NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
Proceedings of the National Park Conference
Held at Berkeley, Cal, March 11, 12, and 13, 1915
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AFTERNOON SESSION, MARCH 13

ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY MATHER.

The conference will now come to order. We are going to have the pleasure now of hearing from one who has taken an interest in national parks for some years and who is now doing some intensive work through the General Federation of Women's Clubs. Mrs. John D. Sherman has been very active in the work of women's clubs and has recently been appointed chairman of the conservation department, and I now take great pleasure in introducing Mrs. Sherman to you.

MRS. JOHN D. SHERMAN.

Mr. Chairman, and friends of our national parks. With nearly 2,000,000 women already at work for our national parks it is particularly gratifying to the conservation department of the General Federation of Women's Clubs that the Interior Department of the United States Government is also going to work for an adequate national park service. The General Federation of Women's Clubs directs its activities through 11 departments of work. The conservation department has to do entirely with the conservation of our natural resources. The work of this department is subdivided under eight division heads—natural scenery and national parks, forestry, soils, water, and waterways, the establishment of good roads, and the roadside planting of the Lincoln Highway from New York to San Francisco. The conservation of natural scenery and the development of national parks is a comparatively new feature of the work of the conservation committee. The club women have undertaken this work because they recognize the growing and imperative need for more recreation places out of doors. A nation progresses largely according to the use that is made of the leisure time of its people. As Stevenson so well puts it, there is nothing that should be so much a man's business as his amusements. Now there is one of the strongest of forces that controls the people during their leisure hours. It is a splendid antidote for the conditions growing out of a civilization that has become too complex to be wholly sane and wholly safe. Outside of home influences the intimate acquaintance with nature is one of the strongest and greatest that can be brought into the life of a child. It has an influence that lasts all through life. Because of this we are asking the public schools all over the country to give more attention in the future to the study of the things of interest in the natural world out of doors.

Every community should have a place in which the people may spend some of their leisure time, where they will be brought in direct contact with things of beauty and interest in the outdoor world.

For this reason we need more city parks, more county and State parks, and especially more national parks. There never was a more fitting time than the present to arouse the people to a greater appreciation of the value of America's natural scenic beauty. These natural scenic areas are rapidly decreasing in number and size. Those that remain of them are in increasing danger of two kinds; one danger is that they may become privately owned and the public be excluded, and the other danger is that they may be used for commercial purposes and their beauty destroyed.

The women of the General Federation—and there are nearly 2,000,000 of these—believe that the first step in this campaign for natural scenery is the development of the national parks that we now have. We believe that the people will make use of their great public playgrounds when they are made ready for the traveler, and the club women of the country stand ready to do their share of the work in getting them ready to be seen; but we are not willing to stop here; we are not satisfied to stop; we want more national parks, and we are going to keep right on working for them. We had a share in the making of the new Rocky Mountain National Park, and we are now engaged in making a natural scenic area survey of the United States. It is our aim to have the women make a list with a description of all of the scenic areas in every State that are now being used for park or recreation places, and in addition, we are to have a list of those areas of natural scenic beauty or scientific interest that should be preserved. Some returns have already come in along this line of work, which show that the women of Arizona are going to work for the Grand Canyon National Park. The club women of Utah have indorsed the Sawtooth National Park project, and the women of New Mexico are particularly alive to the value of the conservation of natural scenery, and at the next Congress they will ask that three of the national reservations in New Mexico be created national parks.

Another feature of the campaign for natural scenery that we are conducting is to urge all of our clubs, the clubs all throughout the country, to have one program, at least, during the club season devoted to natural scenery and national parks; and we furnish the programs of the bibliography for such programs, and the State federation at its annual conference will have an afternoon or evening devoted to this subject.

The Government now owns many scenic areas that are splendidly fitted for park purposes. These areas are of nation-wide interest, and are better suited for park purposes than for any other use. Can the American people do a more rational thing at the present time than to help make these places national parks? The general federation has conservation committees working in every State in the Union. Through these committees, we shall reach nearly 2,000,000 club women, and, through them, we shall arouse public opinion to the value, both ethical and economical, of the natural scenery of our national parks.

We shall bring to the people the message of John Muir, the greatest of all nature lovers and nature writers, to come to the mountains and get their good tidings.

ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY MATHER.

We were to have Mr. Henry S. Graves, the Chief Forester. But Mr. Graves could not come, hence he sent Mr. Potter, associate forester, who will read Mr. Graves's paper, "National Forests and National Parks."

MR. POTTER.

Mr. Chairman, ladies, and gentlemen, I am sure that Mr. Graves regrets very much that the need for his personal attention to important matters in Washington made it impossible for him to be here with you to-day; but it is an ill wind that blows no good. Therefore it is my good fortune to be here to visit California, which I also have the good luck to be a native of, and it is the State in which I was raised. It is a great pleasure to see this beautiful exposition, which has grown up where I used to stroll along the beach and tramp over the barren sand hills.

Mr. Graves's paper is as follows:

"The development and administration of the national parks and of the national forests are related in the most intimate way. Both classes of reservations have been established to be retained permanently in public ownership and to be administered for specific public benefits. The parks are nearly all either contiguous to national forests or surrounded by them. Many of the present national parks formerly constituted a part of some national forest; most of the parks that may hereafter be established will cover areas now within national forests. The parks contain great areas of forested land, which present problems of protection from fire, insects, and disease identical with some of our national-forest problems. Both the parks and the forests are in considerable part still in a state of wilderness and require improvements to make the different parts of them accessible for protection and for use and enjoyment by the using public. Physically interlocked, they call for a correlated system of fire protection and a correlated system of transportation and communication.

"Just as there are in the national parks very definite forestry problems, so also in the national forests there is a definite and fully recognized problem of development and use for recreation purposes. The national forests are chiefly in mountain regions and contain areas of unsurpassed scenic beauty and interest. Scores of such well-known mountains as Baker, Olympus, St. Helens, Jefferson, Shasta, Hood, Whitney, Pikes Peak, Ouray, Washington in New Hampshire, and Pisgah in North Carolina, are in the national forests; but there are also many hundreds of little-known mountains and innumerable lakes, streams, and other scenic features that afford ideal spots for the use of those seeking health and recreation. Already these areas are becoming more and more used. Probably not less than one and one-half million people visit the forests every year for recreation purposes; and this is a use of the forests that is being fostered and developed by the Forest Service just as other uses are encouraged. In the national forests the recreation problem, or, if you please to call it so, the park problem, is not confined merely to certain large areas of extraordinary and spectacular scenic character, which may some time be considered as desirable for national parks, but it is one that concerns thousands of points throughout the forests—a problem that is being handled with forethought and in a constructive way, just as are handled the development and use of other resources like timber, forage, water, and land.

