The Defense of Guam
1941: FATEFUL AND TRAGIC YEAR
(The following synopsis of events, compiled by Tony Palomo, covers
the period from January to December 1941, portrays Guam "as it was" and
the incidents which culminated in the outbreak of the Pacific
The famous Pan Am Clippers brought Guam
on-line with the world with their regular weekly stop-overs.
U.S. Ambassador to Japan Joseph C. Grew warned the State
Department that the Japanese might "attempt a surprise attack on Pearl
Harbor, using all their military facilities."
President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued Executive Order No. 8683
establishing "security clearance" programs in Guam and American Samoa.
The order stated, in part: "The territorial waters between the high
water marks and the three-mile marine boundaries surrounding the islands
of Rose, Tutuila and Guam, in the Pacific Ocean, are hereby established
and reserved as Naval Defense Sea Areas for purposes of national defense
. . . and the airspaces over the said territorial waters and islands are
hereby set apart and reserved as Naval Airspaces Reservations for the
purpose of national defense. . ."
Annual observance of "Flag Day" held. Program included the
singing of the following songs by school children: "Pledge to the Flag,"
"I Love My Country And My Flag," "Flag of the Free," and "God Bless
Advertisements in the monthly Guam Recorder included those
of Pan American World Airways, which claimed that "By Air Express, the
Philippines are only one day away, China or Hawaii two days, the United
States three days," adding: "Let us help you give wings to your
business;" the Gaity Theatre (Home of Good Pictures) offering the
following attractions: "The Ramparts We Watch," "Boom Town," "Bad Man of
Wyoming," and "City of Conquest." The Agana Theatre, on the other hand,
offered late releases from Paramount, 20th Century Fox and Republic
Pictures. Limtiaco's Taxi Service was "always open, always on time,"
just phone 108-R; and competitor Bordallo's Taxi Service was "at your
service day and nightcourteous chauffers." Mrs. K. Sawada offered
all kinds of beer, including Pabst, Lucky Lager, Burgermeister, Eureka,
Pilsengold, and San Diego Quality. She also sold California wines and
Schenley's Old Quaker rye whiskey.
Naval Station announced plans for the construction of a new
officers' quarters at an estimated cost of $277,000.
Guam Militia Carnival Queen and
entourage at annual festival.
The United States and Japan commenced negotiations in Washington,
D.C., the purpose of which was an attempt to avoid war in Asia and the
Admiral Chester Nimitz, chief of the Bureau of Navigation,
recommended to the Chief of Naval Operations that the Guam Insular Force
be increased by "20 men in various ratings in the Insular Force assigned
to the Naval Station," and an additional "100 men to provide for
essential security details of the island."
Guam Militia Carnival was held at Bradley Park in Anigua.
Highlight of the carnival was the crowning of the carnival queen, Miss
Rosario Baza Sayama, by Naval Governor George McMillin. A baby float
parade also was held in conjunction with the carnival. Deemed healthiest
baby was the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Ben Calvo. The cutest was the
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. John Underwood.
President Roosevelt announced that a large cruiser being built at
a New York shipyard will be named "USS Guam."
Author Tony Palomo pushes younger
brothers Eddie and Benigno in the annual Baby Float Parade.
Naval Governor McMillin reported to the Chief of Naval Operations
that two unknown aircraft were sighted over Guamon March 20 and
again on March 21. The planes turned out to be Japanese aircraft and the
Japanese foreign ministry eventually apologized for the airspace
Authority was received from the Navy Department to increase the
Guam Insular Force complement from 110 to 234.
Enrollment in Guam's schools totaled 4,775, of which 4,384 were
in the elementary grades and 391 in high school. Graduates during the
year were 297 from the elementary schools, 52 in junior high, and 23 in
senior high school. Valedictorian among the senior high school graduates
was Elizabeth de Leon Flores, and among junior high schoolers, Segundo
C. Aguon. Salutatorians were Thomas J. Johnston and Antonia de Leon
The Insular Force was originally organized in 1901 with nine
Oscar Lujan Calvo was ordained a Catholic priest. He was the
third Chamorro to receive Holy Orders, the previous being Padre Jose
Palomo and Father Jesus Baza Duenas.
