A Thunder of Cannon
Archeology of the Mexican-American War Battlefield of Palo Alto
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Agar, D, Luis de

1866 Diccionario Ilustrado de los Pertechos de Guerrra y Demas Efertos Pertenecientes al Material de Artilleria. D, Joaquin de Aramburu, Madrid. Definitions and detailed descriptions of Spanish military items, with sketches; has some application as to what the Mexican Army may have had in its arsenals and supply depots in 1846-48.

Alcaraz, Ramon, et al.

1848 Apuntes Para la Historia de la Guerra Entre Mexico y los Estados Unidos. Payno, Mexico. Reprinted in Mexico in 1952. A contemporary translation was made by Albert C. Ramsey in 1850. This work was a joint effort by Alcaraz and a dozen other Mexican participants in the war who recorded their accounts of the war. Excellent descriptions of military actions from the Mexican viewpoint though some of the information is highly questionable, for example, Alcaraz states both armies at Palo Alto numbered around 3000, denying virtually all other historical accounts that a Mexican army of superior force lost to a U.S. force about half its size. Numerous maps and plans of battles.

Allie, Stephen J.

1991 All He Could Carry, U.S. Army Infantry Equipment 1839-1910. Frontier Army Museum Publication, Fort Leavenworth, Kansas. A good, basic description of what the U.S. foot soldier wore and carried.

American Flag

1847 Article regarding Palo Alto House dated July 14, 1847. Newspaper published by U.S. occupation forces in Matamoros, Mexico.

Ampudia, Pedro de

1846 Manifesto Dando Cuenta del Conducto. Mexico City.


1846a Life and Public Services of Gen. Z. Taylor. H. Long and Brother, New York.

1846b Compana Contra los Americanos, Mayo de 1846. Biblioteca Nacional de Mexico, Mexico D.F.

1846c Instruccion para la Infanteria Ligera del Ejercito Mexicano, Mandada Observar por el Supremo Gobierno. Imprenta de V. Garcia Torres, Mexico.

1850 Fallo Definitivo del Supremo Tribunal de la Guerra, al Examinar la Conducta Militar del Exmo. Sr. General D. Mariano Arista, Torres, Mexico City. Investigation of Arista for his loss of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.

Arbengast, Stanley A., Lorrin Kennamer and Michael E, Bonine

1976 Atlas of Texas. Bureau of Business Research. The University of Texas, Austin, Association for Preservation Technology

1980 Illustrated Catalogue of American Hardware of the Russell Erwin Manufacturing Company. Initially printed in 1865 by Russell and Erwin Manufacturing Company, New Britain, Connecticut. Facsimile edition, Association for Preservation Technology, Ottawa.

Babits, Lawrence E, and Richard Manesto

1994 An Investigation Of Minie Ball Manufacture To Determine Effects of Prolonged Firing. Paper Presented at the Society for Historical Archaeology Conference on Historical and Underwater Archaeology, January 5-9, 1994, In Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada.

Bailey, D, W. 1971

British Military Longarms, 1715-1815. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. A classic, referenced by all other sources dealing with eighteenth century small arms; detailed photos of the famous "Brown Bess", with closeups of musket furniture.

Ballentine, George

1853 Autobiography of an English Soldier in the U.S. Army. Stringer and Townshend, New York. Ballentine was in Scott's command. Contains observations that seem accurate, although the author did not have the revulsion for camp life and military discipline most soldiers expressed.

Ballard, Michael B.

1991 Pemberton, A Biography. University Press of Mississippi, Jackson.

Bancroft, Hubert Howe

1885 History of Mexico: Vol. V. 1824-1861. A.L. Bancroft and Company, San Francisco. A thorough history of the Mexican-American War; Bancroft's interpretations on the causes of the war is unusually pro-Mexican.

Barbour, Philip and Martha Barbour

1936 Journals of the Late Brevet Major Philip Norbourne Barbour and his Wife Martha Isabella Hopkins Barbour, Written During the War with Mexico#151;1846. Rhoda van Bibber Tanner Doubleday, ed., G.P. Putnam's Sons, New York. A lively personal account about fellow officers, e.g., General Taylor; also, provides insights into values and mores of the officer class in the mid-nineteenth century United States; covers the period from March 28 to September 20, 1846, when Barbour was killed at Monterrey, Mexico.

Barton, Henry W.

1970 Texas Volunteers in the Mexican War. Texian Press, Waco. As one might expect, it glosses over the brutal aspects of guerrilla warfare as conducted by the Texans; provides detailed information regarding recruitment, dress and attitudes of the Texan volunteer.

Bateman, Norman J.

1982 The Battle of Resaca de la Palma: An Electronic Metal Detector Survey. Unpublished Ms. on file, National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, Santa Fe.

Bauer, K. Jack

1974 The Mexican War, 1846-1848. Macmillan Publishing Co., New York. A thorough, scholarly account that also is readable; emphasizes strategy and tactics of both nations' Armies.

1986 The Battles on the Rio Grande: Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, 8-9 May 1846. America's First Battles, 1776-1965. Charles E, Heller and William A. Stofft, eds., University Press of Kansas. Goes into even greater detail than his 1974 book on the tactics used at Palo Alto; a must for anyone conducting research on this battle.

Baxter, Edward P. and Kay L. Killen

1976 A Study of the Palo Alto Battleground, Cameron County, Texas. Texas A&M University Anthropology Laboratory Report 33, College Station.

Belknap, Lt. Col. W. G.

1846 Field report addressed to Captain W.W.S. Bliss, Asst. Adj. General Army of Occupation, on the actions of the 1st Brigade at the battle of Palo Alto, letter dated May 15, 1846. Report published in 29th Congress, 1st Session, House Executive Document 209, pp. 23-26, Reports from General Taylor, Washington, D.C.

Berlandier, Jean Louis

1846 Itinerario: Campana de Palo Alto y Resaca de Guerrero. Western America Collection, Yale University Manuscript S-310, p. 150. Manuscript translation by Frank Mares. Copy on file at National Park Service Spanish Colonial Research Center, University of New Mexico, Albuquerque.