"These considerations point to the fact that the national park problem is not confined to certain areas set aside under that name and administered with the recreation resource as the dominant if not the only resource to be considered. We have a much bigger problem—that of properly handling the recreation resource as one of the interrelated resources which are combined in a vast public property now held permanently by the Nation. That resource is a very great one. It must be protected, fostered, and developed for its maximum use. But in the case of the forests it can not be handled as though it were either the sole or ordinarily the dominant resource. Along with it must be handled other natural resources whose proper use and development are essential to the industrial upbuilding of the regions and of the country at large. There are places where the recreation resource overshadows all other and the property must be handled with this form of use primarily or exclusively in view. But, as a rule, the timber, forage, and other resources must be regarded as dominant. Nevertheless, they should be developed with such restrictions as to provide for the protection of scenic values.

"This large conception of the problem, on the one hand, of the recreation resource as a whole, and, on the other hand, of its relation to other economic resources, is essential in laying the foundation for a sound policy of national-park development. It underlies the proper selection of areas to be set aside as national parks. It underlies the determination of boundaries of these parks. It underlies a correlation of the development of the parks themselves with the development of the recreation resource in the national forests, or, if I may express it thus, with the development of thousands of miniature parks in the forests, each of which on a small scale is serving the same public benefit as the national parks themselves.

"An essential element in this broad conception of the problem is what I would call a national viewpoint, combined with a constructive spirit. It is necessary to look far ahead, to foresee what the best public welfare is going to call for, and to make such plans and such provisions that the needs of the people of the country as a whole will have been most effectively provided for. The second-best or third-best or fourth-best thing should not be done instead of the best merely because it happened to be proposed, was believed to be good, and was therefore accepted without inquiry to learn whether there was something else still better. It is a waste both of money and of opportunity to develop as a national park an area which will be less valuable to the public at large than some other area in the same general region. The question of accessibility and probable use should be considered not from a local but from a national standpoint. Every national park should contain natural attractions worthy of national fame and of development by the use of national funds. On the other hand, provision for needs of a more local character should be made through the development of the recreation resource of the national forests, where national forests are in existence and available for this purpose.

"A failure to recognize these broad principles leads inevitably to a haphazard selection of areas as national parks, mistakes in boundaries, and unnecessary obstacles retarding progress in park development. The narrow view is at the basis of the mistaken idea held by a good many that the recreation resource can not be conserved and developed in a national forest, and that every area of special scenic interest must be put into a park if it is to be handled properly. Personally I regard the national parks as very necessary, but I regard them as meeting but one part of a greater problem that involves not only our great natural wonders, but also a vast number of less striking yet locally important areas which the public controls and which ought to be developed in the interest of the public.

"In the administration of the national forests it is a cardinal principle that each class of land should be put to its highest use and render its greatest service by use. In some cases certain areas are either suitable for a single use only or susceptible of proper protection and development only when devoted exclusively to one purpose. Ordinarily, however, with a certain measure of restriction here and there the different resources can be developed side by side. The forage is used for grazing, but it is made secondary to timber production and is not allowed to be so handled as to injure the forest. In some places the protection of the water resources and prevention of erosion and slides is the most important matter. In such places cutting of timber is not carried on. In some places grazing is prohibited on city watersheds to insure the prevention of erosion and the safeguarding of the purity of the water. In some cases the grass is held for the use of the elk and other game. And, finally, the protection of scenic roads, lake shores, and other points of special esthetic value is carefully safeguarded in the cutting of timber and in other forest work. In short, consideration is given to the use which will accomplish the greatest public benefit.

"As occasion arises to consider establishing national parks from areas now in national forests, the fact that protection of the scenic features is one of the purposes of the present administrative control should be borne in mind. Roads and trails are being developed, as this can be done in connection with the protective work and development of other resources. As the funds available for road building increase through increasing receipts from the sale of timber, there will be possible much more attention to the needs of scenic sections of the forests for road development. Where, however, there are areas that should be devoted exclusively to public recreation, and that can be more quickly opened up as national parks, they should be made such. But that action should be based on the larger consideration of a national system. of recreation development. Parks should not be established merely because of a local demand for roads or for advertising some city or town or to boost real estate near the proposed park. Only such areas should be selected as are to be devoted practically exclusively to park development, and then only as a consistent and orderly part of a large plan. Otherwise the areas should remain in the national forests, and be handled from the standpoint of recreation development side by side with other resources.

"If this principle is followed, there will not arise any difficulty about conflicting use of resources, because only areas are included in parks in which the recreation development so overshadows other resources that they may remain unused or entirely subordinated to park purposes. It would be a great mistake to include in parks great bodies of commercial timber merely to include some mountains or canyons of scenic interest. This would result either in preventing the use of the timber or having a national forest under the name of a park.

"The same principles should be followed in laying out boundaries of parks. It should be remembered that the forests are carefully laid out units of administration. Each is handled along lines of forward-looking working plans. To establish a park or draw the boundaries of a park with thought only for the park problem and forgetfulness of other public property that is being handled on long-time plans is to fail to understand the larger public purposes of both forests and parks. To illustrate: I have for four years been urging that the Grand Canyon be made a national park. I have urged this because it is one of our greatest natural wonders, one of the greatest in the world, and because it should be handled exclusively for park purposes. In drawing the lines, however, there should be considered not only the needs of administration of the park but the needs of administration of the Kaibab and Tusayan National Forests and the enterprises that have already been initiated upon them in the use of their resources and in developing the industries of the region.

"Wherever national forests and national parks are contiguous their administration should be very closely correlated. This is especially important in fire protection and in building roads, trails, and other improvements. In fire protection there should be the same tying together of lookout and telephone systems, trail and patrol routes, and patrol and fire-fighting organizations as between two contiguous national forests. Much is already being done now in that direction; it should be more. In the matter of roads, many of the approaches to parks are through national forests. At present the road funds of the Forest Service are absorbed in construction primarily for fire protection and to aid in community development. There is but little available for strictly tourist travel. With the increase of receipts this condition will later on be much improved, and contributions can be made for highways which will develop chiefly the recreation resources of the region. Meantime most of these park approaches will have to be built from funds specially appropriated for the purpose. In my judgment, when money is appropriated by Congress the approach to the park through the forest might well be included; and authority should be granted to use park funds when the roads cross into a forest here and there. Provision for this could be made merely by adding a few words to the bill. It would avoid the embarrassment of present lack of authority and prevent the effort to change the park boundaries merely to cover a few miles of road.

