EVENING SESSION, SEPTEMBER 12.
The SECRETARY. We were on the question of park inspection, and perhaps any discussion of that had better be postponed until we hear from the next two inspectors, whom I will call on in a moment. You will recall that in Mr. Marshall's paper he referred to topographical maps of the park. If you are interested in that you will find them there on the table for your examination. We shall be glad to hear from Mr. Keys regarding road and trail construction.
It has been deemed unnecessary to enter into a general discussion of highway construction as generally applied to the State and county and the numerous problems that enter into the same, and indeed this would be impossible without the addition of complete specifications and detailed plans, but rather to confine the paper in a general way to the roads of the national parks without regard to the peculiar topographical and climatic conditions of any particular park.
In each of our national parks where the financial resources justify there should be an organization to handle the public work of the park, and where the revenues are insufficient to justify such an organization this class of work might be handled from the nearest park having such an organization; as, for example, if the financial resources of Crater Lake National Park did not justify such an organization the organization from Yosemite National Park, with its equipment, might be temporarily diverted to Crater Lake National Park to make surveys for this park. In no case should a piece of work of any magnitude be allowed to proceed unsuperintended by a man of technical knowledge. This, of course, should be under the direct supervision of the superintendent of the park. The engineering organization in each park should have a man of general experience, who would be qualified not only to construct roads, but buildings, waterworks, sewer systems, power plants, etc. (such a man can be found among the younger engineers).
Where the problems along the above lines are complicated, such as an extensive sewer system, the superintendent of the park should be allowed the services of a consulting engineer to assist in determining the best possible general sewer design. The report of the superintendent regarding this branch of the service, including plans and specifications for the various classes of work, should be submitted through a central office to the Secretary of the Interior, and this office should he in charge of a man of technical knowledge of such matters.
Before any work of magnitude is undertaken in any of the national parks for a system of roads a carefully prepared general plan should be worked out, and each piece of construction should be some unit of this general plan, so that when it is finally completed every unit will go to make up a system of highways which will be a credit to the Government. If there is only $5,000 a year available in any particular year the small amount which this will construct should be some small unit of the general plan.
These carefully prepared surveys, with necessary profile and cross sections, would enable the engineers to submit through the superintendent of the park to the Secretary of the Interior a carefully prepared estimate of the cost of these roads, so that when the work should be undertaken at some future date the department would have at its command sufficient data to determine the probable cost of the undertaking in time to thoroughly discuss the matter and arrive at some definite conclusion before Congress is asked for an appropriation.
PLANS AND SPECIFICATIONS.
Before the work of actual construction is commenced proper plans and specifications should be prepared showing the cross section of the road, width, the amount of crown, depth of macadam, and all necessary data to proceed with the construction of the road. These plans and specifications should be standardized and approved by the Secretary of the Interior and available to send out to the superintendent upon request for the same, and the plans should not be departed from without express authority from the department, except in so far as is necessary to meet peculiar local conditions. Some of the first features which present themselves to the superintendent starting at the beginning of a highway are what shall be the maximum allowable grade, the width and depth of the macadam, what height of crown, what available rock is best suited for the purpose at hand, what class of culverts shall be constructedconcrete, terra cotta, galvanized iron, masonry, or wood. With properly prepared plans and specifications these matters would be settled definitely for the superintendent, with the exception of applying the general plans and specifications to the peculiar local conditions to which each case must be adapted.
Departing from the title of this paper, but in connection with the above, I would say also that it would greatly facilitate matters for the superintendent if standard plans and specifications were prepared and adopted by the department for sewer constructionthat is, standard manholes, standard flush tanks, and standard septic tanks should be adopted and in all cases where a sewer system of any magnitude is to be installed the matter should be carefully considered and if necessary the department should not hesitate to employ for a limited time to assist the superintendent some of our well-known sanitary engineers, who should be consulted on the general and important matter of sewer disposal. In the case of our newer parks I believe it would be well to lay out in the beginning a general town-site plan where there is likelihood of a town growing to some magintude, then design the sewer system for this town and compel the buildings to conform to the town site and sewer system. This is a matter which is especially important in the national parks, where the work will be viewed by thousands of critical tourists, among whom will probably be some of the leading engineers, not only of this county but of other countries.
In connection with sewer disposal I desire to call attention to the but recently invented Emhof septic tank, which has been invented by one of the leading German scientists and which has been recently reviewed in the Engineering News and approved by no less an authority than Rudolph Herring, probably the ablest sanitary engineer in the United States.
Attention is called to this invention particularly for the reason that it is thought that it will be found applicable to sewerage disposal in some of our national parks. It appears that Mr. Herring made a trip to Europe, taking with him his assistants and made a thorough test of this septic tank before writing the above-mentioned article.
In connection with the adoption of standard plans and specifications for the roads, one of the first problems which presents itself is determining the maximum allowable grade and at the same time reach the points of interest throughout the park. This is a subject which has a somewhat large range and what follows is with reference to maximum grades on broken stone roads. In Prussia the maximum grade in mountainous country is 5 per cent, in France the standard on national roads is not to exceed 3 per cent, departmental roads not to exceed 4 per cent, and on subordinate roads not to exceed 6 per cent. On the great Alpine road over the Simplon Pass built under the direction of Napoleon Bonaparte the grades average 4-1/2 per cent on the Italian side and 5.9 per cent on the Swiss side. In only one place does it become as steep as 7.7 per cent. In Great Britain the celebrated Holyhead Road built by Telford, the celebrated English engineer (from whom this class of road derives its name) through the very mountainous district in north Wales has an ordinary maximum grade of 3-1/3 per cent with one piece of 4.5 per cent and a very short piece of 5.9 per cent, on both of which pieces care was taken to make the surface smoother and harder than the remainder of the road.
In New York on the State aid roads the nominal maximum grade is 5 per cent, but grades of 6 per cent have been found necessary in some places. In New Jersey are a number of State aid roads having grades of 7 and 8 per cent and one of 10 per cent. The Massachusetts State Highway Commission which has probably made more careful scientific research in road construction than any other State has fixed no maximum grade, but it appears on some of their important roads the maximum grade is 7 per cent.
For mountainous roads where the bulk of the traffic is down grade the maximum grade is often 8 per cent, and sometimes as much as 12 per cent. Experience in heavy freighting shows that wagons can be controlled on 12 per cent grades, but can not be satisfactorily controlled on steeper grades. I believe in the construction of roads in our national parks 10 per cent grades should be the maximum and this for a limited length.
A width of road for our national parks should be adopted which would not make them too expensive and at the same time would he wide enough not to endanger lives at the precipitous points. The width of travel way wide enough for necessary traffic is ordinarily overestimated. Two wagons having a width of wheel base of 5 feet and width of load of 9 feet can pass on a 16-foot roadbed and leave 6 inches between the outer wheels and the edge of the paved way and a clearance of 1 foot between the inner edges of the roads. An extreme case of this kind will rarely occur, hence a width of 16 feet should be sufficient unless there is considerable rapid traffic and this is a feature which we must sooner or later deal with, for I believe that we can not long exclude the advent of rapid traffic in the form of automobiles from our national parks and that our future construction should be guided by this feature.