Elections were held to fill seats in Guam's House of Council and
House of Assembly. The Congress was an advisory body whose authority was
limited to making recommendations to the naval governor. Elected to the
House of Assembly in 1941 were the following from Agana: Pedro T. Toves,
Jose V. Aguon, Felix M. Camacho, Jose D. Leon Guerrero, Jose (Chala)
Cruz, Eduardo T. Calvo, Joaquin L. Flores, Vicente Rosario, Jose C.
Torres, Trinidad T. Calvo, Juan P Sablan and Francisco D. Perez. From
outlying districts were Manuel T. Charfauros, Merizo; Jesus S. Quinata,
Umatac; Jesus D. Paulino, Inarajan; Enrique S. San Nicolas, Talofofo;
Jose B. Cepeda, Yona; Juan O. San Miguel, Sinajana; Juan C. Pereda,
Barrigada; Josc C. Torres, Yigo; Francisco R. Castro, Machanao Manuel S.
Rojas, Asan; Pedro C. Santos, Piti; Antonio Won Pat, and Felix T.
Dydasco, Sumay; and Jose S. Rivera, Agat. Elected to the House of
Council from outlying districts were Gaily R. Kamminga, Piti; Juan C.
Lizama, Sumay; Francisco Q Sanchez, Umatac; Enemesio S.N. Diego,
Inarajan; Vicente M. Flores, Barrigada and Jose D. Perez, Yigo.
A pre-war class of high school graduates.
Island-wide tuberculosis survey was conducted by Dr. Ramon
Sablan, Guam's first local physician.
U.S. Congress appropriated $7 million for naval improvements in
Guam, principally improvements to the harbor.
President Roosevelt and British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
agreed on a plan (ABC-1) to concentrate American and British efforts
against Germany and a holding operation in the Pacific and Asia. They
approved a strategic triangle concept embracing Alaska to the north,
Hawaii to the west, and Panama to the south, committing their forces to
defending all points within the triangle.
Ernest Hemingway, American author, visited Guam while enroute to
Cuba from Hong Kong. Shortly thereafter, Henry Luce, co-founder of Time
and Life magazines, and his wife, Clare Booth Luce, stopped by Guam
while enroute to the United States after a visit to China.
Guam Insular Force was re-organized. The first enlistees reported
for duty and training April 10. The Insular Force was originally
organized in 1901 with nine members. The number increased to about 30 by
1908 and to more than 100 by 1917. During World War I, many of these men
transferred to the regular Navy.
Pan American Airways commenced recruiting workers to work at
airport facilities at Wake, Midway and Canton islands.
U.S. Congress approved Lend-Lease bill authorizing direct U.S.
arms aid to Great Britain in fight against Germany.
(top, left) Spanish Bishop Olano and
Padre Roman with Chamorro priests, from left: Fathers Jesus Baza Duenas,
Jose Manibusan, Bishop Olano, Father Oscar Calvo and Padre Roman.
(bottom, left) Members of the Guam Congress at the Congress Building
with Navy officials. Their authority was limited to making
recommendations to the naval governor. (right) Dr. Ramon Sablan, Guam's
first physician, composed the Guam Hymn.
Japanese government had expended $7 million for the fortification
of Saipan, Tinian and Pagan, the amount being part of $28 million spent
throughout mandated islands.
Governor McMillin urged the Chief of Naval Operations to have all
military dependents evacuated "immediately . . . because of
international situation in this area."
German forces invaded the Soviet Union.
U.S. commenced moving armaments to the Philippines.