"My final word is to emphasize that there are not two separate and distinct problems—parks and forests. There is one great problem of development of the scenic features of our public lands for recreation use and enjoyment, and both the parks and the forests are contributing to it."

ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY MATHER.

That is certainly a very interesting paper. That keynote of co-operation is very interesting. There have been one or two specific matters in which we have already cooperated with Mr. Graves since I have been in Washington. One of them is the matter of a road to Lake McDonald in Glacier National Park. That is practically all within the park boundary, but the land along the park is in private hands. It becomes necessary, if we are going to save the lake there for its scenic value, to arrange for an exchange of timber in the national forests, just as was done in the Yosemite National Park. We worked out an arrangement that was satisfactory both to the Department of the Interior and the Department of Agriculture. If it had not been that the settlement was brought about near the close of Congress, we would have had the bill through. It was impossible to get it out of committee. It would have passed if it could have only reached the floor, having already passed the Senate. We will have to wait over until the next Congress before we can bring it up again.

Also at Mount Rainier there is another condition there outside of the park—the beautiful road that leads from Tacoma up to the entrance of the park, with its splendid Douglas firs along the road. Work is now being done by Tacoma and Seattle people upon a bill that will make possible an exchange of the land owned by the lumbermen along that road for other land so that a strip along that road may be preserved for all time.

Mr. Daniels, have you a few words of comment on the paper read by Mr. Potters, or any features of it?

MR. DANIELS.

Mr. Secretary, it is particularly gratifying to hear Mr. Graves, who is the Chief Forester of the Service, reiterating the slogan of the national park service regarding those particular characteristics which should determine the selection of a national park. It is gratifying because it is an encomium on the skill and good judgment of those who have selected all of the national parks in the past, for there is not one exception to the rule that these areas should be selected for exclusively scenic purposes. Every national park we have in the United States is primarily for recreation in its character.

There are, of course, in the national parks some problems relating to forestry. I find that I can not entirely agree with Forester Graves that the park administration and the national forest administration should be unified. The prime purpose of the development of national forests is commercial, and if it is ever successfully consummated and carried on the spirit of commercialism must pervade the organization. The prime purpose of the development of the national park service is quite the antithesis of commercialism. It is idealism. The problems in the administration of a national park are as foreign to the problems of the administration of national forests as a commercial enterprise as anything could possibly be. It is quite true that the national forests involve problems that are similar to the problems of the national parks, and it is also true that in the administration of a national park the problems that are common to foresters are quite frequently present. However, the recreational features in the national forests are incidental, and the forest problems in the national park administration are incidental.

I had several discussions with Mr. Graves while in Washington, and together we worked up a scheme for cooperation in which the National Park Service was to give its advice predicated on its rather intensive experience in the problems of parks to the Forest Service in those occasional instances where they have recreational features. On the other hand, the National Park Service was to call upon the Forest Service for their administration in such problems as the sale of timber, for instance. I believe that this will eventually result in a simplification of the problems of each of the two departments. I do not believe I have any further comment to make upon this paper, Mr. Secretary.

MR. POTTER.

I am sure that Mr. Graves agrees with every word Mr. Daniels has stated. It is exactly his idea of the way the two great reservations should be handled—national forests and parks—and what Mr. Graves had in mind in the suggestion of working together was in those things where our interests are identical, such as in fire protection and in fighting the enemies of forests. I am sure we shall be able to cooperate.

ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY MATHER.

We are on the right road. Let us only keep going on that road. We will now have the opportunity of hearing from Mr. Robert B. Marshall, chief geographer of the United States Geological Survey. Now, Mr. Marshall is not a Californian. I want to state that right now. He is a Virginian. But in the course of surveying this country from one end to the other he also surveyed the ladies of the land. So when he came to survey California he happened to survey one of the fairest ladies of California. His fate was settled forthwith. He married the California lady. For that exhibition of excellent taste we consider him at least three-quarters Californian.

MR. R. B. MARSHALL.

Mr. Chairman, ladies, and gentlemen, as Mr. Mather has stated, I did find the most fascinating girl of my life here in California in the Yosemite National Park when I was making the topographic map of that wonderful and beautiful country in 1893, but I want to assure you that when I got to the point of asking her to share the rest of her life with me I was not much more embarrassed than I am right now. You have heard many interesting talks during the Third National Park Conference, and other far more able speakers than I are here. Mr. Mather knew when he was in Washington that this would be so, and I am therefore still wondering why he insisted on my attempting to address you on such an important subject. However, I was told yesterday that I would be next to the last speaker. That gave me consolation, for I know that we carry away with us our last impressions, and I was to precede Mrs. Sherman. I knew she would clear the atmosphere and that my simple words would be forgotten in remembrance of hers. But here I am at the end of the program, following Mrs. Sherman's all too short and most interesting talk.

Where shall I begin? To tell you of the 20 years of my life spent in God's glorious mountains, partly in our national parks, is a task too dear to my soul to rush through thoughtlessly. There are so many pleasant memories that come to mind of which I would like to tell you. I want each of you to know and to love our national playgrounds as I do, to feel their inspiration, to have worlds of friends in the old storm-seared peaks, the trees, the birds, the flowers, the streams, the animals, all beckoning, calling to you to come and live among them. And when you can rush away from the busy life and go to them they will greet you smiling and laughing, swaying all about in genuine glee as do children greeting their favorite playmates. Oh, it is glorious beyond description, and so satisfying. The wonders of the parks can never be told; you must go to them and absorb their influences.

For many years I have looked forward to the time when the national parks would be recognized by the people and the Nation, and I have been deeply discouraged until very recently, when Secretary Lane announced the appointment of Mr. Mather as his assistant, with the care of the national parks as his principal duty. My joy was beyond control. The Secretary believed in the parks and wanted to handle them himself, but he could not give the time, and so he selected the one best man in the whole country, Mr. Mather, and turned the work over to him. Thereafter, during the last four months, the light has been creeping in. I am sure that you gentlemen of the park service are feeling his masterful influence, and that each of you will go back to your station determined to make your park the best of all; that you will impart the inspiration to others; and that our guests in attendance will pass the word along until we shall have thousands and thousands of people thinking and talking national parks. The more the better. Get everyone you know to go to one park once; they will go again. Talk parks all the time.

Briefly, this is my message to you after 20 years' acquaintance with the parks. Details and stories I will tell you another time.