The Massachusetts Highway Commission carefully measured the width of traveled way on numerous crushed-stone roads and found an improved width of from 15 to 24 feet, the average being 16 feet. The maximum width of the traveled roadway averaged 14.92 feet, and the width of numerous traveled roads averaged 11.5 feet. Upon this evidence the commission concluded that a width of 15 feet is ample, except in the vicinity of the larger towns. In New Jersey the width for State-aid roads is from 9 to 16 feet. The width of the French roads varies from 16 to 22 feet, and in Belgium there are many roads only 8-1/4 feet wide.
It is my judgment that the width of 16 feet of paved way is sufficient for most of the principal roads in our national parks. At the precipitous points, in order to give the tourists a feeling of more security, an earth shoulder might be added to the outer edge, but where such a point occurs on a maximum grade the grade should be decreased at the dangerous point, and the road elevated at its outer edge upon the same theory that the outer rail of our railroads is elevated.
Theoretically, the shortest radius of curvature permissible on roads depends upon the width of road and upon the maximum length of teams traveling on that particular road and upon the speed of the teams. The length of a 4-horse team and vehicle is ordinarily about 50 feet. To permit such a team to keep upon a 16-foot roadway would require a radius of about 75 feet for the inner edge. In laying out the alignment for the roads in our national parks consideration should be given the maximum length of teams used in that particular park. It is also a good plan where these curves occur on steep grades to decrease the grade on the curves.
The principal requisites of a rock suitable for broken-stone roads are hardness, toughness, cementing or binding power, and its resistance to the wear under the grinding action of wheels. The rock should also be homogeneous in order that the road surface should wear smoothly. The hard, dark-colored, igneous rock commonly called trap rock is probably the best suited as road material, both as to its wearing and cementing qualities. The hard, uniform grained basalt, showing a steellike fracture and free from gas blows is probably the best road material to be found in this country. Next in order are the granites, but these vary so widely that many of them are practically worthless as road material. The fine-grained granites have been known to give good results, while the course, loose-grained ones are practically worthless as road material.
According to some authorities the gravel of the glacier drift furnishes excellent road-making material, and as a rule the gravel of bluish color will cement together while the reddish or brown gravel will not. However, so far as I am able to ascertain this class of material has not been actually used in road construction to any great extent and little is therefore known of its action under traffic.
In the construction of roads in our national parks the problem which will confront the superintendent is not so much what is the best material for road construction, but what is the best available material on the ground, and this will require a careful study of all available rock in that particular location, and in order to obtain the best material I would not hesitate to change the location of a road in order to make the material accessible to the particular job. It is thought that this is another case which would appear to warrant the necessity of a central office to which the superintendent could refer samples of rock to determine their suitability for road construction.
FORM OF PROFILE OR CROWN.
Some authorities claim that the upper surface should be curved, while others claim that the upper surface should be two planes intersecting at the center of the road and having their angles of intersection slightly rounded off. Both forms are in common use throughout the country, but the first or curved form is probably the most commonly used; both have their ardent advocates. The Massachusetts State Highway Commission has adopted the form of two planes intersecting at the center; while the standard section for the New York State aid roads is curved. The curve usually adopted is not that of a circle, as is generally understood, but that of a parabola. My personal objection to the form of two planes intersecting at the center is, first: After the road is built it gives the appearance of a poor attempt at making a curved surface; in the second place, when the flanks wear a little, to the eye they look swaybacked and at the same time allow water to stand on the surface, which is detrimental to the foundation of the road.
HEIGHT OF CROWN.
The proper height of crown depends largely on the way of making repairs. If new material is added at long intervals, then the crown should be somewhat greater to compensate the wear, which would take place between repairs, but if the system of continuous repairs is used the crown may be somewhat lower. The transverse slope should be greater on narrow roads than on wide ones to prevent the water from carrying the surface material into the side ditches.
There should be more crown on steep grades than on flat ones, and indeed the crown should be in reality a function of the grade,that is to say, there is no need of carrying the water to the gutter any faster than to prevent its flowing down the center of the road. In other words, the grade from crown to the gutter should be somewhat larger than the longitudinal grade of the road, and indeed a high velocity from crown to the gutter is undesirable, as it carries too much of the binding material into the gutters, which must be shoveled out, and usually by hand, and at the same time produces ridges in the road. Another disadvantage of high crown is that in riding over the road, unless the wheels are centered over the crown, the vehicle will ride onesided, and the occupants be forced against one another, thus making it somewhat uncomfortable. In concluding this subject I would say that in the construction of roads in our national parks I believe a crown of 6 inches would be found to be sufficient. This might, however, be increased to a maximum of perhaps 12 inches upon our maximum grades.
THICKNESS OF MACADAM.
The object of placing a layer of broken stone under the roadway is to secure, first, a smooth, hard surface; second, a water-tight roof, and, third, a rigid stratum, which will uniformly distribute the pressure of the wheel over the area of the subgrade so that the bearing power of the soil will not be overtaxed.
The smooth surface and tight roof will depend upon the quantity and quality of the binding material, and the rigidity of the layer depends upon the binder and largely upon the thickness of the stratum. The supporting power of the subgrade depends upon the nature of the soil and particularly upon the drainage. Therefore for the above reasons the minimum thickness of the broken stone depends upon the nature of the soil, drainage, traffic, and binding material. The initial thickness of the roof depends upon the wear permitted before new material is added. If the repairs are continuous, the initial thickness may be a minimum, but if the repairs are made periodically, that is at intervals, the initial thickness must be equal to the minimum thickness, plus the amount allowed for wear between intervals at which repairs are made. After the road has been worn down 3 or 4 inches, it is usually so uneven as to require resurfacing, and for this reason it is uneconomical if the road in this stage is much or any thicker than the minimum required to prevent its breaking through.
There has been much discussion, and there is a great deal of difference of opinion, as to what shall be the proper depth of broken stone road. The depth considered necessary by the most extreme advocates of thick roads has decreased with more improved methods of construction, particularly the use of good binder and the advent of the steam roller, and as the advantage of thorough underdrainage has been better understood.
In the early days a depth of from 18 to 24 inches was frequently considered necessary for heavy traffic, while now 6 inches or less is usually considered sufficient. The Massachusetts State Highway Commission has carried on very extensive experiments to determine the proper thickness of macadam, and from these experiments has derived a formula for determining the thickness, which it is thought unnecessary to reproduce here.
In Massachusetts the thickness of State aid roads varies from 4 to 16 inches, and the standard for crushed stone roads with macadam foundation on well-drained sand or gravel is 6 inches, which the commission concludes is sufficient for ordinary traffic. In New Jersey the depth of macadam varies from 4 to 12 inches, but is generally 6 inches. The advocates of a small thickness of macadam often cite the experiment at Bridgeport, Conn., where some 60 miles of road having only 4 inches of macadam were constructed and gave excellent service, even under heavy traffic, but in this case all the conditions were extremely favorable for a thin road.