1847 Journal of Jean Louis Berlandier During 1846-1847, Including the Time When He Was Driven From Matamoros By the Americans. Thomas Phillips Collection, Ms. 15512 (Berlandier), The Library of Congress. Copy on file at the Arnulfo L. Oliveira Library, University of Texas at Brownsille.

Bond, Clell L. 1979

Palo Alto Battlefield: A Magnetometer and Metal Detector Survey. Cultural Resources Laboratory Report 4, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas.

Bosworth, N. 1846

A Treatise On the Rifle, Musket, Pistol and Fowling-Piece. Reprint edition, n.d., Huntington, West Virginia.

Bray, M. and K. J. Irwin

1991 Observations on Amphibians and Reptiles in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Alamo, Texas.

Brinckerhoff, Sidney B.

1965 Metal Uniform Insignia of the U.S. Army in the Southwest 1846-1902. Arizona Pioneers' Historical Society Museum Monograph 3, Tucson. A good reference; sketches of insignias.

Brinckerhoff, Sidney B. and Pierce A. Chamberlain

1972 Spanish Military Weapons in Colonial America 1700-1821. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA. Has some application on the arms of the Mexican soldier, especially those weapons that would have been antiquated but still useful during the Mexican-American War.

Brooks, Nathan Covington

1965 A Complete History of the Mexican War: Its Causes, Conduct and Consequences. The Rio Grande Press (reprint), Chicago. First published in 1849. A well-balanced evaluation of the causes of the war, but there is no mention of slavery, expansionism or California; states that Polk provoked the war by ordering Taylor to the Rio Grande.

Brown, L. F. Jr., T. J. Evans, J. H. McGowen and W. A. White

1980 Environmental Geologic Atlas of the Texas Coastal Zone: Brownsville-Harlingen Area. Bureau of Economic Geology, University of Texas, Harlingen, Texas.

Brown, M. L.

1980 Firearms in Colonial America 1492-1792. Washington City.

Brownsville Herald

1893 Commemoration of Palo Alto Battlefield. Newspaper article dated May 9, 1893.

Bryce, Douglas

1984 Weaponry from the Machault, An Eighteenth Century French Frigate. Studies in Archaeology, Architecture and History. National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada.

Butler, David F.

1971 United States Firearms, The First Century 1776-1875. Winchester Press, New York. Detailed descriptions of gun parts, with copious photos.

Buttrey, T. V. and Clyde Hubbard

1992 A Guide Book of Mexican Coins, 1822 to Date. Krause Publications, Iola, Wisconsin.

Calver, William Louis and Reginald Pelham Bolton

1928 Consider the Revolutionary War Bullet. The New York Historical Society Quarterly Bulletin 11 (4).

1950 History Written with Pick and Shovel: Military Buttons, Belt-Plates, Badges, and Other Relics Excavated From Colonial, Revolutionary, and War of 1812 Camp Sites by the Field Exploration Committee of the New York Historical Society. The New York Historical Society, New York.

Campbell, J. Duncan and Edgar M. Howell

1963 American Military Insignia. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C. An important archeological reference.

Campbell, J. Duncan

1965 Military Buttons, Long-lost Heralds of Fort Mackinac's Past. Mackinac History, Leaflet 7, Mackinac Island, Michigan. A significant study on this category of artifacts; gives history and developments of the military button, although application to the Mexican-American War is limited.

Carlson, Gayle F.

1979 Archeological Investigations at Fort Atkinson (25WN9) Washington County, Nebraska 1956-1971. Nebraska State Historical Society Publications in Anthropology 8, Lincoln, Nebraska.

Chamberlain, Samuel E.

1956 My Confession: The Recollections of a Rogue. Harper, New York. This dramatic first-hand account and its color sketches did not come to light until 1955 when, amid some controversy regarding its authenticity, it was abridged in Life magazine. There apparently remains little doubt of its validity today. It is especially valuable for views on soldier and camp life.

Champion, A. A.

n.d. Historical Notes Concerning the Battle of Palo Alto and Subsequent Events Which Took Place on the Battle Site. Unpublished Ms. on file, National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, Santa Fe.

Chaney, A. H.

1981 A Study of the Bird Use of the Wetlands in the Middle Rio Grande Valley. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Ecological Service, Corpus Christi.

Chapel, Charles Edward

1961 Guns of the Old West. Coward-McCann, Inc., New York.

Chappell, Edward

1973 A Study of Horseshoes in the Department of Archaeology, Colonial Williamsburg. In Colonial Willimasburg Occasional Papers in Archaeology, Vol. I: Five Artifact Studies. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, Williamsburg, Virginia.

Churchill, Franklin Hunter

1888 Sketch of the Life of Bvt. Brig. Gen. Sylvester Churchill, Inspector General U.S. Army. Willis McDonald and Co., New York. This is the father of Lieutenant William Churchill, the officer in charge of the 18-pounders at Palo Alto; the father briefly mentions the actions of his son during that battle.

Clarke, Rainbird

1935 The Flint-knapping Industry at Brandon, Antiquity 9, London. Good illustrations, photos of steps in gunflint manufacturing.

Clausen, Carl J.

1970 The Fort Pierce Collection. Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties Bulletin 1. Florida Department of State, Tallahassee. A good reference on U.S. military and civilian buttons used during the Seminole War (1835-1842), with applications to Mexican-American War buttons.

Coffman, Edward M.

1986 The Old Army, a Portrait of the American Army in Peacetime, 1784-1898. Oxford University Press, New York. Organization of the Army during various periods of its history; insights into the differing, evolving attitudes and values of the United States Officer caste and Enlisted man through time.

Coker, Caleb (Editor)

1992 The News from Brownsville, Helen Chapman's Letters from the Texas Military Frontier, 1848-1852. Published for the Barker Texas History Center by the Texas State Historical Association, University of Texas, Austin. An army officer wife's impressions of early Brownsville and vicinity; Helen Chapman visited the battlefields of Resaca de la Palma and Palo Alto, and gives descriptions of battlefield appearances two years after the battles took place.