But don't forget that we must all pull together. That is the object of this conference—to bring us together so that we may unite in the endeavor to get just as many of the people as we possibly can to visit the parks. One reason why we can not get legislation in Washington is that to the majority of the Members of Congress the parks are practically unknown. They are too far away. I believe everyone who heard the talk this morning of Congressman Church got the impression that there is one man who is going to be of great service to us in Washington. He is going to win a lot of people for us. The only way that we will ever get the money needed for the parks is to get Congress to come and see for itself; then we will get the money we need.

We heard Mr. Ford Harvey over at Berkeley the other day make some very telling statements. He recalled to my mind the first time that I went into the Yosemite and observed how the people were handled there. They were pulled and hauled from one place to another, from the camp to the hotel, then from the hotel to the camp. Mr. Harvey said that all concessions in any one park should be under one management and that for the protection of the people the Government should control that management. Some of you may not agree, but Mr. Harvey is right. That is the only way in which the people can enjoy the full benefits of the parks, the purpose for which they were created. We must have roads and trails planned from a scenic as well as from a get-there point of view. Many people want to get there fast, but more of them want to see as they go along. In the past one superintendent would build trails and say they were all right; then the next superintendent that came along would say they were no good and go some other way. In the Yosemite country you can start in any direction and see blazes everywhere. It used to be said that when the soldiers went into the parks they were afraid they would get lost when they turned off the roads onto the trails or across country, and so they blazed each tree they came to. I have gone through sections of the country where almost every tree was blazed. I did not blame the soldiers. They did not know the way and had no signs to guide them. Mr. Mather will tell you himself that he made a trip through those glorious mountains of the Kern River country and got lost because there were no signboards.

One thing we must not forget when we get down to working together, and that is we must have all the friends we can get, both in and out of the parks. I sympathize with the owner of private holdings in the parks. He is entitled to his rights and must have them. We can get what we want far more easily by persuasion than by fighting them.

I might go on for hours talking on this fascinating subject, but there are others who are to talk and I want to hear them.

ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY MATHER.

The thought has just occurred to me that perhaps Mr. Colby, secretary of the Sierra Club, might have a word or two to say. He has not been with us during this conference until to-day, but he has always been tremendously active in our line of work. He has taken a tremendous interest in our work, in our own Sierras in California, and in other parts of the country.

MR. WILLIAM E. COLBY.

Just give me a few moments to collect my thoughts. If you will defer for a few minutes, I would be very glad to say a few words.

ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY MATHER.

Very well, Mr. Colby. We would like to hear a word or two from Mr. Yard. He has been attending our conferences very faithfully all over the country, and I think perhaps he can give us, from his own standpoint, some of the impressions he has received as to whether this conference has been really worth while or not.

MR. ROBERT STERLING YARD.

Mr. Secretary and friends, I have no business to be here, as I think you all know, for the reason that I am a tenderfoot. I have no right to stand up here talking to mountaineers. Why, they showed me trained dogs at Albuquerque and told me that they were tame coyotes. They joshed me all the way across the continent. When it came to putting our names down in the visitors' book at the Sigma Chi House in Berkeley, where we have been living as a happy family since we have been on the coast, they insisted upon my writing down the name of my park. I entered my park as "Central Park, New York." I have been hammering the streets of New York for a good many years. It is a dozen years, at least, since I have cast a fly in any water inhabited by anything of a finny character.

Nevertheless I have got the stuff inside of me. When I am in the woods I feel closer to God than anywhere else. I think the hour of the deepest devotion and the highest spiritual uplift of all my life was an hour I spent all alone, solitary and silent, in a great beech woods in the northwestern corner of the Adirondacks. I have not qualified for the Rocky Mountains. But I know I shall qualify, because the qualification for the mountains, as I well know, lies inside of one, lies in the soul, and not in one's accomplishments. So it is that I, the treader of dusty city streets, boldly claim common kinship with you of the plains, the mountains, and the glaciers. For the love that is in your hearts is also in mine. There is the human appeal that is our common possession. We share the human point of view.

It is largely from the human point of view that I have looked at this conference that we have been having at Berkeley for the last two days. I have looked at its results, too, also from this human point of view. And I think there is one result that stands out with tremendous force, and I think it is the greatest thing of all. This conference, no matter what else it has produced, has produced this one unconquerable thing—it has brought about solidarity.

When we first got to Berkeley and sat down to breakfast in the morning, there were a lot of people there from the parks. Very different kinds of people, indeed, were those who sat down to our first breakfast; while it was a crowd gathered for a single purpose, it was not a crowd that spiritually was together. Every one of us was an individual; every one of us had his own purpose and had his own point of view; and each one sat there looking more or less askance at his neighbor. There was a new chief in the park service, too, and each man looked askance at the new chief. What manner of man was he? It was one of those nervous gatherings so full of strain and discomfort.

But when we broke up last night over there in Berkeley that same silent, nervous group had become as closely bound together in bonds of sympathy and common effort and affection as any crowd of 24 men I have ever seen. It was a great idea of Secretary Mather's getting us together in Berkeley in the atmosphere of that old college, his alma mater, which he loves so dearly.

Past conferences such as this have been held in the parks, under the inspiration of the trees themselves, but Mr. Mather's idea was to get us all together, living under one roof, and eating at one common board. He was fortunate in securing the clubhouse. It was an ideal spot to gather and eat together, talk together, and work these problems out from different points of view. The object was to have everybody express himself.

Now, as to the results of this conference, I do not believe anyone can speak at this time; and last of all I. But there are several important things besides solidarity which have been accomplished, and there are several things, I perceive, that inevitably are coming.

One of the things that I see coming is this: That the dream of the motorist is coming true. The national parks are going to be opened to the motorist. The roads are to be connected up and highways put through across great sections of our national parks, and they are to be opened up for the common use of our people who drive any kind of a machine.

Another thing that I perceive is coming is the business development of these parks, and by a business development I mean the development of these parks as a system on a big, broad scale. The man who is in charge of the situation to-day is a business man. He is a man who has for many years met all kinds of situations, all sorts of emergencies, and met them promptly and successfully. Such a man is the only kind of a man who is fitted by years of experience to take hold of so big a problem and meet it successfully from a business point of view.

Now, the parks should not be dependent entirely upon the generosity of our National Congress. The parks are a great business proposition, which should pay every year a handsome revenue to be turned back into capital and spent upon themselves. I know that that is our dearest dream. I do not know of anyone who is better fitted to bring that about than the man who is at present in charge of this work.

There is another thing that I perceive is coming, and that is the real popularization of the national parks. When everyone working in the parks and in the Congress and throughout the Nation are all united together for one object, then, as in every great business undertaking, things will move with a vim and speed that will bring about the results that we have dreamed about for years, but which have never so far been even in sight. At last the people are coming into their mountain heritage.