For the roads in our national parks I would recommend a minimum thickness of 6 inches of macadam and a maximum of about 9 inches. The thickness of course should depend upon the class of rock used in the macadam and the class of binder it is possible to obtain, and the proximity of the material to the site. If the best available rock is comparatively soft, and the binder is not as good as it should be, I believe it would be wise to use the maximum thickness in such cases.
In the construction of roads in our national parks I believe that the department should have available in so far as possible standard specifications for construction equipmentsuch, for example, as standard designs for crushing plants, including the type of crusher, type of screen, and type of bin construction. This data could be sent out to the superintendent, who could remodel them so as to suit their peculiar local conditions. There should be also a standard type of road roller, carts, wagons, etc. After a piece of work in any particular park is completed it might be possible to transfer the construction equipment to one of the nearby parks, provided, of course, the cost of transportation were not too great. There should also be standard plans for highway bridges and culverts.
After a road has been properly constructed and the surface has been made compact and smooth it is very essential that it should always remain in this condition. The general impression is that a stone road is a permanent construction which needs very little attention after it is finally completed, but the best we can do is to approximate an indestructible road; therefore proper maintenance or up-keep is equally as important as good construction, and, indeed, the best roads are the result of good construction and a system of maintenance whereby every small defect is corrected before it has time to cause serious damage. Among highway engineers there are two general methods of maintenance: First, continuous maintenance; second, periodic maintenance or repairs. In the first system the waste caused by the grinding of the wheels under traffic is supplied gradually as it is worn away and carried to the gutters by the wind and rains by adding a patch here and there and thus maintaining the full thickness of the road. By the second method the road is permitted to wear thin and then an entire new surface is added. Of course, this latter system does not exclude small repairs, but rather limits them to the timely filling of holes and ruts in order to check more extensive damage to the road. In Europe the system of constant maintenance is the one generally used, while in the United States the method of periodic repairs seems to be more commonly used, although in the United States both methods have their advocates.
I believe in our national parks it will be found advisable to adopt a combination of the two above-mentioned systems of repairsthat is to say, after the snow and ice have cleared away in the spring the entire road system should be given a careful overhauling and that slight continuous maintenance will have to be applied throughout the season for which the park is open to the public.
EQUESTRIAN ROADS AND TRAILS.
In the construction of this class of roads throughout the national parks there is very little which can be said, except that standard widths and limiting grades should be established. It will be impracticable, of course, in this class of road or trail to use rock as a surfacing material, but I believe that the lines should be carefully located by instrumental work, so as to select the easiest grades, and I believe it would be well as fast as these trails are located to have a progress map upon which they can be immediately plotted. This would greatly facilitate tourists in getting around through the parks, as well as for administrative purposes.
It is thought that a width of about 6 feet would ordinarily be sufficient for these trails. This width, of course, could be increased at the precipitous points where the grade of the trail might also be decreased somewhat in order to give a feeling of more security to the tourists and to lessen the danger. It is also deemed advisable that these trails at the precipitous points should ordinarily be in-cutthat is to say, by benching back rather than to build out a dry rubble wall, the grades, of course, to be the best it is possible to obtain and reach the points of interest. In this class of construction I believe it would be wise to adopt some form of light equipment which could be packed on animals' backs.
WIDTH OF TIRES.
It is probable that the question of what shall be the proper width of tires to be used on the roads of our national parks has presented itself to some of the superintendents and it is therefore thought that remarks on this subject will not be out of place. It is very essential that the wagon in passing over the road should help to make and preserve it rather than to destroy the road and therefore in so far as the road alone is concerned and within reasonable limits, the broader the tire the better for that particular road. Quoting from N. S. Shaler, formerly president of the Massachusetts State Highway Commission:
The matter of width of tires has been a subject of much remark. There has, indeed, been no end of idle talk concerning this matter, much of it directed to the point that our American builders have shown a lack of judgment in building with narrow tires, while they should provide their vehicles with broad treads such as are in use in Europe. The fact is that in this, as in many other matters in which our people have departed from ancient and Old World customs, they have been led by wisdom and not by folly. This will, on a little consideration, be made evident. Where there is no definite pavement, as is the case in 99/100 of the American roads, the wheels have in muddy weather to descend into the earth until they find a firm foundation on which to rest. In so doing they have to cleave sticky mud, which often has a depth of a foot or more. If these wheels were broad tired, the spokes would also have to be thick and the felloes wide, so the aggregate holding power of the mud upon the vehicle would be perhaps twice what it is at present. It is useless to talk about the advantage of a broader tread for the wheels of our wagons until we have a thoroughly good system of roads which they are intended to traverse. Any laws looking to this end would be disobeyed because of private needs so general they would amount to public necessity. When the roads of a district are made good, only as to main lines of communication, the side roads and farms still demand the peculiar advantages afforded by the narrow tire.
Quoting a little further from the same authority:
The best argument against the enactment of laws concerning broad tires is found in the fact that the numerous and long-enforced English statutes on this matter have of late years been abrogated, a century of experience having shown that they are difficult to administer, and generally disadvantageous.
The Massachusetts Highway Commission, after an elaborate discussion of the matter, says:
It is a matter of doubtful expediency to endeavor in the present state of our highways, by general legislation, to control the width of tires and diameter of wheels.
The above-quoted articles are entirely logical with reference to the highways of our States and counties, but are not entirely applicable to the roads of our national parks, for the reason that there are not so many conflicting interests concerned, and I believe that the adoption of some standard width of tire tending to preserve the roads should be carefully considered.
Although there is not much difference between the tractive power of broad and narrow tires, the latter are much more destructive to the road but in deciding upon the proper width of tire there are other factors beside the road that should be considered. Other things being equal a wagon with broad tires is not so easily managed as one with narrow tires, and for this reason might prove dangerous on some of the roads of the parks; but it is believed that it would be well to investigate this matter from actual trials with wide-tired vehicles.
One of the most important problems in connection with road construction and maintenence in our national parks is the suppression of dust. In some of the parks this is bad enough now, but when the motor vehicles are admitted it will be worse, and at the same time the damage to the road will also be worse than is now found from the use of iron-tired vehicles. A general discussion of the causes and effects of this subject will not be entered into, but in a general way it is thought a few remarks would be applicable.
The dust problem in our national parks must be handled in one of two ways. First, by constructing the roads in such a manner by incorporating such materials in the aggregate as to reduce to a minimum the formation of dust; or second, by treating the surfaces of the existing roads with materials which will give the same results. The latter may be either by the use of water or some of the known emulsions. While neither of these methods can be said to be entirely satisfactory at the present stage, yet I believe where the materials are used in the proper proportions, and both materials and methods of construction are better understood, that by the first method, that is to say, an oiled macadam road, which is constructed by the incorporation of an oil which has an asphalt base during construction, good results may be obtained, and it is believed that in those parks where the dust is especially troublesome that a short piece of this class of road should be actually constructed as an experiment.
The heavy oil with an asphalt base, such as is found in our western States has a very great binding quality and is superior for this purpose to our eastern oils which have a paraffine base. On account of its greasy nature, oil with a paraffine base has very little cementing or bonding quality and is, therefore, unsuited for road construction. Those parks in the vicinity of Bakersfield, Cal., where probably the best oil for road construction is found, should certainly make some experiments along these lines, as it is thought that the cost of transportation will not make this material prohibitive.