Correll, D. S. and M. C. Johnston

1970 Manual of the Vascular Plants of Texas. Texas Resources Foundation, Texas.

Crimmins, Martin L.

1939 First Stages of the Mexican War, Initial Operations of the Army in 1846. Army Ordnance Vol. XV (88).

Crosswhite, F. S.

1980 Dry Country Plants of the South Texas Plains. Desert Plants (2): 141-179.

Crouch, Daniel J.

1993 Military Sites Archaeology Forum. Society for Historical Archaeology Newsletter 26 (2):16-17.

Curtis, Samuel R.

1846 Diary entry of Samuel R. Curtis, 3rd Ohio Volunteer Regiment, entry of July 11, 1846. A copy of the diary, with entries dating to 1846-1847, is on file with Dr. Joseph E. Chance, University of Texas-Pan American, Edinburg.

Darling, Anthony D.

1981 Red Coat and Brown Bess. Museum Restoration Service, Historical Arms Series 12, Alexandria Bay, New York. Not as detailed as Bailey's book on the "Brown Bess", but still a good reference; gives interesting information about the eighteenth century British soldier, and relevant on linear tactics.

Davis, R. B.

1974 The Mammals of Texas. Texas Parks and Wildlife Department Bulletin 41.

Deas, George

1870 Reminiscences of the Campaign of the Rio Grande. Historical Magazine. January, p. 20; February, p. 103.

Department of the Interior

1979 Scope of Work Archeological Investigations, Palo Alto Battlefield. Ms. on file, National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, Santa Fe.

DeVoto, Bernard

1943 The Year of Decision 1846. Little, Brown and Company, Boston. Surprisingly very little on the Mexican-American War.

Dillon, Lester R., Jr.

1975 American Artillery in the Mexican War 1846-1847. Presidial Press, Austin. The only book in print to date on this critical branch of the U.S. Army during The Mexican-American War.

Dorsey, R. Stephen

1984 American Military Belts and Related Equipment. Pioneer Press, Union City, Tennessee. A good, basic study.

Downey, Fairfax

1956 The Flying Batteries. Army, pp. 66-72, November.

1957 The Flying Batteries. Army, pp. 60-64, January.

Du Picq, A.

1946 Battle Studies. Military Service Publishing Company, Harrisburg, Penn.

Dufour, Charles R.

1968 The Mexican War: A Compact History 1846-1848. Hawthorn Books. New York. A popular treatment with emphasis on campaigns.

Duncan, James

1846 Battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. Letter report to Lieut. Col. W.G. Belknap, Commander, First Brigade, dated May 12, 1846. In The Artillery in the Mexican War, Reports of Capt. James Duncan, Second U.S. Artillery. Journal of the U.S. Artillery, Vol. XXIX, pp. 313-316.

Duval, J. C.

1892 Early Times In Texas. Austin.

Eaton, Jack D.

1980 Excavations at the Alamo Shrine (Mission San Antonio de Valero). Center for Archaeological Research Special Report 10, University of Texas, San Antonio.

Eisenhower, John S. D.

1989 So Far From God, The U.S. War with Mexico 1846-1848. Anchor Books-Doubleday, New York. Although readable, several historians find this book weak in its scholarship when compared with other contending accounts of this war, for example, the one by K. Jack Bauer.

Elting, Colonel John R.

1977 Military Uniforms in America, Volume II: Years of Growth 1796-1851. Produced by The Company of Military Historians, Colonel John R. Elting, ed., Presidio Press, San Rafael, California. Color drawings, each associated with texts that detail uniform specifics.

Farmer, Mike

1992 A National Resource Survey of Palo Alto National Battlefield. Manuscript submitted to National Park Service, Denver.

Ferguson, Leland G.

1977 Fort Watson: December 1780-April 1781. In Research Strategies in Historical Archeology. Stanley South, ed., Academic Press, New York.

Fox, Anne A.

1992 Archaeological Investigations in Alamo Plaza San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas 1988 and 1989. Center for Archaeological Research Report 205, The University of Texas, San Antonio.

Fox, R.A., Jr.

1993 Archaeology, History, and Custer's Last Battle: The Little Big Horn Reeexamined. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

French, General Samuel G.

1901 Two Wars: An Autobiography of General Samuel G. French. The Confederate Veteran, Nashville. Entertaining, informative accounts; French was at Palo Alto, but possibly, when he wrote his memoirs many years later, French confused some of his Civil War memories with those from the earlier Mexican-American War, for example, he recalled witnessing the death of a U.S. wagoneer at Palo Alto as a result of an exploding Mexican shell (p. 50); this type of ordnance was not used by the Mexicans during the battle.

Frost, John

1849 The Mexican War and its Warriors. Mansfield Publishers. New Haven.

1859 History of the Mexican War. Mansfield Publishers, New Haven.

Fuller, Colonel J. F. C.

1925 Sir John Moore's System of Training. London.

Furber, George C.

1848 The Twelve Months Volunteer; or, Journal of a Private in the Tennessee Regiment of Cavalry in the Campaign in Mexico, 1846-47. J.A. & U.P. James, Cincinnati. The author was a veteran of Scott's campaign. This is considered one of the best contemporary works. It emphasizes four topics: camp life; physical description of the country; manners and customs of Mexicans as Furber saw them; and military operations. In Furber's mind, the Mexicans caused the war.

Ganoe, William Addleman

1942 The History of the United States Army. D. Appleton-Century Company, New York.

Garavaglia, Louis A. and Charles G. Worman

1984 Firearms of the American West 1803-1865. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

General Orders No. 36

1839 The Regulations for the Uniform and Dress of the Army of the United States. Washington, D.C.

Gibbon, Lieutenant John

1860 The Artillerist's Manual. D. Van Norstrand, New York. Although printed 14 years after Palo Alto, its specification tables are still relevant to the Mexican-American War (Steven Allie, personal communication 1993).