Japanese war plans to seize Southeast Asia was completed
Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox approved plans for the Navy to
furnish transportation to four American Capuchin missionaries bound for
Guam. They were Fathers Alvin Lafeir, Mel McCormack, Arnold Bendowski,
and Brother Gabriel Badalamenti.
New public school was completed in Merizo.
Fiscal Year 1941 statistics showed the following:
a. Total population was 23,394, of which 21,994 were Chamorros, 812
were non-Chamorros, and 588 represented the naval colony.
"Operation Z" included
simultaneous invasions of Malaya, the Philippines, Wake, Guam, Borneo
b. Naval Station personnel included 210 Insular Force, 47 attached to
USS Penguin, 137 assigned to USS Gold Star, 54 attached to
Naval Hospital, 61 assigned to Naval Station, and 21 attached to the
Naval Radio Station.
c. A total of 150 local men enlisted as mess
attendants during the fiscal year. The number increased the total
Chamorro mess attendants to 628. The Bureau of Navigation had authorized
a maximum of 700 Chamorros in the mess attendant branch of the Navy.
d. Capital improvement projects completed during the
fiscal year included the Almagosa water system at a cost of $260,000;
site preparation for the construction of a 25,000-barrel fuel oil tank;
four fuel tanks owned by Standard Oil of California; and two fuel tanks
owned by Pan American Airways.
As of June, the island was still recovering from a major typhoon
which struck the island on November 3, 1940. Maximum winds was estimated
at 93 knots per hour with gusts exceeding 110 knots per hour. The
American Red Cross donated $10,000 in assistance to the civilian
USS Penguin returned from the Philippines where the vessel
underwent an overhaul.
The Navy Band was composed entirely of local Navy men.
Japanese troops moved further into French Indochina. The United
States responded by ordering a freeze on all Japanese assets in the
United States. During the previous year, Japanese troops moved into
French Indochina without resistance by the Vichy government. President
Roosevelt then imposed an embargo against Japan, prohibiting the
exportation of such commodities as gasoline, copper, scrap iron and
Douglas MacArthur was recalled to active duty as an Army major
general to mobilize the Philippine army. Ten million dollars was
allocated for the purpose.
In 1941, 137 of Guam's Naval Station
personnel were assigned to the U.S.S. Gold Star. On December 7th,
Guam's station ship was in the Philippines on a Christmas buying
A summit meeting between President Roosevelt and Prince Fumimaro
Konoye, Japanese prime minister, was proposed to help ease tension
between the two countries.
Nine B-17s flew from Hawaii to the Philippines. This was
beginning of planned air armada in the Philippines.
Governor McMillin received the following message from Admiral
R.E. Ingersoll, chief of naval operations: "Continuation of modified
naval censorship desired . . . for civilian population will be held in
abeyance pending procurement of personnel here for that purpose.
Qualified men difficult to obtain. However, a request has been made for
them but failing in this, it may be necessary for you to select part or
all of such censors from your command. Statement by air mail of your
exact problem in this regard will be helpful in planning at this
Pete Lobanos whipped Justo White in a six-round boxing match and
flyweight champ Joe Quenga retained his crown by out-punching "Tiny" Joe
Joe in a four-rounder.
A typhoon struck Guam but damages were minimal.
American flag flies above the Governors
Palace in pre-war Agana.
Japanese Admiral Isoroku Yamamoto's strategic plan for the attack
on Pearl Harbor was completed. "Operation Z" included simultaneous
invasions of Malaya, the Philippines, Wake, Guam, Borneo and
Pan American World Airways airport manager C.F. Gregg sent a
letter to Governor McMillin expressing his appreciation for assistance
rendered in repairing the Honolulu Clipper, which ran aground at Apra
Harbor on August 17.
Message sent from Tokyo to all Japanese naval fleet commanders:
"As condition becomes more and more critical, each and every ship (and
unit) will aim at being fully prepared for commencing war operations by
the first part of November. Individual ships (and units) will speed up
battle preparations while carrying out all scheduled drills and training
to the fullest extent so as to achieve maximum fighting power and to
enable them to perform their duties to perfection."