When I was a boy an old man died whom everybody thought was the richest man in town. He left a widow and she went about town as if she enjoyed her former prosperity. She grew thinner and paler with the weeks and months, but she held her head high and no one suspected that she was starving to death—too proud to confess her need. She died, and the tragedy of her pride was bared. And then, too late, $40,000 was found stowed away in the chimney of that house of which even she knew nothing.

I recalled that the other day when I was thinking of the real magnitude and value of the wonderful mountain heritage of our people. To-day they are dying of starvation because they know nothing of it.

Before I started West I asked myself how many national parks there were, and I could think of two—Yosemite and the Yellowstone. Then, after some hesitation, I thought of Sequoia, and that is all that I could remember at the time. I considered myself thoroughly well informed. Coming out on the train I told this to some people I met, and one of them told me that among a large number of men of broad education and knowledge of the world of whom he had asked that question—I think he said he asked about 20—there were none that could name more than two. But I perceive that the time is coming when the people are going to know what they possess.

With a business administration, an administration that will make the parks make profits, these profits to develop the parks, charges inevitably will come down, because cheaper prices always result in bigger business. The greater the patronage the lower the costs, and the lower the costs the greater again the patronage. It is a problem in practical business—a familiar, practical problem. That time is coming, just as sure as the sun is going to rise to-morrow, and it is coming reasonably soon. It is beginning right now; and the reason it is coming is that the man is here to bring that about.

ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY MATHER.

I will say this, that there is a big opportunity for service, and service in the last analysis is the greatest thing one can offer.

Now, the Sierra Club has rendered us a tremendous lot of service for the parks, those particularly in California, and if Mr. Colby has now collected his thoughts, I think a word or two from him would be in order.

Mr. COLBY.

Mr. Secretary and friends, my mental processes the last few minutes have been rather complex, trying to listen to the outline of the talk by Mr. Yard and at the same time trying to outline something that would be worth while saying to you here; but I have talked so often on the mountains I feel that I should not be at a loss to say something on the subject.

When I heard that Mr. Mather had been appointed Assistant to the Secretary of the Interior I had a feeling come over me of more genuine pleasure than any information that has come to me in a long while. The reason for it was that I have known Mr. Mather so intimately and so well that I knew he was thoroughly in sympathy with everything that appertained to the welfare of our national parks. I knew that the star of the national-park idea was in the ascendency, and I wrote him to that effect. At the same time I wrote him that I felt that he was making a sacrifice in taking hold of this kind of work, because I knew of his business connections. He felt, on the other hand, that, instead of it being a sacrifice, it was one of the greatest opportunities that had ever come to him. He was glad of it, proud of it, and the only thing that worried him was the fear that he would not be able to live up to it.

I know Mr. Mather well enough to know that he will live up to it. I feel that his sympathies with the needs of our national parks is something that we have not had really in the administration of the work of our national parks. We must have some one at the head who is in sympathy with this work and has the time to devote to it. There are a great many who have been in the control of these matters in the past who have had the right spirit, and intended to do right, but somehow or other too many other things have demanded their attention. I feel especially glad, too, that Mr. Daniels is the assistant of Secretary Mather, because he, too, has the artistic idea. We are going to have a wonderful day in the national-park idea and the development of that idea.

My presence at this meeting to-day reminds me of the last annual park meeting that I attended. It was held in the Yosemite Valley, and it was presided over by a great friend of Mr. Mather's, Mr. Walter Fisher, of Chicago. I know that Mr. Fisher was in sympathy with everything that pertained to National Parks, but you could see that he was so rushed that he hardly had the time to come out here and attend the meeting. Many other things were driving him all the time.

You who were present at that meeting will remember John Muir. I think one of the most brilliant talks that were made there was made by him. True, it was one of his characteristic, rambling talks, but I remember very well one little story that he told. It will appeal to some of you. It is about an Englishman who started out to visit the Yosemite Valley. He started from the Raymond region, as you had to do in those days, and the mode of travel was by stage coach, and it took a very considerable time to make the trip; in fact, it took a couple of days to reach the valley. There were no roads at all at that time and they had to go on muleback over a trail. This Englishman rode down one gulch and one ravine after another, and you will remember the canyons through which the river runs by Wawona and Grouse Valley, and a number of others—pretty good sized canyons, each one of them. This Englishman had traveled across canyons until he was nearly worn out. Late in the evening they got to Inspiration Point, where they could look out over the Yosemite Valley. The Englishman was so tired that he did not realize where he was. He simply took one look at the valley and said to his companion: "My God! Have we got to cross that gulch, too?"

I think nowadays you will find a greater appreciation and a more sympathetic attitude toward the national-park problems. We find it so in the Sierra Club, of which I have been the secretary for a number of years, and it has kept its hand, as it were, on the pulse of the public in reference to national-park affairs. We believe we are creating a sentiment which is bringing about an indorsement of these projects more and more as the days go by.

This national-park idea is developing tremendously. We have had a good many fights on our hands. I remember the Yosemite concession fight, which was bitterly opposed here in the State by a great many. At the same time, the general public sentiment was in favor of it. There were many that were interested there that opposed it most bitterly, because it would destroy some interest of theirs there if it should be ceded, and they felt their welfare was in danger. When the Yosemite Valley went back to the Federal Government we were told all about what a difference it would make in the administration of that valley if it were administered away back in Washington instead of from Sacramento. We were told that we might just as well take the valley bodily out of the State and put it somewhere in the East in the vicinity of Washington. I am sure that all of those who are fair-minded and appreciate the situation will realize what a difference in the administration has taken place since the Federal Government has come under control. Of course there are a great many things to be criticized, but we can not do everything at once, but as far as the relative administrations of the valley are concerned there can be no question whatsoever.

Every once in a while a problem of that kind comes up, and the Sierra Club is always ready to help it along. We have now a problem which is very interesting to us, the building of a trail in honor of our late president. John Muir was the president of the Sierra Club during all the years of its existence, from 1892 up to the time of his death, in 1914. We felt that the State in which he lived and the glories of which he wrote so much about should do something to honor his memory, and for that reason we had a trail bill introduced into the State legislature with the idea of appropriating a sum of money which will help to build a trail to connect Yosemite Valley with the Mount Whitney region, a region in which he spent so much of his life and which was so dear to him. Those who have expressed themselves on the subject have felt that no more appropriate memorial could have been thought of than a trail of this character, because if John Muir's spirit dwells anywhere it dwells in those mountains where this trail will lead, from the Yosemite Valley down to the heights of Mount Whitney. I remember a short time ago of reading the address of President Eliot on his return from a trip around the world to his students at Harvard. One of the thoughts he expressed was to devote yourself to those sports that will be the most lasting and which will give you the greatest pleasure for the greatest period of your lifetime. He named a great many which brought pleasure, but Dr. Eliot could not have been familiar with mountain climbing as a pleasure, because if he had he would have mentioned that also, as it so vitally typifies and expresses the very idea he was talking about.