If the consrtuction of the oiled macadam road in some of our national parks should be found satisfactory, the item of cost of sprinkling saved thereby should not be overlooked, as in some instances the cost of this item is considerable, and I call attention to the estimate for the necessary equipment for road sprinkling in the report of the acting superintendent of the Yosemite National Park for 1908, which is about $18,000 for approximately 10 miles of road.
There are very little data available covering actual cost of an oiled macadam road, but that which I am able to find would appear to fix a maximum cost for the addition of oil over an ordinary macadam road of about 14 cents per square yard. At this figure the first cost of applying the oil to a 16-foot road for a stretch of approximately 10 miles would be about $13,000, or a saving of about $5,000 between the first cost of the oiled macadam road and the purchase price of the necessary equipment for sprinkling the same road.
Quoting from an article on oiled macadam road construction and maintenance, found in the transactions of the American Society of Civil Engineers for March, 1911, Mr. Ross, who has charge of the roads for Newton, Mass., says:
Asphaltoylene was used in 1907 on two roadways in Newton, a surface of 16,822 square yards being treated at the manufacturer's contract price, 6 cents per square yard. At present these roads are in very good condition.
It will be noted that this statement was made after the road had been in use about four years. Quoting further from the same article:
Several macadam-surfaced streets having varying grades up to a maximum of 9 per cent and subjected to heavy horse-drawn and auto traffic were submitted to the liquid asphalt treatment. The method was as follows: A quantity of sand was heated to a temperature of 200°F,, dumped in a pile, leveled and asphalt was poured over the hot sand in the proportion of one gallon of asphalt to each cubic foot of sand and then the whole mass was turned with shovels, or mixed in a concrete mixer (the latter being preferable on account of the cost). This work was done at the pit. The mixture was teamed to the work and spread on the roadway to a depth of one-fourth of an inch, being raked even with 14-tooth wooden rakes. Rolling was not considered necessary and the street was kept open at all times. The cost of this treatment was about 3 cents per square yard. It has the advantage of leveling and building up the surface of the road, each new application providing a new wearing surface. This work has remained in perfect condition without further expense since the summer of 1909.
There has been considerable of this class of work done in Spokane, Wash., but at this location it can not be said to have proven entirely satisfactory, but I attribute this more to the fault of construction than to the principle involved.
Along the lines set forth in this paper the following conclusions are drawn:
(1) That there should be located in each one of our national parks, where the revenues and appropriations would warrant it, an assistant engineer to act under the direction of and in conjunction with the superintendent of the park, all reports including plans and specifications to be submitted by the superintendent to a central office to be in charge of a man having technical knowledge of such matters, this office to be equipped to prepare proper plans and specifications for the various classes of construction work, which will arise in the parks.
(2) The adoption of standard plans and specifications, in so far as possible, for the various classes of construction.
(3) Careful surveys and estimates for future extensions of the work, in accordance with a general road and trail plan previously adopted.
(4) The carrying on of experiments with oil and tar macadam roads and a general discussion among the superintendents of this subject, especially as to dust preventatives.
The SECRETARY. We shall now hear from Mr. Norris on general inspection work.
Mr. Secretary and gentlemen of the conference: As a result of the accession or setting aside, by act of Congress or otherwise, of a vast territory, covering an area of approximately 5,527,000 acres, for national parks and for the preservation of American antiquities and national monuments, the continued increase in population, wealth, business, and railroad facilities of the United States, the building of roads, bridges, and trails, making the parks, antiquities, and monuments accessible, and the judicious advertising of the natural wonders within the borders of the reservations, the work has grown until this branch of the service is now one of the important ones with which the department has to deal.
When we take into consideration the fact that this vast area is divided into 13 parks, covering approximately 4,600,000 acres, and 25 reservations for the preservation of American antiquities and national monuments, covering over 900,000 acres, scattered, as they are, over 15 States and Territoriesnamely, California, Arizona, New Mexico, Colorado, Utah, Oregon, Washington, Idaho, Montana, Wyoming, South Dakota, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Arkansas, and Alaskaas follows:
it will be readily seen that the subject of inspection is almost unlimited in its scope.
Inspection work in connection with future park administration should be thorough and complete, independent of local influences. The principal points to be covered by an inspection are:
(1) Whether or not reservations for park purposes or monuments are capable of development as national institutions.
(2) The assistance in adopting a definite uniform policy for their maintainance, supervision, and improvement.
(3) The managementadaptability of the superintendent to the surroundings and whether or not he has met the conditions incident to the establishment of the park or reservation for national monuments.
(4) Complete, comprehensive, and systematic plans for roads, bridges, trails, telegraph and telephone lines, sewer and water systems, hotel accommodations, transportation, and other conveniences, such as will make all points of interest accessible and afford an opportunity for the sightseer to see them to the best advantage.
(5) Concessions to hotels, camping companies, transportation companies and others, whether or not adequate compensation is received for such concessions, whether or not suitable quarters and transportation facilities are provided for the comfort of the tourists at reasonable prices, and the methods employed in soliciting patronage.
(6) As to the best and cheapest methods of transportation and best means of regulating prices and, competition in the different lines of business employed by concessioners and their responsibility, taking into consideration the fact that fair interest on capital invested for the suitable comfortable transportation and care of tourists should be realized in order that men of means will invest their money in buildings and equipment for such accommodations.
(7) As to the length of term for which concessions should be granted in order to secure the best results.
(8) Careful inspection of all public works and conduct of concessioners,
(9) Suitable quarters, in keeping with the surroundings, for the proper comfortable administration of affairs.
(10) Uniform system of keeping records, accounts, property returns, time books, registration, etc.
(11) Sanitary conditions and sanitation.
(12) Forestsproper protection for their preservation from fires and keeping them in their natural state.
(13) Preservation of natural wonders, such as geysers, terraces, glaciers, ruins, and other historic or prehistoric structures or monuments.
(14) Suitable notices at the various points of interest as to names of natural wonders, streams, geysers, glaciers, ruins, lakes, etc.
(15) Preservation and conservation of all power sites, timber, and minerals.
(16) Modes of travelwhether should be by vehicle, automobile, or otherwise,
(17) Grazing and trespass of stock.
(18) Patrol of parks, guards, etc.
(19) Patented lands within the borders of the reservation and best methods of handling the same.
(20) Enforcement of rules and regulations with reference to concessioners and others, and as to modification, amendment, revocation of or adoption of new rules and regulations.
(21) Season when park or reservation should be open to the public.
(22) Proper care, feed, and protection of animals, game, and fish.
(24) As to appropriate appropriations for future improvement work.
The setting aside and dedication of the national parks and monuments was a step, and but one step, in the right direction. As stated in the report of the Secretary for the fiscal year ending June 30, 1910, with reference to national parks and national monuments, it was "the only practical means of preserving their wild grandeur from human desecration, 'where specimens of the best of nature's treasures have been lovingly gathered and arranged in simple, systematic beauty within regular bounds.'"