(left) Juan (Camacho) San Nicolas,
Police Force, 1938. (right) Miss Mariana Leon Guerrero who later married
Manual U. Lujan, a charter member of the Guam Legislature.
A total of 104 American military and civilian dependents were
evacuated from Guam to Hawaii and the West Coast. Dependents included
three wives and two children of PAA employees, and the wife of the
Atkins-Kroll Co. manager.
Prime Minister Konoye's cabinet fell; Army General Hideki Tojo
took over as prime minister.
This dispatch is to be considered
a war warning.
U.S. Naval General Board recommended against fortifying Guam. In
report to the Secretary of the Navy, dated October 23, 1941, the Board
in part: " . . . the development and fortification of Guam would take
many years before it could reach full effect; meanwhile, the island
would be open to threat, subject to unpredictable events, a source of
weakness while uncompleted, a source of irritation and growing fear to
the Japanese, and a potential asset to them if taken from us at an
intermediate stage of its development . . . if it is hoped to bring the
present negotiations with Japan to a satisfactory conclusion it would be
inadvisable, during their continuance to present to the Congress
estimates for the development and fortification of Guam as an air and
submarine base . . . under present conditions the vital interests of the
United States in the Western Hemisphere and the Atlantic are seriously
threatened, and it appears that all available material resources will be
required to meet the commitments of the lend-lease, the defense program
and essential domestic needs . . . the interests of the United States in
the Pacific east of Guam can be defended without the military
development of Guam and such development at this time might bring on a
war in the Pacific which the United States should seek to avoid until
the situation in the Atlantic is materially improved . . . The General
Board recommends that (a) Guam be not fortified under present
circumstances; (b) the current harbor development be continued to
completion; (c) Guam be not developed as a naval base, but that plans be
prepared and kept up to date for its development as a fully fortified
air and submarine base."
Japan government set end of October as deadline for reaching
agreement with the United States.
War alert was flashed to all U.S. Pacific bases: "Best
intelligence suggests Japan might attack Russia or British or Dutch
colonies within East Indies."
The first Japanese planes attacked Guam
at Sumay at 8:27 a.m. on December 8, 1941. Carmen Babauta, a Sumay
resident who had a new baby, remembers the panic in the village. "People
were crying, running. My husband ran to the house and yelled at me from
outside to grab the baby and run toward the church. We all tried to some
place to hide. You could hear the thatch and tin roofs ripping and
rattling all around. Everyone was crying and scared. We got together on
the back side of the church and hid there. We couldn't believe this was
happening to our village, to our peaceful island." Another eyewitness,
Jesus C. Lizama adds, "We thought it was the end of the
Ambassador Grew reminded State Department that failure to reach
an agreement with Japan could result in "all out do-or-die attempt
actually risking national Hara-Kiri to make Japan impervious to economic
embargoes rather than yield to foreign pressure."
Tokyo ordered Consul Kita in Honolulu to make "ships in harbor"
report twice weekly.
Japanese special envoy Saburo Kurusu stopped overnight in Guam
while enroute to Washington for peace talks. He spent the night at the
PanAm Hotel at Sumay.
Secretary of State Cordell Hull issued four-point demand to
Japanese government, to wit: (1) Withdraw from China, (2) withdraw from
French Indochina, (3) renounce Tripartite agreement with Germany and
Italy, and (4) honor the territorial integrity of China and other
President Roosevelt informed his cabinet that "we are likely to
be attacked next Monday (late November) for the Japs are notorious for
attacking without warning." He cabled Churchill: "We must all prepare
for real trouble, possibly soon."
Emperor Hirohito approved plan for attack on Pearl
Washington sent alert radioed to all commands: "negotiations with
Japan appear terminated . . . Japanese future action unpredictable but
hostile action possible at any moment. If hostilities cannot repeat
cannot be avoided the United States desires Japan commit the first
Japanese fleet, under Admiral Chuichi Nagumo, set sail for Pearl
Harbor from Hitokappu Bay, Japan November 27).