Those of you who have been up in the mountains will realize the benefit that is derived from it in your memory. If there is anything in the world that can bring an individual more genuine pleasure that will last a longer time, I do not know what it is.

Finally, I am reminded of a letter that I received this morning from a member of the club who has been very active in spreading the gospel of the mountains and our national parks—Mr. Gleason, of Boston. Some of you will be interested to know that he is going to lecture here this summer. The Southern Pacific Co. has asked him to come here and give some of his wonderfully illustrated lectures. They will be given right here in this theater. I received a letter from him this morning. In one of his recent lectures he spoke of the Sierras of California, and he used as his text one of John Muir's: "Going to the mountains is going home." John Muir, above all others, expressed that in the most beautiful language in the wonderful books that he has written. The idea that going to the mountains is really going home is a true one, because we all know that there we get the greatest amount of pleasure, quiet, and rest, away from the everyday cares of the business life. That is what our national parks are for—to get us away from the business affairs that press upon us. Go out into the mountains and see these wonderful things that appealed to John Muir, and you will see that those things are really worth while, and you will come back to your business with a purer and freer thought than you had before. I thank you for your kindness.

ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY MATHER.

I am now going to turn the meeting over to Mr. Daniels.

MR. DANIELS.

Down in Los Angeles the Automobile Club of Los Angeles and Southern California is working very hard on a plan to build a road from Mariposa, or, rather, from Merced to El Portal. That means, if such a road is ever built, that Yosemite Valley immediately becomes an all-year-around resort. It is now impossible to get into the valley with an automobile except a few months in the year, due to the extreme elevations that have to be climbed before reaching the rim of the valley. I do not know of anything that could be more interesting to the concessioners on the floor of the valley and all others who are interested in the Yosemite Valley than the eventual accomplishment of this plan. Before asking any of the concessioners to speak, or any of the supervisors, I would like to see if we can not have the unanimous vote of this conference indorsing the plan of building the road from Merced to El Portal up the Merced River. If there is anyone here who does not feel that he will be justified in indorsing such a plan, I should like to hear from him. Since there are none, I shall communicate with them that we have unanimously indorsed their plan.

I am now going to ask Mr. Martin, secretary of the Intercity Club of Tacoma and Seattle, to please tell us something of Mount Rainier National Park and its problems.

MR. T. H. MARTIN.

Mr. Chairman, Mount Rainier National Park has many problems; in fact, too many to review here this afternoon. I am much gratified however, to have an opportunity to bring to your attention, and to the attention of the park officials here, some of the things that relate very closely to the interests of the entire Northwest.

Mount Rainier National Park, although counted among the older parks, is probably less known than any of them. Three hundred square miles and 45 miles of that is a solid ice field. You have, no doubt, heard comment upon the beauties of that park, the beauties of our flowers and our magnificent forests, so I will not take up the time here to discuss those beautiful features, because, let me frankly say at the outset, that my interest in national parks and in that particular national park is purely commercial. I have no other interest. That park is not known to-day as it should be nor are its many attractions, and, Mr. Chairman, that is largely our own fault. I say our fault, but it is because of a long-continued dispute over the name of that most majestic mountain. It is close to two aspiring municipalities, and because of a desire of one to gain an advantage over the other, because of that great overshadowing peak, there has arisen a great controversy and jealousy. I have heard of a man in my home country that came down from the North and went among our people and held some discussion, and told us that the war was over and that we should forget it and take up the problems of the day. My dear sir, people who have lived through a fight that has been a fight do not forget it very quickly. But this is another generation. We have passed now to another generation that appreciates the beauty of that great mountain, a generation that believes that these bitter fights should be forgotten, but there lingers yet in the hearts of the old settlers an intense feeling, and, if I may say it, it is a real problem; and if I might take just a minute or two to tell you what the community is doing to get Government support, public support, for the development that we seek in Mount Rainier National Park.

Three years ago this bitterness was very intense. A Congressman could not appear before a committee in Washington and advocate anything without feeling that he ran in danger of stepping upon the corns of some one from Seattle or Tacoma. There the situation rested. Through the invitation of a commercial organization, the commercial organization of Seattle and the commercial organization of Tacoma appointed delegates, and they met in conference to consider this vital matter of the name, because we knew it was the real beginning in the consideration of national park development matters. When we came together we did not sit intermingled. We sat, the Seattle men on one side and the Tacoma people on the other side, and a very solemn meeting it was—all marvelously courteous. When the meeting was finished the chairman asked for Seattle's suggestion, and a gentleman arose and read off the first name and then glanced around to see where the brick was coming from. No objection was made, and he read off all of them, and, when he had finished, Tacoma was asked to express its views; then Mr. Denman, who had been appointed as our spokesman, arose and said that he could not express Tacoma's views better than to indorse every word that Mr. Curtis had said. Then tumbled immediately all of the obstacles that had been surrounding us for years, and the men who were there came to the front for us. No longer was there any question of getting an appropriation, and we have to-day an appropriation for the development of Mount Rainier National Park.

There are some problems that we have common to all parks. I will mention only one or two of them, but I wanted in this way to let this conference know that we have made a good start. We have not quite yet got to the point where we can take up and discuss what the name shall be, but we are getting so that we can discuss it. It must be settled soon, because we are losing thousands and thousands of dollars in publicity; because the railroads can not touch the question as yet. They are still in great danger; but we have started on the way, and we bespeak your help and we bespeak the help of the department at Washington, and we bespeak the confidence and help of all of these park officials, as they meet strangers who ask questions. Tell them that the community about Mount Rainier National Park is making headway in one of its great problems, and that some day soon it will be adjusted.

Now, as to some of these park problems. We suffer along with some of the other parks in this matter of hotels. There is no co-ordination of any concessions in our park. We have some very definite plans, but as yet they have not been carried into execution.