I am of the opinion, therefore, that a close personal inspection and report on all of the matters herein mentioned by an officer of the department, independent and outside of any local influence, giving to the department the benefit of his views on conditions as he found them to exist, would add to the value of the service, and perhaps bring about, or at least help to bring about, that condition which should be desired, a uniformity of action and system, a more successful administration of affairs, and arouse such an interest in the parks of the United States that they will really and truly be dedicated, not only in name but in reality, for "the benefit and enjoyment of the people."
The SECRETARY. If there are any questions on the two papers just read, I would be glad to hear them now. If not, perhaps the questions will come up in the reports of the superintendents and if any of the superintendents wish to ask questions they can do so at that time. I think we will depart from the regular order and ask Maj. Forsyth, of the Yosemite Park, if he will present to us what he has to say at this time.
In discussing the general subject of national park administration it is perhaps proper to say that my experience in national park duty has been limited to two parks, the Yellowstone and the Yosemite, and that I may, therefore, possibly make the mistake of assuming some rules of administration to be of general application whereas they would he applicable in these two parks only. Of course for efficiency of administration there must be organization and the organization must be that best adapted to the needs and conditions of the particular situation. In order therefore to provide suitable and adequate organization a study must be made of the needs and conditions that are to come under administration. This is axiomatic, and applies to all kinds of administration. Before applying it to the national parks it is necessary to consider the object for which these parks were set aside and it is believed that it may be safely assumed that the object was the benefit and enjoyment of the people whether or not the law setting them aside specifically so stated. They must, therefore, be protected, their attractions must be made accessible, the means of access and operation must be maintained, and the administrative work, including the expenditure of funds, must be recorded and accounted for to higher authority. It seems apparent, therefore, that nearly every administrative act will fall under one of four general heads, namely, protection, improvement, maintenance, and accountability.
In order to determine the kind and amount of protection necessary, we must first know the number and character of the enemies and the probable energy of their attacks, and it is perhaps safe to say, that nearly all the parks are menaced by similar enemies.
There are forest fires, trespassers, including poachers, cattle, and sheep, and in general all violators of the park rules and regulations, especially the vandal who cuts his name in the bark of a tree or paints it on a rock, or digs up and carries away some rare wild flower, plant, or shrub. Then comes disease, not only those that attack human kind, but diseases of the trees, those that destroy the forests, reenforced sometimes by insects. Then there are several undesirable wild animals, such as the coyote and the cougar or mountain lion, that destroy the deer and antelope and bighorn sheep. Of all these enemies to the parks the most dreaded and destructive is the forest fire, and it is believed that the greatest protection from it is afforded by such a system of patrolling as will insure early discovery of the fire. A small forest fire is easily extinguished. Where a particular area should be protected from fire, as, for instance, the Sequoia or big tree groves in California, complete protection is given by removing all dead timber and other inflammable material from the area and cutting a guard zone around it. The big trees are not easily burned if there is no combustible material near them. In regard to trespassers, poachers, vandals, and other violators of the park rules and regulations adequate protection can be given only by the enactment of laws making their offenses misdemeanors and prescribing appropriate penalties; that is, the enactment of laws similar to that now provided for the Yellowstone Park. Against the diseases to which humanity is liable the best protection is thorough sanitation and the rigid enforcement of proper sanitary rules. Against the insects and diseases that destroy the forests the aid of the Department of Agriculture should be solicited.
Finally, the people who visit the parks should be protected from accident or injury, and provision made for succoring them in distress. Where the parks are guarded by the troops there are always field hospitals and in the Yosemite Park the Army hospital is often used as an emergency hospital for the public, and many people receive prompt treatment and relief there every summer.
We come next to improvement and maintenance, but as the resident engineer of the Yosemite Park will discuss these in detail I shall only say that it would seem that in those parks whose attractions have not already been made accessible surveys should be made and a general road and trail project prepared, and thereafter all road and trail construction be made in pursuance of this plan and progress toward it completion.
Next and last comes accountability, and while the system adopted should be as far as practicable uniform for all the parks, local conditions will make some minor variations necessary. I feel quite confident, however, of the advisability of having a fiscal agent, or disbursing officer, in every park where considerable expenditures are to be made, so that payments may be made promptly. Much dissatisfaction arises among workmen when they quit or are discharged and find that they have to wait a month or more for their pay.
What has been said so far is believed to be of general application, and I will now pass on to the conditions and needs of one particular park, the Yosemite, which has been under my charge for the last two and a half years.
Perhaps it will help you to understand if I tell you briefly how the present Yosemite National Park originated.
By act of June 30, 1864, the United States granted to the State of California the Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Big Tree Grove "for public use, resort, and recreation;" that is, for a State park, which it continued to be until August, 1906. By act of October 1, 1890, the United States set apart as reserved forest lands the present Yosemite National Park, or nearly so, but the act gave the tract no name, although it was clearly the intent of the act that the lands should constitute a park, as is shown by section 2 of the act, reading as follows:
That said reservation shall be under the exclusive control of the Secretary of the Interior, whose duty it shall be, as soon as practicable, to make and publish such rules and regulations as he may deem necessary or proper for the care and management of the same.
Such regulations shall provide for the preservation from injury of all timber, mineral deposits, natural curiosities, or wonders within said reservation, and their retention in their natural condition.
and so forth, enough to show that it was reserved as a park without a name. But although the act gave it no name, the public did and the name was Yosemite. So general was the adoption of the name that we find it used by Congress in the act of February 15, 1901, relating to rights of way through certain parks. It was not, however, until February 7, 1905, that Congress in the act changing the boundary lines of the reservation stated specifically that the reservation should thereafter be known as the "Yosemite National Park."
California, by legislative act approved March 3, 1905, receded and regranted to the United States the Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Big Tree Grove, and Congress, by joint resolution of June 11, 1906, accepted the recession and again changed the boundary lines, and the Government early in August of that year formally took possession of the Yosemite Valley and the Mariposa Big Tree Grove.
Now, then, as far as I have been able to learn the legal status of the Yosemite National Park has never been officially or legally defined, and the need of doing so is an existing one and of growing importance. The questions that suggest themselves are, What jurisdiction, if any, has California over the Yosemite National Park? If she has any jurisdiction, is it the same both in the valley and exterior to the valley? If she has jurisdiction over any of it, the limits should be accurately and clearly defined in order to avoid conflict with the Government. As a matter of fact California does exercise jurisdiction in various ways in Yosemite Valley as she levies and collects property taxes and school taxes from residents there.
Is it legal for the coroner of Mariposa County to hold an inquest in Yosemite Valley? Is it legal to open polls and receive votes in Yosemite Valley for a State election? Is it legal for a State justice of the peace to hold court in the Mariposa Big Tree Grove? These are some of the questions that suggest themselves.