A war warning was issued by Washington officials to all military
commanders. The message read: "This dispatch is to be considered a war
warning. Negotiations with Japan looking toward stabilization of
conditions in the Pacific have ceased and an aggressive move by Japan is
expected within the next few days. The number and equipment of Japanese
troops and the organization of naval task forces indicate an amphibious
expedition against either the Philippines, Thai or Kra peninsula or
possibly Borneo. Execute an appropriate defensive deployment preparatory
to carrying out tasks assigned in WPL 46. Inform District and Army
authorities. A similar warning is being sent by War Department. Spenavo
(Special Naval Observer in London) inform British. Continental districts
Guam, Samoa directed to take appropriate measures against
Message from Chief First Section, Naval Section, Imperial
Headquarters, Japan, to fleet commanders: "Although there are
indications of several U.S. ships operating in the Aleutian areas, the
ships in the northern Pacific appear chiefly to be Russian ships. Known
Russian ships in that area are Uzbekistan (about 3,000 tons and
an estimated speed of 12 knots) and Azerbaidjan (6,114 tons and
estimated speed of less than 10 knots). The former left San Francisco on
the 12th, the latter on the 14th, and both are west-bound." (November
Message from Tokyo to all naval fleets: "Reported by Consul
General A1C (Honolulu). On the evening of 16 November, six U.S. cargo
ships, escorted by four destroyers, left A1C (Honolulu). According to
report, they are proceeding to ES (Singapore). (November 27)
Japanese Ambassador to Germany Oshima reported that German
Foreign Minister Ribbentrop had pledged: "Should Japan become engaged in
a war against the United States, Germany of course, would join the war
Prime Minister Tojo advised his cabinet and the Imperial General
Headquarters that there was no alternative but war, or "we'll lose our
chance to fight."
Message from Tokyo to all naval fleets: "All capital ships,
destroyers, submarines of the South Sea Force, and the Kiyokawa
Maru, are to maintain battle condition short wave silence, starting
1200 November 29th." (November 29)
Among those who defended Guam against
the Japanese ground force were Insular Force Guardsmen Pedro G. Cruz
(center) and Vicente C. Chargualaf (right). The two men manned a machine
gun on the northeast corner of the Plaza de Espana, at the cathedral.
They were joined at the last minute by a frightened t 8-year-old boy,
Roman E. Camacho who, defiant of orders for civilians to stay home, had
wanted to photograph events at the plaza. As Cruz manned the machine
gun, Camacho helped change the ammunition carriage and Chargualaf
covered them with a .45-caliber pistol. However, during this valiant
effort Chargualaf and Camacho were killed. Cruz is among the surviving
members of those who participated in the defense of Guam fifty years
Governor McMillin ordered to destroy all classified materials.
Those to be destroyed were "all secret and confidential publications and
other classified matter except that essential for current purposes and
Japanese fleet commenced attack on Pearl Harbor at 8 a.m. (4 a.m.
Guam time, December 8). Seven Guamanian navymen were killed when the USS
ARIZONA was sunk.
Message (secret instruction) from commander of South Seas Force
to all under his command: "A special message on the occasion of the
Declaration of War to all under my command. The critical time, which
calls for your putting your strength to the supreme test and for you to
prove your unequalled loyalty to the throne, has at last arrived.