Glover, E. U. 1937

Vegetational Survey of the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. Papers of the Department of Botany and Botanical Gardens of the University of Michigan 265. Vol. 4, Ann Arbor.

Glover, Michael

1978 The Napoleonic Wars: An Illustrated History. Hippocrene Books, New York. Minimal information on arms, equipment and tactics.

Gluckman, Arcadi

1965 Identifying Old U.S. Muskets, Rifles and Carbines. Bonanza Books, New York.

Gould, F. W.

1978 Common Texas Grasses: An Illustrated Guide. Texas A&M University Press, College Station.

Gould, Richard A.

1983 The Archaeology of War: Wrecks of the Spanish Armada of 1588 and the Battle of Britain, 1940. In Shipwreck Anthropology. Richard A. Gould, ed., School of American Research Book, University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque.

Graebner, Norman A.

1959 Empire on the Pacific: A Study in American Continental Expansion. Ronald Press Co., New York.

Grant, Ulysses S.

1885 Personal Memoirs of U.S. Grant. Charles L. Webster Co., New York. Some interesting, wry observations concerning events leading up to the Mexican-American War, as well as anecdotes about Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. Grant believed this was a most shameful war on the part of an aggressive United States.

Gregory, T. and A. J. G. Rogerson

1984 Metal-detecting in Archaeological Excavation. Antiquity Vol. LVIII, pp. 179-184, Gloucester, England.

Haecker, Charles M.

1992a Nails, Cans, and Miscellaneous Metal Artifacts. In Archaeological Investigations at Fort Craig, The Second Season. Archaeological and Historical Research Institute, Report 1992-1. Peggy A. Gerow, ed. and principal author. Prepared for the BLM Socorro Resource Area, New Mexico, Albuquerque.

1992b Research Proposal for the Archeological Survey of Palo Alto Battlefield. Proposal submitted to Texas SHPO, Austin, by NPS Southwest Regional Office.

Hamilton, Holman

1941 Zachary Taylor, Soldier of the Republic. Bobbs-Merrill, Indianapolis. Pro-Taylor.

Hamilton, T. M.

1964 Recent Developments in the Use of Gunflints for Dating and Identification. In Diving into the Past: Theories, Techniques and Applications of Underwater Archaeology. June Drenning Holmquist and Ardis Hillman Wheeler, eds. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.

Hanson, Lee and Dick Ping Hsu

1975 Casemates and Cannonballs, Archeological Investigations at Fort Stanwix, Rome, New York. National Park Service Publications in Archeology 14, Washington, D.C.

Hartje, Robert G.

1967 Van Dorm, the Life and Times of a Confederate General. Vanderbilt University Press, Jackson, Mississippi.

Haythornthwaite, Philip J.

1979 Weapons and Equipment of the Napoleonic Wars. Blandford Press, Poole, Dorset, England. Detailed information on arms and tactics that is relevant as to how Mexican-American War battles were conducted by both sides.

1990 The Napoleonic Source Book. Facts on File, New York. An excellent source on infantry, cavalry and artillery tactics of the period.

Hefter, Joseph, Angelina Nieto and Mrs. Nicholas Brown

1958 The Mexican Soldier 1837-1847. Military Historical Documents 1. Nicholas Brown, Angelina Nieto and J. Hefter, Pubis. and Eds., Mexico City. A classic, specifically deals with the Mexican soldier of that period; color and line drawing illustrations of Mexican uniforms and equipment; the author admits the illustrations represent the ideal and not the real, insofar as what the Mexican soldier of the period really wore and used in battle.

Henry, Robert Selph

1950 The Story of the Mexican War. The Bobbs-Merrill Company, Inc, New York. Well researched and presented in a readable style; however, it is now out of date since a great deal of recent scholarship has taken place since its publication.

Henry, William Seaton

1973 Campaign Sketches of the War with Mexico. Arno Press, New York. Originally printed in 1847. A diary of Taylor's operations; interesting descriptions of everyday camp life as well as battles and skirmishes. Henry was breveted Major for his actions at Monterrey.

Herskovitz, Robert M.

1978 Fort Bowie Material Culture. Anthropological Papers of the University of Arizona 31, The University of Arizona Press, Tucson.

Hickox, Ron G.

1984 U.S. Military Edged Weapons of the Second Seminole War 1835-1842. Ron G. Hickox, Publ., Gainesville, Florida. Detailed line drawings of swords; has some relevance regarding U.S. equipage used during the Mexican-American War.

Hicks, Major James E.

1940 Notes on United States Ordnance, Volume I: Small Arms, 1776-1946. James E, Hicks, Publisher, Mount Vernon, New York. With excellent line drawings by Andre Jandot, this is one of the clearest and most useful general coverages of U.S. regulation firearms.

Hooker, T.

1976 Uniforms of the Mexican Army, 1837-1847, Part 1. Tradition, The Journal of the International Society of Military Collectors 65, London.

1976 Uniforms of the Mexican Army, 1837-1847, Part 1. Tradition, The Journal of the International Society of Military Collectors 66, London.

Houston, Donald E.

1972 The Role of Artillery in the Mexican War. Journal of the West XI (2), pp. 273-284, April.

Hoyt, E.

1811 Practical Instructions for Military Officers. John Denio, Publ. Greenwood, Massachusetts. Reprinted in 1971 by Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.

Hughes, Major-General B.P.

1969 British Smooth-bore Artillery, the Muzzle Loading Artillery of the 18th and 19th Centuries. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, Pa. Detailed line drawings.

Huntington, R. T.

1967 Dragoon Accouterments and Equipments, 1834-1849: An Identification Guide. Plains Anthropologist Vol. 12:38.

1987 Accoutrements of the United States Infantry, Riflemen, and Dragoons 1834-1839. Museum Restoration Service, Alexandria Bay, New York.

Huston, James A.

1966 The Sinews of War: Army Logistics 1775-1953. Office of the Chief of Military History, Washington, D.C.

Irey, Thomas R.

1972 Soldiering, Suffering, and Dying in the Mexican War. Journal of the West XI (2).

Israel, Fred L. (editor)

1968 1897 Sears Roebuck Catalog. Chelsea House Publishers, New York.