One of the needs of this park, therefore, is that the extent of the jurisdiction of California over it, or over any part of it, be defined; and this jurisdiction question suggests another need of the park, and that is the elimination of private ownership of lands and roads. In the brief sketch given above of the origin of the park it may have been noted that the boundary lines have been materially changed since the original reservation was made. One of the principal reasons for the changes was to throw out of the park as much as possible of the patented lands, the private title to the remainder to be extinguished by the Government. So far, however, Congress has failed to act, and these lands have steadily increased in value, until now it would cost much more to buy them than it would have done six years ago when the first boundary changes were made. There are nearly 20,000 acres of these lands in the park, and the Yosemite Lumber Co. is now building a logging railroad from El Portal to the park boundary line in the vicinity of 6,000 acres of timber land that the company owns just inside the park. In the near future then we may expect the denudation of these 6,000 acres to begin. To my mind the acquisition by the Government of all the private land and road holdings is the overshadowing need of the Yosemite Park.
These two needs, that of defining the jurisdiction of the State of California over the park, or any part of it, and of extinguishing the private titles to lands and roads in the park, are special needs, and are believed to be peculiar to the Yosemite Park.
Another great need of the Yosemite Park, but not peculiar to it, is the need of a law for its protection similar to that now provided for the Yellowstone Park. Considering the subject of protection in connection with the Yosemite, it is believed that protection will always be incomplete until such a law is provided.
As it is now, expulsion from the park is the only penalty for the most flagrant and serious violation of the rules and regulations, as well as for the most trivial.
Protection against fire is afforded by patrolling from all the outposts in the park, supplemented by the telephone. There are ten outposts, all connected with each other and with the superintendent's office by telephone, thus enabling prompt notice of the fire to be sent into headquarters.
A detachment of 10 soldiers and 5 pack mules is held in readiness at all times for fire fighting, and we have no dread of any fire that may start within the park. It is only the fires that start outside and burn toward the park that cause anxiety, for they are likely to be beyond control when they cross the park boundary.
Those that start inside are sure to be discovered before they gain much headway.
The only thing needed to make protection for the Yosemite complete and satisfactory is the enactment of the law referred to above.
Taking up now the improvement of the park, let me give you the annual estimates and the corresponding appropriations for the last five fiscal yearsthat is, the period since the Yosemite Valley became a part of the National Park.
Estimates and appropriations for Yosemite National Park.
To these different appropriations should be added the annual revenues of the park, the average revenues for the last five years being about $11,000 a year.
It will be noticed that for the last three years the amount appropriated was about one-tenth of the amount estimated as needed. During these three yearsthat is, during my administrationwe have built about 3-1/2 miles of Telford macadam road, installed a road-sprinkling system for about 14 miles of road, built 3 cottages and 3 barns and wagon sheds, partially rebuilt the intake and water-supply system for the electric power plant, installed a new Pelton wheel in the power plant, installed a rock crusher and quarrying plant, and extended the electric power for 4 miles to operate the rock crusher and the pumps for filling water tanks for the road-sprinkling system. We have just completed a trail from Yosemite Valley to Lake Tenaya, a distance of 10 miles, making perhaps the prettiest lake in the park easily accessible.
Two bridges have been built over the Merced River, one of them an iron suspension post bridge and the other a wooden bridge for wagons. Work is now in progress on a water-distributing system in Yosemite Valley, to cost about $45,000 when completed. Several trails exterior to the valley have been materially shortened, and all trails have been kept in repair.
So much for what has been done.
What should be done are the extension of the road sprinkling system from Yosemite village to Happy Isles, and from the floor of the valley to Fort Monroe on the Wawona road, the completion of the improvement of the road from El Portal to the valley, a garbage incineratory erected, the preparation of a general plan of roads and trails and thereafter all road and trail construction to be in pursuance of this plan and progress toward its completion.
New roadFort Monroe-Glacier Point75,000 feet, to be a part of this plan.
There are five bridges for wagons over the Merced River in Yosemite Valley, one over Yosemite Creek, and one over Tenaya Creek. As the renewal of these become necessary reenforced concrete bridges should be built, the Sentinel Bridge being thus replaced in the near future.
A modern up-to-date hotel should be built in the valley. There is only one hotel there now, and it was built years ago, when the valley was accessible only in the summer time. Being intended for summer only, it was located on the cool or shady side of the valley and was not provided with heating facilities, nor plumbing fixtures for the supply of hot and cold water, nor amusement rooms for guests when bad weather kept them indoors. The valley is now open to the visitor summer and winter, and a hotel with every comfort and convenience is much needed and should be located on the sunny side of the valley. Mirror Lake is rapidly filling up with sand, which should be removed and further filling prevented. This is not a difficult problem.
One more point, and I am done:
Under the head of accountability, where I have stated in general that a resident disbursing officer should be provided for those parks in which extensive improvements are made, I wish to add that even where the improvements are not extensive some park official should have funds placed to his credit for the purpose of paying laborers only. This, in my opinion, would prevent much discontent among discharged laborers and also annoyance to the park management.
The SECRETARY: I think, perhaps, unless there are some questions or suggestions relative to the paper just read we will ask Col. Brett if he will tell us something about conditions in Yellowstone.
I am rounding out my first year in the park here and I do not feel competent as yet to discuss a great many questions. I simply want to say that I had a great many problems to solve and I never took one of my problems to any man doing business in this park without receiving the very best he had to give. His information was always disinterested, honest, and valuable. Placed here with a new command, absolutely new to every situation myself, I can not tell you how much that meant to me and to the proper administration of the affairs of the park. Of course we know of the criticism passed on the subject of the conditions of the roads during the month of August. The engineer officer, who is even newer than myself, came here in June and found his allotments made for him. He did the very best he could with them and the responsibility rests entirely on the lack of funds.
I do not believe it is necessary for me to defend the Army and the work of the troops in these different parks, but as there has been an expression of the desirability of replacing the troops with civilian employees, I have concluded that it is best to give this assembly a little idea of the equipment and work of our men. The military organization and its discipline is just as well suited for this kind of work as it is for any other military work, because this is military work. We have grades extending from the commander of the troop to the corporal. We have scattered through the park detachments of about 200 men in all and have about 150 held in reserve at Mammoth Hot Springs. They cover every boundary line, every approach, and the loop. They are organized so as to give warning at once of any fire, disturbance, or trouble of any description. Last year a large section of the northwest was almost devastated by forest fires. The troops were called upon to fight the fires with the rangers. The letters to the different departments from those rangers and from those in authority speak in the highest terms of the work of the troops, showing our organization is fitted for that kind of work. That the game surrounds the soldiers' stations, that the deer will eat out of a soldier's hand, speaks for itself. The game has no better friend in this park than the soldier. There are 350 of us in the park to-day, scattered in 15 different soldier stations and at times, especially in the winter, occupying 11 other snowshoe cabins for the protection of this park. There are 70 mules that draw the heaviest wagons, always on the road, every day that the snow will permit, for the purpose of supplying these different stations and snowshoe cabins. In the pack-mule trains we have a chief packer, cargador, blacksmith, cook and 16 packers, which force is ample. The troops are so organized that they can be used in sections in any part of park, traveling in detachments. The detachments are all the way in size from a corporal's command to that of the troop with its captain, depending on the necessity or the degree of danger. We have here two temporary hospitals, one at the fountain and the other at the lake.