We have some great problems in the way of road construction, because in all these years there has been constructed in Mount Rainier National Park only something like 20 miles of road. Since that time we have done nothing but repair and maintain those roads, and just since our last appropriation we have been able to build other roads, but the dream of the committee is to have a highway that shall encircle the entire mountain. We know we can get that in one way only. Our present approach leads into the south side of the mountain, at what is called Paradise Valley. There is an other approach being built by the State coming from North Yakima, going into the east side. That will develop some of the beautiful natural parks on the east side. Now, one of the things we are working harder for than all else, because it seems to be the most direct approach, is from the northwest side of the mountain, up the Carbon River Valley. That will open up other splendid national parks, and will go up by that wonderful wall over which avalanches fall constantly. There you will find one of the most magnificent lakes and one of the most inspiring spots you have ever seen. That will be by the east approach.

One county has spent a quarter of a million dollars in making an approach on the south side. The State has expended now fully $200,000 in making approaches, and has authorized an appropriation of a hundred and eighty thousand dollars more to be expended on an approach on the north side and an approach on the east side. But here is the difficulty: Our State laws provide that those approaches shall be from the east side to connect with the Government system inside of the park when built at the most desirable location. Now, we know nothing of where those connections are going to be, and when we go before our legislature, and when we take up the discussion of an appropriation, and are asked the question regarding the definite location of these approaches, why, we are met with the difficulty of not knowing where the Government roads will be inside of the park and we do not know what is going to be done in that regard.

Four engineers discussed that question and every one of them differed in their opinion about where those approaches should be. We want to bring about a cooperation between the State and the Government engineers regarding where those roads are to be located inside of the park, so that we may plan ours outside of the park. Our approaches on the north side and our approaches on the east side are largely imaginary, because we do not know where to put them.

We have in mind a great highway crossing from Puget Sound to the southern border of the Mount Rainier National Park, down into the great fruit valleys, and it will be an inspiration that one will never forget, when, after a comfortable breakfast, he can get into an automobile and take that morning drive through those heights, always with this magnificent dome in sight, and have his dinner in the great fruit valleys of the Yakima. What an inspiration!

MR. DANIELS.

Yesterday Mr. Charles S. Fee, of the Southern Pacific Co., made one of the most beautiful speeches I have ever listened to. I think he spoke kindly of me, and, since that reflects credit on the railroads in so far as it goes, I was wondering if it would not be quite in order to hear from some other railroad official who is interested in some other park. I see Mr. Charlton is with us. Perhaps he would be willing to say something about travel to the Yellowstone National Park.

MR. CHARLTON.

Mr. Chairman, ladies, and gentlemen, the Northern Pacific Road I represent is merely interested in Yellowstone Park, but we claim for the Northern Pacific Road that you can see more national parks by using our service than perhaps any other road. We claim all of the national parks are on the line of the Northern Pacific. You start with Yellowstone, then you go to Glacier Park and Mount Rainier, then you come down to Mr. Steel's park, Crater Lake, and then the Yosemite. We think they are all on the line of the Northern Pacific. For that reason our interest in national parks is very great.

I listened to what Mr. Martin had to say in connection with Mount Rainier Park with a great deal of pleasure. This past summer we had quite a delegation in Mount Rainier Park. They entered from the north side, and what Mr. Martin says in regard to Mount Rainier is beyond dispute. You have got to circle that entire park, or the entire mountain, and give an opportunity to reach it from almost any direction before you are going to make a success of it.

My own opinion in regard to Yellowstone Park is this, and I speak from an experience of 31 years. I first visited Yellowstone Park 31 years ago this summer. That was the year that the Mammoth Hot Springs Hotel was completed. It was then in the hands of the laboring men who built the hotel. We were not allowed to put foot on the veranda or look into the hotel, for the reason that they had not yet been paid for the work they had done there. The Northern Pacific at that time dug up the money and paid for the labor before the hotel could be opened. From that day to this I have been in touch with travel to the Yellowstone Park and have come in constant contact with the tourists making the park. They started out 31 years ago with the idea of inducing tourists to go through Yellowstone Park in some five and a half or six days. A tourist should go through Yellowstone Park in from 30 to 60 days. You can not rush through it. The greatest pleasure you can have in the park is by camping out. You have got to make it a playground. It is no place to rush through as though you were going to a circus and wanted to get back again the same day.

The transportation in Yellowstone Park is excellent. The roads are good and the hotel accommodations are fine. What we really need is a systematic development of the park, and I believe that we are getting closer to it from what I have heard at this meeting here the past three days. It certainly seems now that all of our national parks are going to have some chance to be opened up the way they should be, and the people induced to go into them and make it their outing place for the summer; not go in and right out, but spend the entire summer there, as you really should do. It requires considerable time to properly see the scenic beauties of Yellowstone Park.

With regard to the question of transportation, whether automobile or stage, I am not prepared to say, as far as Yellowstone Park is concerned. It looks to me as though there would have to be a great deal of work done on the roads if you are going to introduce the automobile. I do not know whether the automobile is a good thing or not. Personally I will regret to see the day when the stages pass out. To my mind, they are one of the features of travel in Yellowstone Park.

ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY MATHER.

Could not we possibly have a word from Col. Brett about the scenic beauties of Yellowstone Park, which the average tourist does not see at all?

COL. BRETT.

Down in the southwest corner last year we built a trail leading right into the heart of the moose country. Last year we completed a trail over the mountain, and in traveling over that trail I went through three bands of elk, each one of which I should say contained at least 1,500. We have also completed a trail down the west boundary through the Braley country, and parts of that are very similar to the mountains of Maine and Vermont. You would almost believe you were in Maine or Vermont. We have trails also into the Hell Roaring Mountains and the mountains on the north and east boundaries, in which the scenery is equal to anything you will find in the Sierra Nevadas, in my opinion. The engineer and myself were struck with the view for several miles on each side of the road of the sheer walls, so much like the walls of the Yosemite Valley.

We remarked on them several times. In two years I expect that we will have complete in Yellowstone Park a trail system that will make every part of that park accessible to the tourist either on horseback or afoot.

MR. DANIELS.

I regret Mr. Charlton's comments upon the tourists not staying in the park for a sufficient length of time. I do not think it is entirely due to the tourists. It is very largely due to the concessioners that are in the park. I think the problem is with the concessioner. He should have a bureau of information right in the hotel for the benefit of tourists, so that they may find out what there is to see there by taking a horseback ride of two or three days back into the mountains. All necessary equipment should be there available to the tourist. Our time is getting a little short now, but inasmuch as we have heard nothing about Crater Lake or its problems, it might be well if we had a word or two from Mr. Steel, superintendent of Crater Lake Park.

MR. WILL G. STEEL.