Ivey, Jake

1992 Reconnaissance Report on the Palo Alto Battlefield. Report on file with the National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, Division of History, Santa Fe.

Jahrsdoerfer, S. E. and D. M. Leslie, Jr.

1988 Tamaulipan Brushland of the Lower Rio Grande Valley of South Texas. U.S. Fish and Wildlife Biological Report 88(30).

James, Garry

1983 The Historic Baker Rifle. Guns & Ammo. November 1983. pp. 52-56.

Jenkins, Dan

1973 Military Buttons of the Gulf Coast 1711-1830. Museum of the City of Mobile, Mobile, Alabama.

Jenkins, John S.

1851 History of the War Between the United States and Mexico. J.E. Potter, Philadelphia.

Johnson, David F.

1948 Uniform Buttons, American Armed Forces 1784-1948. 2 vols. Watkins Glen, New York.

Johnson, M. C.

1952 Vegetation of Eastern Cameron County. Unpublished M.S. Thesis, University of Texas, Austin.

1962 Past and Present Grasslands of Southern Texas and Northern Mexico. Ecology (44), pp. 456-466.

Katcher, Philip R.

1976 The Mexican-American War, 1846-1848. Osprey Publishers, London.

Keegan, J.

1978 The Face of Battle. Biddies, London.

Keegan, J. and R. Holmes

1986 Soldiers. Viking Penguin, Inc., New York.

Kendrick, G.

1967 The Antique Bottle Collector. Western Printing and Publishing Company, Sparks, Nevada.

Kenmotsu, Nancy

1990 Gunflints: A Study. Historical Archaeology 24(2):92-124. A thorough, analytical approach; especially informative regarding gunflint edgewear.

Koury, Michael J.

1973 Arms for Texas, A Study of the Weapons of the Republic of Texas. The Old Army Press, Fort Collins, Colorado.

Larnard, Captain Charles H.

1846 Inventory of Property Captured from the Mexican Army May 9, 1846. National Archives and Records Service, Record Group 94, Records of the Adjutant General's Office 1780s-1917, Letters Received (Main Series), File T-160-AGO-1846, Washington, D.C.

Lewis, Berkeley R.

1956 Small Arms and Ammunition in the United States Service. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

1960 Small Arms and Ammunition in the United States Service, 1776-1865. Smithsonian Miscellaneous Collections Vol. 29. Smithsonian Institution, Washington, D.C.

Lewis, Lloyd

1950 Captain Sam Grant. Little, Brown and Company, New York. Personal insights into Grant as a young lieutenant during the Mexican War; uses letters, documents, extensive quotes; enjoyable reading.

Lonard, R. I., J. H. Everitt, F. W. Judd and N. A. Browne

1991 Woody Plants of the Lower Rio Grande Valley, Texas. University of Texas, Austin.

López, Uraga José

1846 Sumaria Mandada Formar a Pedimento del Sr. Coronel del 4th Regimiento de Infanteria. Navarro, Mexico. A 34-page defense of the actions of Mexican officers at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma.

Lord, Philip, Jr.

1989 War Over Walloonscoick, Land Use and Settlement Pattern on the Bennington Battlefield—1777. New York State Museum Bulletin 473, Albany.

Lotbiniere, Seymour de

1980 English Gunflint Making in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries. Colonial Frontier Guns. The Fur Press, Chadron, Nebraska.

Marshall, S.L.A.

1978 Men Against Fire. Peter Smith, ed. Gloucester, Mass.

Martin, C. O. and Hehnke, A.

1981 South Texas Potholes—Their Status and Value as Wildlife Habitat. Wetlands (1):pp. 19-46.

Masland, Sgt. Major Charles

1846 Published letter of Sgt. Major Charles Masland, describing the march of Taylor's command from Corpus Christi to Matamoros, March 8-28, 1846. Masland letter filed at U.S. Army Military History Institute, Carlisle Barracks, Carlisle, Pa.

McCaffrey, James M.

1992 Army of Manifest Destiny, The American Soldier in the Mexican War 1846-1848. New York University Press, New York. Describes varied backgrounds, attitudes, training of the American soldier during this period; battlefield accounts.

McCall, Major General George A.

1974 Letters From the Frontiers. University Press of Florida, Gainesville. Originally printed in 1868. Contains a section on Mexican-American War experiences.

Mcintosh, Brevet Colonel J. S.

1846 Report submitted to the Office of Adjutant General on the military actions of the Fifth Infantry Regiment at Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma, dated December 3, 1846. Copy on file at National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, Division of Anthropology. Santa Fe.

McKee, W. Reid and M. E, Mason, Jr.

1980 Civil War Projectiles II, Small Arms & Field Artillery with Supplement. Moss Publications.

McKinney, Francis F.

1961 Education in Violence, The Life of George H. Thomas and the Army of the Cumberland. Wayne State University Press, Detroit. Thomas was an artillery officer who served with Braxton Bragg during the Mexican siege of Fort Texas.

McNulty, Robert H.

1973 A Study of Bayonets in the Department of Archaeology, Colonial Williamsburg with Notes on Bayonet Identification. In Colonial Williamsburg Occasional Papers in Archaeology, Vol. I: Five Artifact Studies. Colonial Williamsburg Foundation. Williamsburg, Virginia.

McWhiney, Grady, (Editor)

1969 To Mexico with Taylor and Scott 1845-1847 Blaisdell Publishing Company, Waltham, Massachusetts.

Meade, George

1913 The Life and Letters of George G. Meade, Major-General United States Army, Vol. 1. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Meade was an officer under both Taylor and Scott; rather acerbic observations about Taylor's competency or lack thereof.

Mejía, Francisco

1846 Sumaria Mandada Formar a Pedimento...en los Puntos del Palo Alto y Resaca de Guerrero. Navarro, Mexico. A 40-page pamphlet; one of several "explanations" as to why the Mexicans lost the first two battles of the war.

Meuse, William A.