When you take into consideration the cost of replacing all of this by civilian labor, it very soon runs into the hundreds of thousands of dollars. The only augument which can be adduced for replacing us by the other form is that the other form should have more permanency. I grant you that, but I do not grant its efficiency. I believe that the system is very efficient to-day and has been and that with the small change of detailinstead of ordering out all at once but half be so ordered and those who remain instruct the newcomersI am convinced that our force would be as efficient as any that could be secured.
The SECRETARY. Is there any discussion of the matters presented by Col. Brett? If not, we will next hear from the superintendent of the Hot Springs Reservation, Hot Springs, Ark.
The Hot Springs of Arkansas are located at Hot Springs, Garland County, Ark., 63 miles southwest of the capital of the State, Little Rock. Ever zealous and watchful of the interests of its people, the Government by act of Congress enacted April 20, 1832, that the Hot Springs in said territory, together with four sections of land including the said springs at as near the center thereof as may be, shall be reserved for the future disposal of the United States, and shall not be entered, located upon, or appropriated for any other purpose whatever.
The permanent reservation consists of 911 acres, and comprises the East, West, and North Mountains, which lie in and around certain portions of the city of Hot Springs. The daily flow from these 44 hot springs approximate 1,000,000 gallons, and comes out of the earth at an average temperature of 147° F. The Government has spent several millions of dollars on its scheme of improvement of the springs and the surrounding land, which consists of a system of mountain roads approximately 10 miles in length and beautifully laid out and improved walks, both of which wind around the mountains by easy grades to the summits, the altitude of which is a little over 1,000 feet, from which is disclosed at various points a beautiful scope of undulating country for a distance of 80 miles, together with the surrounding peaks of the Ozarks.
The early history of these hot springs belongs to the realms of legends and traditions tinged with romance and adventure. Their discovery dates back to when the Indians roved unmolested through the forests, pitching their wigwams and lighting their camp fires in the most advantageous places, where were found game and plenty of pure water. No doubt, these dusky aborigines were familiar with the virtues of these hot waters centuries before Columbus ever sailed the trackless deep and unknown seas when he first discovered the land of America. Soon after this historic event, strange and fascinating tales of the wonderful curative powers of these thermal waters began to flow to all portions of the new world, and indeed we may well believe that the story was credited even then that somewhere hid in the western wilds was a wonderful fountain of youth whose magic waters would banish the traces of time and cause the roses of youth to bloom again. In the early part of the 16th century this alluring and entrancing tradition must have been wafted to the ears of Ponce de Leon, who as a reward for his valiant services to Spain was then governor of the island of Porto Rico. This was a period in the world's history when men believed in the philosopher's stone and the elixir of life, and it is not strange that that battle-scarred old veteran Ponce de Leon should believe in the remarkable Indian tales or that he should head an expedition in quest of the magic waters which would restore the virility and sweetness of youth and pristine vigor. In March, 1512, with three ships he sailed from Porto Rico in search of the prize which was to restore the immortality of youth. On March 29 he landed on the mainland of this country near the point now called Fernandino. Taking possession of it in the name of Spain, he called it Florida, because the land was first seen on the Pascua de Flores, and because it was fair to look upon, being covered with pleasant groves, and carpeted with flowers. Following the landing many explorations were made, and all streams and springs were tested, but they searched in vain for the mythical fountain of youth. The Indians in possession of the country were fierce and warlike, and told always the same disappointing tale "Beyond you, far beyond you, is the stream you seek." After returning home, having failed to penetrate the wilderness far enough to have discovered Hot Springs, he returned again to Florida more zealous and ardent in his desire, because of a wound received, from which he believed the healing waters could wash the poison. Again he failed and returned to Cuba, where death released him from the old age he had so valiantly and vainly sought to rejuvenate in the hot springs.
The story of Ferdinand de Soto, who subsequently found his grave in the Mississippi River, and who, no doubt, also sought the benefits of these healing waters, is similar in its record of sorrow and disappointment to that of de Leon.
There is but little doubt that the healing powers of these hot springs was well known to the Indians in that period, and legend goes on to declare that the springs and the immediate surrounding country was the land of truce, for each and every tribe was privileged to bring its sick and wounded for care and treatment, This fact is borne out by the many evidences extant of excavations made in the mountains, and many arrowheads and hammers of prehistoric ages have been found which are made from the novaculite which abounds extensively in many portions of the reservation, and is a valuable whetstone.
In the year 1800 French trappers spent much time at Hot Springs and made it their headquarters, and soon after President Jefferson negotiated with Napoleon for the Louisiana Territory. In 1803 he sent an exploring party headed by Dunbar and Hunter for the purpose of making an examination of the waters and surrounding country and ascertaining if anyone was in possession under such rights as would enable them to establish claims in the future. Nothing was found except a few scattering shanties.
After taking the temperature of the water and noting the surrounding country and the wonderful geological formations, they made special mention of the curative properties of the water and the oilstones which are used all over the world to-day.
The source of the heat of these waters can only be conjectured. The finite mind can not delve into the mysteries of that arch alchemist "Nature," or view the caverns wherein she works this wonderful secret. The scientists may inform and theologians may declare, but the sources of the heat, or the constituency of the various salts, gases, and other materials which formulate the waters, remain a mystery. But that nature has compounded from her wonderful storehouse and resources a water whose potency for curing diseases of mankind exceeds that of all others, there is no doubt. The Government, to determine what the qualities of the healing properties of the Hot Springs were, in 1904 especially commissioned Prof. Bertram B. Boltwood, of Yale College, to make a scientific test of those waters for that wonderful mineral, radium, the result of the research by Prof. Boltwood being in part:
(1) The waters of the springs on the Hot Springs Reservation are all radioactive to a marked degree.
(2) The radioactivity of the waters is due to dissolved radium emanation (a gas), and not to the presence of salts of radium or other radioactive solids. Medical science is unanimous in the assertion that this water is the greatest of all the eliminatives. This being true, it can readily be understood why the greatest benefits are derived by the use of these hot waters being charged with radium gas which flows direct from the spring to the user without permitting the evanescent radium property to be lost.
A course of baths at Hot Springs consists of 21 baths. There are 24 bathhouses located there, ranging in price from $3 to $10 for the 21 baths, to which must be added the attendant's fees of $3 for the 21 baths, which is the same in all the bathhouses. There are 11 of these bathhouses on the permanent reservation and 13 on private property. The hot waters used by all the bathhouses both on and off the reservation is the same.
The average number of baths given annually is approximately 1,000,000. The healing power of these waters is the wonder of medical science, and nowhere can be found any water that has and is effecting such wonderful cures as these.
In 1880 the Government established at Hot Springs an Army and Navy hospital for treatment of the sick of both branches of our country's defenders, as well as the veterans of the Civil and Spanish-American Wars. The records of this hospital show that 90 per cent of its patients are either entirely cured or materially benefited.
The entire control and conduct and use of the waters of the Hot Springs is vested in the General Government and is handled by the Interior Department, which is represented at Hot Springs by a superintendent appointed by the Secretary of the Interior.
The price of the baths at all of the bathhouses is fixed and maintained by the Government, which controls the water supply and prescribes all rules and regulations for the management of the bathhouses and the administration thereof.
