatgrass, bluegrass, clover, thistle, mullein. This would apply to old pastures (physically maintained within the past 20 years)

Grass/chamisa/juniper - <10% tree cover with mostly grasses with shrubs and/or small tree-like vegetation present. Principal species: chamisa, snakeweed, cholla, four-wing saltbush, juniper, and some piñon pine regeneration. Usually less than 5 feet in height, vegetation in recolonization process.

Floodplain meadow - <10%tree cover; principal species include blue grama, hairy grama, bluegrass, smooth brome, chamisa, sweet clover and an occasional juniper. This zone is generally > 80 feet from water course and has an elevational gradient/escarpment which prevents routine/annual flooding. Mostly grasses with a few shrubs and a few trees; alluvial soils; areas subject to flooding along Pecos River and Glorieta Creek;

Piñon/juniper (% unknown) - See species list for piñon/juniper categories presented below. Use this when % of tree cover is not distinguishable.

Piñon/juniper (<40%) - <40% tree cover; grasses/forbs usually present between trees. Principal species: piñon pine, juniper, chamisa, owlsfoot, snakeweed, and an assortment of grasses.

Piñon/juniper (>40%) - >40% tree cover. Principal species: piñon pine, juniper with occasional pockets of Gambel's or wavyleaf oak; on rocky, thin, hummocking soils, trees approximately 15 feet in height;

Piñon/juniper/ponderosa/fir - Piñon pine dominates but ponderosa pine and fir also present.

Ponderosa/douglas fir - Ponderosa and fir dominant with total tree cover > 40%, trees reaching 100+ feet in areas; ground will be grassy, rocky, or needle littered; occasional pockets of Gambel's or wavyleaf oak.

Ponderosa pine - Area west of SR 63 and south of pueblo/mission; generally as arroyo-lined corridors.

Riparian (mixed) - Principal trees: cottonwood, box elder, ash, willow, thinleaf alder, junipers; understory: Kentucky bluegrass, wild rye, smooth brome, clover, goatsbeard, common horsetail, and verbena. Refers to corridor along Pecos River and Glorieta Creek; averages .3 km across, abrupt boundaries delineated by relatively steep upland slopes; vegetation often water dependent and structurally tiered (different stories);

Juniper dominant riparian - Riparian with >50% juniper cover

Deciduous dominant riparian - Riparian with >50% deciduous cover (willow, ash, box elder)

Grass/forb dominant riparian - Riparian with >50% herbaceous (grass and forb cover)

Rocky outcrops/bare rocks - barren, no vegetation cover

Other - describe; other could include: wetland, denuded mudflats, sandbars/islands

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Last Updated: 13-Feb-2006