1965 The Weapons of the Battle of New Orleans. The Battle of New Orleans 150th Anniversary Committee of Louisiana. Charles L. Dufour and Leonard V. Huber, eds., Louisiana Landmarks Society (New Orleans Chapter), New Orleans. General information on weaponry, with some application to the Mexican-American War.

Miller, Robert Ryal

1989 Shamrock and Sword, the Saint Patrick's Battalion in the U.S.-Mexican War. University of Oklahoma Press. Norman. This battalion, composed of U.S. deserters, fought for Mexico.

Mills, Surgeon Madison

1846 Diary of Surgeon Madison Mills, March 11, 1846-November 6, 1847. Copied by Mrs. Joseph Gray from the original diary and given to the Filson Club by Mrs. Gray, Louisville, Kentucky, September 1933. Original Ms. on file, Filson Club, Jefferson, Kentucky.

Montrose, Lynn

1960 War Through the Ages. London.

Mordecai, Alfred

1841 Ordnance Manual for the Use of Officers of the United States Army. Washington.

1849 Artillery for the United States Land Service. 2 vols. J. and G. S. Gideon, Washington, D.C. The first volume of text and the second (folio) volume of plates represent the most detailed and exhaustive compilation of American artillery equipment in print to date.

Morrell, L. Ross and B. Calvin Jones

1970 The Fort Pierce Collection. Bureau of Historic Sites and Properties Bulletin 1, Florida Department of State, Tallahassee.

Muller, John

1780 A Treatise of Artillery. London.

Naisawald, L. Van Loan

1960 Grape and Canister, the Story of the Field Artillery of the Army of the Potomac, 1861-1865. Oxford University Press, New York.

Nance, Joseph M.

1963 After San Jacinto: The Texas-Mexican Frontier, 1836-1841. Austin.

National Park Service

1979 Study of Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site, Texas. National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, Santa Fe.

1980 Cultural Resources Management Guideline NPS-28, Release 1. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

1982 History and Prehistory in the National Park System and National Landmarks Program. National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, Division of History, Santa Fe.

1992 Task Directive General Management Plan Environmental Impact Statement and Related Studies for the Palo Alto Battlefield National Historic Site. Package 100. August. National Park Service, Brownsville, Texas.

Nesmith, Samuel P.

1986 Analysis of Military Related Artifacts. In La Villita Earthworks (41 BX 677): San Antonio, Texas, a Preliminary Report of Investigations of Mexican SiegeWorks at the Battle of the Alamo. Joseph H. Labadie, ed., Center for Archaeological Research, Archaeological Survey Report 159, University of Texas, San Antonio.

1992 Military Artifacts. In Archeological Investigations in Alamo Plaza, San Antonio, Bexar County, Texas. 1988 and 1989 by Anne A. Fox, Center for Archaeological Research, The University of Texas at San Antonio, Archaeological Survey Report 205.

Neumann, George C. and Frank J. Kravic

1975 Collector's Illustrated Encyclopedia of the American Revolution. Stackpole Books, Harrisburg, PA.

Nevin, David

1978 The Mexican War. Time-Life Books, Alexandria.

New York Herald

1846 "Battles Along the Rio Grande". 28 May, p. 2. New York.

Nichols, Edward J.

1963 Zach Taylor's Little Army. Doubleday and Company, Inc., Garden City, New York. Appears well researched but lacks documentation; a readable narrative.

Niles National Register

1846 "War News": May 30, p. 196; June 6, pp. 215-217; June 13, pp. 229-234; June 20, pp. 249-255; June 27, p. 264. Weekly newspaper published in Baltimore. The weekly news magazine of its day; good, relatively objective reporting.

Noël Hume, Ivor

1969 Historical Archaeology. Alfred Knopf, New York.

Nonte, J.

1975 Firearms Encyclopedia. Harper and Row.

Oberholser, H. C.

1974 The Bird Life of Texas. 2 vols. University of Texas Press, Austin.

Olsen, Stanley J.

1962 Uniform Buttons as Aids in the Interpretation of Military Sites. Curator 5(4):346-352. American Museum of Natural History, New York.

1963 Dating Early Plain Buttons by Their Form. American Antiquity 28(4):551-554.

Ordnance Board

1846 Proceedings of March, 1846. Textual Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance, Record Group 156, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Ordnance Department

1924 Handbook of the 75-mm. Gun and Materiel. Originally published 1918. Government Printing Office Print 1817, Washington.

Orga, Josef de

1808 Prontuario en Que Se Nan Reunido las Obligaciones del Soldado, Cabo y Sargento. Valencia.

Parker, Gen. James

1914 War Dept., Adjutant General's Office, 25 March, 1914. Subject: Placing of suitable tablets to mark battlefield of Palo Alto. Copy on file at National Archives, RG 94, Records of the Adjutant General's Office, 1780s-1917, Washington, D.C.

Parvin, B.

1988 The Disappearing Wild Lands of the Rio Grande Valley. Parks and Wildlife 46: pp. 2-15.

Peck, Lieutenant John James

1970 The Sign of the Eagle, A View of Mexico 1830-1855, Based on the Letters of Lieutenant John James Peck, with Lithographs of Mexico. A Copley Book, commissioned by James S. Copley, Union-Tribune Publishing Co., San Diego. Period illustrations of Mexico interspersed with texts dealing with American views of Mexican culture during the early-mid nineteenth century.

Peterson, Harold L.

1969 Round Shot and Rammers. Bonanza Books. New York. A solid introduction to the history and evolution of artillery from the sixteenth century to the Civil War; in addition to guns, there are sections on ammunition, loading and firing equipment, gunners instruments, etc.; analysis of the role of artillery in each era; copious drawings, no photos.

Peterson, Harold L.

1954 The American Sword, 1775-1945. R. Halter, New Hope, PA. Considered a classic work in the field.

1956 Arms and Armor in Colonial America. Stackpole Co., Harrisburg, PA.

Pierce, Frank C.

1917 A Brief History of the Rio Grande Valley. George Banta Publishing Company, Menasha, Wisconsin.

Pletcher, David M.