I will state that Crater Lake is about 50 miles north of the California line, directly on a ridge of the Cascade Mountains. Originally it was a mountain 15,000 feet high. At one time it telescoped slightly above the elevation of 8,000 feet, probably at the point which was known as the extreme timber line, and about 17 cubic miles of matter disappeared.

The crater is about 4,000 feet deep, half full of water, so that precipitous walls surround it, the lowest point being about 500 feet high. It was my privilege just 30 years ago this summer to stand upon the rim of that lake in company with Prof. Le Conte; that is one of the brightest recollections of my life, when I stood there with him and consulted with him as to what should be done with that great wonder. The movement to create a national park there was started in the presence of Prof. Le Conte. At the same time I started a petition to President Cleveland to withdraw 10 townships from entry so that settlers could not rush in and take possession of the rim of the lake. Then it took 17 years of hard work and several thousand dollars before that park was created. It was so created on May 22, 1902. Then began the question of its development. Up to the rim of the lake it was almost impossible to drive a wagon. Soon after the park was created $7,000 was appropriated for a road to the rim of the lake, and the very steep road was reduced to what we then thought was a very good road, a 33 per cent maximum grade.

I felt that we had to have roads and we had to have hotels, so I started a movement by which a corporation was created so that we could get money enough to start a hotel, which will be open this year for the first time. Then the question came up about roads. Finally we got an appropriation of $10,000 and made a sketch of a system of roads which would lead entirely around the lake for 35 miles. That survey was made and subsequently we built roads. We have in the park at this time about 40 miles of road. This road is being extended this year for the first time, and a large portion of the park to the east and south will be open to automobiles to a point on the east at an elevation of about 8,000 feet. That will be directly above the lake about 1,900 feet. In my opinion that will be a most beautiful road.

Development up to this time has been slow. Underbrush has to be cleared away, fallen trees and other debris removed, and it is a great undertaking and can not be done rapidly. It is being done as fast as possible. My idea with regard to these roads is to scatter the native flowers all along them just as though they were put there by nature, so that the whole park will blossom with the beautiful flowers of which we have a great many there. We are working at this time to get in a telephone system, which is absolutely necessary. We are working also to get in a water system, which is necessary. We have got to put in sewers, which are also necessary. We have got to have some support from the railroads, and as soon as we complete our roads we will be about 15 miles from the railroad track.

The people in the surrounding country take an earnest pride in the work we are doing there. Jackson County during the past year has spent $500,000 on a beautiful highway on the north side. Many of the other counties there have also spent large sums of money. If Jackson County can appropriate the money it receives from land sold in the forest reserves, it will amount to about $1,315,000. We hope that law will be passed. If it goes through, the people of Jackson County are willing to appropriate all of that money, and we will be able to do a great deal with it.

MR. DANIELS.

I think Mr. Steel overlooked one feature in regard to Crater Lake National Park that would appeal to everyone who goes there. Emerson Hough, who passed through many of the parks last fall and wrote a series of articles on them, had something to say about the fish in Crater Lake. He is a man who carries a fishing outfit that he assures me cost not less than $250. I never in my life met a man who is so ardently devoted to the art of angling. It is through Mr. Hough's efforts that we are largely indebted for some of our national parks and for the creation of many of our national monuments and for the creation of most of our wild-game preserves. Mr. Hough described the fishing in Crater Lake National Park to me in such glowing terms that I thought he was boastful. I fished in the lake myself a month or so later. Around the edge of the lake there is no foliage to entangle your hook and line, and it is the ideal place for the amateur fisherman. When I was there the lake was so clear that you could see to a depth of 40 feet. The fish are greatly magnified through the water, and one is inclined to agree with the farmer who stood before the hippopotamus for a few minutes and then said: "Hell, there ain't no such animal." The first fish I caught I saw catch the fly. I saw every motion of his body until I finally landed him on the bank, which I only did with the aid of one of the concessioners in the park. I do not know of any other place in the world where an amateur fisherman can swing his fly in any direction without danger of catching it on some twig, and when he hooks his fish he can watch every motion of the fish as he fights for freedom. I agree with Mr. Hough in all that he has said about fishing in Crater Lake.

I would like to make an announcement. You will remember not long ago of reading that Mr. Miller, president of the Burlington Route, died of appendicitis in Glacier National Park. There is a possibility that his life might have been saved had we had a good skillful surgeon in the park. In every park where people indulge in mountain climbing there are frequent accidents, some of them more or less serious. In all of our western parks such accidents as sprained ankles and broken limbs occur frequently, and many people are affected by poison oak. In our parks that have been under military control we have had adequate medical service. During certain seasons of the year there are as many as 5,000 people in Yosemite Valley at one time. There is no provision there for medical attendance at all; but we have at last secured the services of a man who has enjoyed for 25 years in the city of San Francisco a most enviable reputation as a surgeon and doctor. We have secured his services. He has volunteered to go to the valley, because he is a mountain lover of the first water, and will take with him an associate surgeon and doctor and establish in the valley a hospital, and also maintain there a trained nurse. The hospital will be equipped with all surgical instruments that are necessary, and in addition there will he maintained and operated a Red Cross automobile. This is Dr. Joseph S. Brooks, and he will be in the valley during the summer time in company with his assistant surgeon. During the entire time either one or the other of them will be there. Under the present arrangements with Dr. Brooks there will be a competent physician and surgeon in attendance at the hospital all the time, as well as a trained nurse and an emergency automobile. The hospital will be open 24 hours a day. There will be an efficient and capable doctor on the job 24 hours a day. I hope that within the next few years we will be able to find men who have sufficient idealism to do the same thing in the other parks.

We will now hear from the concessioners. It is Mr. Mather's wish that we continue with that where we left off yesterday afternoon. We will devote the remainder of the afternoon now to discussions by concessioners. I should be very glad to hear from any concessioner present who has anything to say regarding his problems to the department.

[A pause.]

I am happy to say to you, Mr. Mather, that none of the concessioners has any complaint to make. Evidently they are all satisfied.

ASSISTANT TO THE SECRETARY MATHER.

In declaring the third conference of superintendents and supervisors adjourned, I want to thank the president of the University of California, the public-spirited citizens of this and other States, and the park concessioners who have attended these meetings and participated in our discussions. Their deep and sympathetic interest in the national parks and their problems has been a source of gratification and encouragement to me. But I want particularly to extend my heartiest thanks to the park superintendents and supervisors. This has been primarily their conference, and they have made the most of it, both in the public meetings and in the many discussions that were held morning, noon, and evening over there in the fraternity house in Berkeley, where we have all been living together. They will go back to their parks now with the best wishes of all of us for success in the administration of our great national playgrounds.

The conference is adjourned sine die.



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