Operational plans have been perfected, all preparations have been
completed, every officer shall reassure himself on being thoroughly
acquainted with every phase of the previously issued instructions,
fighting spirit must soar and strict alert maintained in order to
successfully carry out our plans. Take the initiative against the enemy
and be on your guard against attack from the enemy. Obtain control and
completely crush them by maintaining the closest of cooperation between
forces. Upon meeting the enemy, desperate strategy must be applied, if
it is found that contrary to your expectations, advancing on or holding
your line against the enemy is difficult. Although giving one's life may
be the means by which to pave the road to victory, remember that final
victory is achieved by those possessing the spirit of endurance to fight
through to the finish. It is strongly felt that in addition to the
operations of this force being very wide and varied, reaching into many
channels, the extent of success of each operation not only directly
affects the Combined fleet's operations, but will in the end have its
effect on the whole outcome of the war. Advance to strike, hold your own
on guard but in complete unity under the supreme command, always act in
accordance with your deep loyalty to the Imperial Throne, be a perfect
soldier first, accomplish your duty and deprive yourself, thus earn the
right to glory in victory."
Guam's military contingent
was comprised of 274 navymen, the 153
Marines and 242 Insular Force members. Their weaponry included three
Lewis machine guns, four Thompson submachine guns, six Browning
automatic pistols, fifty .30-caliber pistols, a dozen .22-caliber
regulation rifles, and 85 Springfield rifles.
Message from Emperor Hirohito to commander of Combined fleet: "I,
the Emperor, on the occasion of ordering the expedition, leave the
matter up to you, as commander in chief of the Combined Fleet. The
responsibility of the Combined Fleet is indeed a great one as the entire
rise or fall of our nation rests on its success or failure. You, the
Commander in Chief, must prove my trust by summoning all your resources,
acquired during the many years of training of our fleet towards
advancing on the enemy to annihilate it, and to prove to the whole world
the greatness of our forces."
USS Gold Star, Guam's station ship, was ordered by Asiatic
fleet to delay its departure for Guam "because of the international
situation." The Gold Star was in the Philippines on a buying
spree for the coming Christmas.
Japanese fleet commenced attack on Pearl Harbor at 8 a.m. (4 a.m.
Guam time, December 8). Seven Guamanian navymen were killed when the
USS Arizona was sunk. They were Gregorio S.N. Aguon, Nicolas S.
Fergurgur, Francisco Reyes Mafnas, Vicente Gogue Meno, Jose Sanchez
Quinata, Francisco U. Rivera, and Filomeno Santos.
0445Governor McMillin received flash alert from Asiatic
Fleet that Japanese fleet had attacked Pearl Harbor.
0800Thousands of island residents attended Catholic Mass in
observance of the annual feast of the Immaculate Conception.
0815Nine Japanese planes flew over Agana from the east and
heading towards Orote Peninsula where the Marine Barracks, Pan American
Hotel, fuel tanks were located. The planes came from Saipan, 145 miles
north of Guam.
0827First bombs fell. PanAm Hotel kitchen suffered direct
hit, killing Larry Lujan Pangelinan and Teddy Pores Cruz, young kitchen
workers. Fuel tank struck. After attack at Sumay, attacking aircraft
bombed and strafed Piti Navy Yard and then pursued USS Penguin
off Orote Point, strafing surveillance vessel and killing Ensign Robert
White and injurying many crewmembers.
Penguin crew scuttled the ship. Japanese planes made bombing runs
throughout the day, bombing and strafing selected targets, including
radio station at Libugon. Most Agana residents fled from the city by
nightfall. Governor McMillin ordered the arrest and detention of all
Japanese nationals. Those seized were confined at the Agana jail.
McMillin consulted with his military officers on plans to defend the
island, and with civilian leaders, including Pedro Martinez, who
inquired whether he should destroy his ice plant, thus denying the
Japanese use of the facility. McMillin told him the ice plant had no
strategic value, adding: "Pedro, during a war, the most important
consideration is survival. You have a large family and your prime
obligation is to take steps to insure their survival. I am finished as
far as this war is concerned but we will defeat the Japanese. The
Americans will come. My advice to you, Pedro, is let the Americans fight
1700Japanese planes returned to Saipan.