1973 The Diplomacy of Annexation: Texas, Oregon and the Mexican War. University of Missouri Press, Columbia.

Plitt, Walter E., III

1992 Palo Alto Battlefield National Park, a Metal Detector Survey. Ms. prepared for the National Park Service, Contract No. PX 7029-1-0406. On file at National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, Division of Anthropology, Santa Fe.

Portmess, Reverend John

1893 Speech given at the commemoration of a monument dedicating the Battle of Palo Alto, 8 May, 1893. Copy in the files of A.A. Champion (deceased), Brownsville, Texas, and National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, Division of Anthropology, Santa Fe.

Preston, Richard A.

1956 Men at Arms, a History of Warfare and Its Interrelationships With Western Society. Frederick A. Praeger, New York.

Ramsey, Albert C. (editor)

1850 The Other Side: Or Notes for the History of the War Between Mexico and the United States. Translated from the Spanish and edited by Albert C. Ramsey, John Wiley, New York. First published in Mexico City, by Ramon Alcaraz, et al.

Rappole, J. H. and J. Klicka

1991 Status of Six Populations of Rio Grande Birds. Report to U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Caesar Kleberg Wildlife Research Institute, Kingsville, Texas.

Rayburn, John C., Virginia K. Rayburn and Ethel N. Fry (editors)

1966 Century of Conflict 1821-1913, Incidents in the Lives of William Neale and William A. Neale, Early Settlers in Texas. Texian Press, Waco.

Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance

1842 Record Group 156. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

1845 Record Group 156. National Archives, Washington, D.C. Statement from Fort Monroe Arsenal.

1846 House Committee Report 86, 28th Congress, 2nd Session, Serial No. 468. Washington, D.C.

Records of the Office of the Chief of Ordnance

1855 Senate Ex. Doc. No. 1, 34th Cong. 1st Session, Serial No. 811.

Richard, Norman L. and Dr. Alfred T. Richardson

1993 Biological Inventory, Natural History, and Human Impact of Palo Alto Battlefield. Ms. submitted to National Park Service, Denver Service Center, Denver.

Ripley, R. S.

1970 The War With Mexico. Two vols. Burt Franklin, New York. Originally published in 1849. The earliest major history of the war; detailed and accurate considering its early date; a good account of Palo Alto. The major causes of the war are mentioned objectively without discussion or interpretation, and Ripley does not attempt to affix blame or culpability on either nation. The author, a professional soldier and officer in Scott's command, was more interested in the military engagements, but perceptively discusses the effects of both U.S. and Mexican domestic politics.

Rives, George Lockhart

1913 The United States and Mexico 1821-1848. 2 vols. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York. Most of Volume II pertains to the Mexican-American War; considered by some historians to be an especially valuable account; useful and accurate battle maps.

Roa Barcena, Jose Maria

1947 Recuerdos de la Invasion Norte-Americana, 1846-1848, por un Joven de Entonces. Buxo, Editorial Porrua, S.A. Considered the standard work from the Mexican viewpoint. Most of the book deals with military actions for which the author frequently praises the Mexican troops. The author states the war was caused by U.S. expansionism; some U.S. historians, for example, Justin Smith (1915:96-98), found the work partisan (presumably unlike U.S. historians?) and thus unreliable.

Robertson, Brian

1985 Wild Horse Desert. New Santander, Edinburg. Texas.

Robertson, Victoria

1976 The Newtown Neck Site: A Surface Collection. Ms. on file, George Washington University, Washington, D.C.

Rodenbough, T. F.

1875 From Everglade to Cañon With the Second Dragoons (Second United States Cavalry). D. Van Nostrand, New York. Romantic account, minimally useful.

Roper, Donna C.

1976 Lateral Displacement of Artifacts Due to Plowing. American Antiquity 41 (3):372-375.

Rosebush, Waldo E.

1958 Frontier Steel, The Men and Their Weapons. C.C. Nelson Publishing Company, Appleton, Wisconsin.

Ruppe, R. J.

1966 The Archeological Survey: A Defense. American Antiquity 31 (3):313-333.

Russell, Buchanan A.

1954 George Washington Trahern: Texan Cowboy Soldier From Mier to Buena Vista. Southwestern Historical Quarterly, LVIII (1).

Sanchez, Joseph P.

1980 The Defeat of the Army of the North in South Texas: An Examination of Mexican Military Operations in the First Battles of the Mexican War. Ms. on file at the National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, Santa Fe.

1985 General Mariano Arista at the Battle of Palo Alto, Texas, 1846: Military Realist or Failure? Journal of the West (24)2:8-22. April. A thorough, scholarly account of General Arista's actions before, during and after Palo Alto.

Scarritt, Lieutenant M.

1846 Letter written May 12, 1846, describing the battles of Palo Alto and Resaca de la Palma. Photocopies on file, National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, Division of Anthropology, Santa Fe.

Scifres, C. J., J. W. McAlee and D. L. Drawe

1980 Botanical, Edaphic, and Water Relationships of Gulf Cordgrass (Spartina spartinae) and Associated Communities. Southwestern Nature 25:397-410.

Scott, Douglas D., Richard A. Fox, Jr., Melissa A. Connor and Dick Harmon

1989 Archaeological Perspectives on the Battle of the Little Bighorn. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Scott, Major-General Winfield

1840 Infantry Tactics, or, Rules for the Exercise and Manoevres of the United States Infantry, Vol. 1, Schools of the Soldier and the Company. Reprinted from the original copy by McCrain Publishing Company, Dallas.

Shafer, Harry J.

1974 An Archeological Reconnaissance of the Brownsville Relocation Study Area. Texas A & M University Anthropology Laboratory Report 1, Texas A&M University, College Station.

Simmons, Marc and Frank Turley

1980 Southwestern Colonial Ironwork, The Spanish Blacksmithing Tradition from Texas to California. Museum of New Mexico Press, Santa Fe.

Simon, Andre L.

