FROM SHANGHAI TO CORREGIDOR: Marines in the Defense of the Philippines
by J. Michael Miller
The capture and subsequent loss in 1942 of the
original 4th Marines' records prove at first daunting to any researcher
of the period. The search for source material must begin with part IV of
LtCol Frank O. Hough, Maj Verle E. Ludwig, and Henry I. Shaw, Jr.'s
History of U.S. Marine Corps Operations in World War II, vol I,
Pearl Harbor to Guadalcanal (Washington: HistBr, G-3 Div, HQMC,
1958). This work proved to be the single best account of the regiment in
the fall of the Philippines.
Other works of value include Hanson W. Baldwin's "The
Fourth Marines on Corregidor," Marine Corps Gazette, Nov46-Feb47;
Louis Morton, The Fall of the Philippines, The War in the Pacific:
United States Army in World War II (Washington: Office of the Chief
of Military History, 1953). Also useful were James H. and William M.
Belote, Corregidor: The Saga of a Fortress (NY: Harper and Row,
1967); Reports of General MacArthur, vols I and II (Washington:
GPO, 1966); Carl M. Holloway, Happy, the POW, (Brandon,
Mississippi: Quail Ridge Press, 1981); Donald Versaw, The Last China
Band (Lakewood, California: Peppertree Publications, 1990); and
William R. Evans, Soochow and the 4th Marines (Rogue River,
Oregon: Atwood Publications, 1987).
The 4th Marines records which were brought out from
Corregidor by submarine or retrieved from the prison camps after the war
are found in the geographical and subject files in the Archives Section,
Marine Corps Historical Center. The Personal Papers Collection proved to
contain valuable items, including the Thomas R. Hicks journals, which
contain a daily record of events of the regiment. Also of use were the
Reginald H. Ridgely papers, Curtis T. Beecher memoir, Floyd O. Schilling
papers, Cecil J. Peart papers, James B. Shimel papers, Carter B. Simpson
memoir, Wilbur Marrs memoir, and the Charles R. Jackson manuscript.
Many other articles written by Marine participants or
about the 4th Marines in the defense of the Philippines were consulted
for this work.
The best sources, by far, for the 4th Marines
experience in the fall of the Philippines are the survivors themselves.
Capt Elmer E. Long, Jr., USMC (Ret) and CWO Gerald A. Turner, USMC
(Ret), provided assistance in locating the surviving members of the
"Old" 4th. More than 100 Marines have been interviewed as well as men
from other services.
About the Author
J. Michael Miller is Senior Archivist at the Marine
Corps Research Center at the Marine Corps University, Quantico,
Virginia. Formerly a member of the History and Museums Division, he
earned a bachelor of arts degree from the University of Alabama in 1978
and a master of arts degree from Virginia Tech, both in the field of
history. He has authored articles in such publications as Civil War
History, American History Illustrated, Gettysburg Magazine, and
Civil War Times Illustrated, and has written Even to Hell
Itself: The North Anna River Campaign (1990) and edited John H.
Russell, 1872-1947: A Register of his Personal Papers (1987).
Richard A. Long, author of the sidebars
accompanying the text of this pamphlet, has been an historian in the
History and Museums Division for the past 40 years, following similar
duties with both the Army and Air Force in Japan from 1954-1958, service
with the Navy during World War II, and as an Army ordnance officer and
historian during the Korean War. In his four decades with the Corps he
has been Curator of the Commandant's House and Head of the Oral History
THIS PAMPHLET HISTORY, one in a series devoted
to U.S. Marines in the World War II era, is published for the education
and training of Marines by the History and Museums Division,
Headquarters, U.S. Marine Corps, Washington, D.C., as a part of the U.S.
Department of Defense observance of the 50th anniversary of victory in
WORLD WAR II COMMEMORATIVE SERIES
DIRECTOR OF MARINE CORPS HISTORY AND MUSEUMS
Brigadier General Edwin H. Simmons, USMC (Ret)
WORLD WAR II COMMEMORATIVE SERIES
Benis M. Frank
George C. MacGillivray
EDITING AND DESIGN SECTION, HISTORY AND MUSEUMS DIVISION
Robert E. Struder, Senior Editor; W. Stephen Hill, Visual
Catherine A. Kerns, Composition Services
Technician, R.D. Payne, VolunteerWeb Edition
Marine Corps Historical Center
Building 58, Washington Navy Yard
Washington, D.C. 20374-5040
PCN 190 003140 00