0830Japanese planes returned, bombed and strafed selected
targets throughout island. Three of eight Saipanese infiltrators were
apprehended and confined at the Agana jail. The infiltrators had sneaked
into the island at Ritidian Point the night before. By this time, Agana
and Sumay were virtual ghost towns.
0100Guam military defenders were deployed, the bulk of the
153 Marine contingent at Orote, and the Insular Force, navy personnel
and a handful of Marines in Agana. Guam's military contingent was
comprised of 274 navymen, the 153 Marines and 120 Insular Force
guardsmen. Their weaponry included three machineguns, four Thompson
submachine guns, six Browning automatic pistols, fifty .30-caliber
pistols, a dozen .22-caliber regulation rifles, and 85 Springfield
rifleswhich meant some of the military personnel were without
arms. The Japanese attack force included the South Seas Detachment, a
unit of about 5,500 army troops under the command of Major General
Tomitara Hori, and a special Navy land force of about 400 men drawn from
the 5th Defense Force stationed in Saipan.
0330Special Japanese naval force landed at Apurguan, about
a mile east of Agana. A sedan converted into a jitney and carrying 17
members of the Limtiaco family of Piti and enroute to Yigo was attacked.
Thirteen of the 17 perished. Others who were found along the way to
Agana were killed.
After a torrid exchange of fire, the honking of a
horn signaled cease fire and retreat. A Japanese officer shouted across
the Plaza from the Agana Cathedral area: "Your captain. You come out.
0400Governor McMillin received report that flares were seen
at the East Agana-Tamuning area. Most of the island's military personnel
in Agana were deployed at the Plaza de Espana. Heading the Plaza
defenders was Robert Bruce Lane, chief boatswainmate and the Insular
Guard's training officer. The three machine guns were assigned to
Guardsmen Pedro (Pedang) Cruz, Juan (Camudo) San Nicolas and Jose
0500Special Japanese force reached the Plaza area. After a
torrid exchange of fire, the honking of a horn signaled cease fire and
retreat. A Japanese officer shouted across the Plaza from the Agana
Cathedral area: "Your captain. You come out. Surrender." Governor
McMillin directed ander Giles and Chief Lane to approach the Japanese
troops. They were marched through the San Antonio district and made
contact with the commander of the Japanese navy landing force. They
returned to the Plaza half an hour later, accompanied by the Japanese
commander, Hayashi. Said Governor McMillin:"The leader of the squad of
Japanese who entered my quarters required me to remove my coat and
trousers before marching me into the Plaza, where officers and men were
being assembled, covered by machine guns." Among casualties at the Plaza
were Angel Flores, Vicente Chargualaf, Roman Camacho, John Kauffman, J.
Kleugel, Malvern Smoot, and Jesus Cruz.
0700Governor McMillin surrendered the island to the
Japanese, the first American territory to fall into enemy
After they were lined up on the plaza
facing the palace one of the Insular Guardsmen Pedro G. Cruz recalls
that he and the other captives were surprised to see the Japanese with
an American flag. "A group of Japanese spread the American flag on the
ground in front of us and shined flashlights on it. It is my opinion
that this was a signal to the planes flying overhead. To me, this is
when Guam surrendered."
Information obtained for the development of this
sequential listing of events came from various sources, including the
following: Navy files. Military Section. National Archives (particularly
those relating to intercepted Japanese messages); Library of Congress,
Washington. D.C.; Micronesia Area Research Center, University of Guam:
Nieves M. Flores Memorial Public Library. Agana: National Park Service;
Guam Recorder, Naval Governor George McMillin's report to
Secretary of the Navy; The Pacific War by John Costello; "And
I Was There" by Rear Admiral Edwin Layton; Turbulent Era by
Joseph C. Grew: Japan's Decision for War: Records of the 1941 Policy
Conferences by Nobutaka Ike; The Pacific Rivals by the staff
of the Asahi Shimbun; the Naval Governor's annual report for fiscal year
1941. and An Island in Agony by Tony Palomo.