1957 The Noble Grapes and the Great Wines of France. McGraw-Hill Book Company, Inc., New York.

Simon, John Y., (editor)

n.d. The Papers of Ulysses S. Grant, Vol. 1: 1837-1861. Southern Illinois University Press, Carbondale and Edwardsville, Illinois.

Smith, Lieutenant Edmund Kirby

1846 Letter written by Lieutenant Edmund Kirby Smith to his mother and father, dated May 13, 1846. Original letter at Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.

Smith, Captain Ephraim Kirby

1917 To Mexico with Scott, Letters of Captain E. Kirby Smith to His Wife. Emma Jerome Blackwood, ed., Harvard University Press, Cambridge.

Smith, George Winston and Charles Judah (editors)

1968 Chronicles of the Gringos, the U.S. Army in the Mexican War, 1846-1848. University of New Mexico Press, Albuquerque. A chronologically arranged collection of excerpts from first hand accounts of U.S. participants in the war.

Smith, Justin H.

1915 Official Military Reports. American Historical Review Vol. XXI, pp. 96-98. A brief essay on the trustworthiness of military reports for historical purposes.

1919 The War with Mexico. 2 vols. Macmillan, Gloucester, Massachusetts. Originally published in 1919. Detailed research with copious citations and extensive use of primary resources, including manuscripts from the Mexican archives. Smith's interpretation of the war indicates he was obviously biased in favor of Manifest Destiny.

Society of Historical Archaeology Newsletter

1993 Military Sites Archaeology Forum. SHA Newsletter 26(2). Norman F. Barka, editor. William and Mary College, Williamsburg.

South, Stanley

1964 Analysis of the Buttons from Brunswick Town and Fort Fisher. Florida Anthropologist 17(2):113-133.

1977 Method and Theory in Historical Archeology. Academic Press, New York.

Spirit of the Times

1842 Periodical, dated September 10, 1842.

Steffen, Randy

1977 The Horse Soldier 1776-1943, Volume I: The Revolution, the War of 1812, the Early Frontier 1776-1850. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Stewart, J. W.

1887 Map showing troop movements at the battle of Palo Alto. Map copy on file at Brownsville Historical Association, Brownsville, Texas.

Switzer, Ronald R.

1974 The Bertrand Bottles, A Study of 19th-Century Glass and Ceramic Containers. National Park Service, Washington, D.C.

Taylor, Zachary

1846 Mexican War Correspondence. 30th Congress, 1st session, House Ex. Doc. 60. Washington, D.C.

Tewes, M. E. and D. D. Everett

1982 Study of the Endangered Ocelot Occurring in Texas. Year End Report, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Albuquerque.

Thompson, Waddy, Esq.

1846 Recollections of Mexico. Wiley and Putnam, New York.

Thorpe, T. B.

1950 Our Army on the Rio Grande. First published in 1846. Carey and Hart, Philadelphia.

Todd, Frederick P.

1980 American Military Equipage, 1851-1872. Charles Scribner's Sons, New York.

Torres, V. Garcia (editor)

1846 Instruccion Para la Infanteria Ligera del Ejercito Mexicano, Mandada Observar por el Supremo Gobierno. Mexico City.

Tutorow, Norman E. (editor)

1981 The Mexican-American War, An Annotated Bibliography. Greenwood Press, Westport, Connecticut.

Twiggs, Colonel D. E.

1846 Field report by the right wing commander, Army of Occupation, on right wing actions of the U.S. Army during the battle of Palo Alto. Reported in 29th Congress, 1st Session, House Executive Document 209, pp. 19-20, Reports From General Taylor, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Ordnance

1841 The Ordnance Manual for the Use of the Officers of the United States Army. U.S. Ordnance Dept., Washington, D.C. In addition to ordnance information, it contains detailed descriptions of ancillary equipment, such as regulation saddlery and harness.

U.S. War Department

1841 General Regulations for the Army of the United States, 1841, U.S. War Dept., Washington, D.C.

1846 Annual Report for 1846, p. 147. Annual Reports of the War Department, 1822-1907, National Archives Microfilm Publications M997, Rolls 7-9. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

1847 Annual Report for 1847, p. 684. Annual Reports of the War Department, 1822-1907, National Archives Microfilm Publications M997, rolls 7-9. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

1848 Annual Report for 1848, p. 343. Annual Reports of the War Department, 1822-1907, National Archives Microfilm Publications M997, rolls 7-9. National Archives, Washington, D.C.

Warner Lambert Pharmaceutical Co.

1993 Letter dated March 9, 1993, regarding the history of the Richard Hudnut Co. Letter on file at National Park Service, Southwest Regional Office, Division of Anthropology, Santa Fe.

Washington Globe

1845 Article on respective qualities of U.S. and Mexican troops. Newspaper published in Washington, D.C., 15 October, 1845.

Webster, Donald B., Jr.

1965 American Socket Bayonets 1717-1873. Museum Restoration Service Historical Arms Series 3, Ottawa.

Wilcox, General Cadmus M.

1892 History of the Mexican War. Mary Rachel Wilcox, ed. The Church News Publishing Company, Washington, D.C. Largely concerned with military actions about which Wilcox, as an aide to first Taylor then Scott, was qualified to write.

Williams, De Wayne, Charles M. Thompson and Jerry Jacobs

1977 Soil Survey of Cameron County, Texas. United States Department of Agriculture, Soil Conservation Service, in cooperation with the Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Dallas.

Wood, W. Dean and Karen G. Wood

1990 Soldiers and Citizens: Civil War Actions Around Latimer Farm, Cobb County, Georgia. Report prepared for Marietta Country Club, by Southeastern Archeological Services, Inc., Athens, Georgia.

Woodward, Arthur

1953 Spanish Trade Goods, In The Sobaipuri Indians of the Upper San Pedro River Valley, Southeastern Arizona. The Amerind Foundation, Inc. Report 6. Charles C. Di Peso, ed., Dragoon, Arizona. Line drawings, photos of Spanish Colonial artifacts, with some relevance to mid-nineteenth century Mexican material culture, for example, horse trappings.

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Last Updated: 25-Feb-2009