Congress in 1878 enacted "That the superintendent shall provide and maintain a sufficient number of free baths for the use of the indigent, and the expense thereof shall be defrayed out of the rentals hereinbefore provided for." This bathhouse is maintained at Government expense and is absolutely free of charge to any citizen who is indigent and unable to pay for baths. There are given an average of 200,000 free baths at this bathhouse annually.
The department does not undertake to give a complete list of the cures that have been effected by the use of these waters, or to say what diseases or ills they will cure, but a course taken by a person in normal health results in a rejuvenation and vast reinvigoration.
The use of the waters opens the pores and channels for the expulsion of matters injurious to health, arouses torpid and sluggish secretions, stimulates the circulation, the muscles, the skin, and the internal organs, and thus purifies the blood and removes aches and pains, restores the weary and exhausted, and revives the debilitated, and helps build up the entire system.
The city of Hot Springs is a modern, well-built city, and has some 600 hotels and boarding houses, ranging from the very best to those suitable to any man's station.
The department controls the practice of medicine in Hot Springs so far as it pertains to the use of the hot baths, and physicians who are permitted to prescribe the hot waters must be registered by the Federal Registration Board appointed by the department, and no physician who is not registered and authorized by the department to prescribe the hot waters can do so.
The rules further provide that any person who patronizes or treats with a physician who is not registered by the Government can not take the hot baths. Any person desiring these baths can by calling at the superintendent's office obtain a list of registered physicians and any other information looking to his comfort.
In the administration of the affairs at Hot Springs this department has but one object, to see that everyone who is entitled to them may avail themselves of these wonderful waters, surrounded by every protection possible.
The climate conditions of Hot Springs are very excellent. The mean rainfall for an average year being 5.20; the mean temperature for the average winter month is 58.07, and for the summer month 90.02.
The number of annual visitors to Hot Springs averages approximately 150,000.
All sorts of healthful outdoor amusements are provided and indulged in, such as golf, tennis, baseball, horseback riding, and mountain driving.
In the proper administration of adequate rules for the fullest protection of the many thousands of visitors here many obstacles had to be surmounted. The worst feature of a very serious condition was that of doctor drumming, which has in a great measure been obliterated. First, we installed United States inspectors on all incoming trains, whose duty it is to inform the public of the rules and what to do to comply therewith for their individual benefit. Next was instituted a daily bathhouse report, and a more strict enforcement of medical ethics through a very efficient Federal medical board; the result has been that this most of all objectionable feature of the most famous resort in all the world was reduced to the minimum, no longer are there drummers on all trains, and no longer can those human parasites make commercial traffic of the ill and afflictedthe Government has assumed a place of general guardian of the visitor here and sees to it that each receives a square deal. A question which has been for two years a source of much agitation is that of the State ceding to the Federal Government absolute and exclusive jurisdiction of the original four sections of land which composed the reservation as set aside by Congress in 1832. I believe, and this belief is shared by a majority of our citizens, that if the Government had such jurisdiction, and managed the city as on plans similar to those in the management of the District of Columbia, that it would be but a short time until this would not only be recognized as the worlds best and foremost health resort but at the same time the best governed city and the world's show place. I have labored unceasingly to create sufficient sentiment along these lines as to have the State legislature make such cession, and while success along these lines does not seem imminent, yet there is much to encourage the belief that some day the citizens will realize that Government control is all that is lacking to bring about the magnificent results referred to. I am of the opinion that jurisdiction has never passed from the United States, but this is a matter of legal interpretation of the acts of Congress and the bill of rights when Arkansas was admitted to the Union in 1836, and will, of course, have to be passed upon by the courts.
Another thing which has agitated us is that the city of Hot Springs, normally about 15,000, has to provide facilities for a city of 50,000, and the revenues are insufficient to do this, so the question is, could a small tax, a cure tax, be levied on the visitors to be used in support of the city and the construction of streets, boulevards, etc. If such could be done it would result in vastly improved facilities and add much to the pleasure and benefit of each citizen and visitor.
I incline to the belief that this will go down in history as an epoch-making conference, it will divide the time when this resort as well as the great national parks were operated locally with but scant knowledge of their conditions on the part of the department, from the time when the department actually knows the needs and is in personal contact with local conditions. From my experience I am strongly in favor of a national park bureau, with a bureau head whose duty would be to personally know the needs and local conditions; it is difficult for an official in Washington, without knowing the ground, to determine always just what is most desirable; for instance, during all the time since 1832 to this good hour, but two heads of the department have ever visited this resort. This is unfortunate, for the presence occasionally of such official inspires the citizens to a more cordial support of the governmental efforts, and brings about a more hearty cooperation in the administration of our affairs, the people like to feel some one at the head knows them and and knows their needs.
Some of the matters discussed here appear to me to depend altogether on local conditions, so that a general rule is impossible, for instance, the permission of automobiles in national parks. Now take our reservation; very few there are who would even advocate the use of machines here, while perhaps there are other parks where no harm could follow their use, so that the result brings us back to the matter of a park bureau where its head could after personal acquaintance determine which was best.
This conference will I feel sanguine result in one thing which is bound to be beneficial, that of our meeting the Secretary. Getting acquainted with him and knowing him is bound to make every subordinate here feel a personal loyalty to him and increase our zeal in our effort to add all the honor and luster to his administration within our power by each doing his level best.
Mr. Secretary, I want on behalf of the citizens of the greatest health resort in the world to ask you now to come and see us, let us demonstrate to you that we all feel grateful for your efforts in our behalf, that we appreciate your interest in us, and your efforts to ameliorate in every possible way conditions which will insure to every citizen and visitor the best possible results. The Government has no asset nearly so valuable as these hot watersforests may be replenished, roads may be built and restored, water may be conserved, all things material may be increased, but health when lost can not be bought, the nearest approach is to come and bathe in these wonderful waters and obtain rejuvenation; to the sick they bring health, to the afflicted they bring relief, to the well they bring brightness of eye and alertness of step, rest from fatigue and happiness to all.
The SECRETARY. I notice the name of Maj. W. R. Logan, superintendent Glacier National Park. I would like to hear from Maj. Logan.
Mr. HERBERT F. MCCABE. Maj. Logan is here, but owing to a severe cold he has requested that I read his paper or incorporate the same into the record of the conference.
The SECRETARY. Very well, Mr. McCabe, we will be glad to have you read the paper.
It occurred to me when I was assigned to prepare a paper on "A national park in a formative stage" that it would be interesting for you to know something about the earlier history of our latest born national park at a time when it was entirely uninhabited save by the wild animals of the mountains and roving bands of Indians of the Kalispell, Kootenai, Piegan, and Blackfeet tribes.
It was my good fortune in the springtime of my young manhood in the years 1881 and 1882 to visit the region which is now known as Glacier National Park with an exploring expedition headed by Prof. Rafael Pumpelly, of Newport, R. I. The first year, in the month of June, we made an attempt to enter the country from the east side of the mountains, but the snow was so deep upon the summit of Cut Bank Pass that it was impossible for us to continue; so we "back tracked" to the prairie countrywent around to the north and tried to effect an entrance through Kootenai Pass. Here again we failed, owing to the tremendous amount of snow choking up the pass, and the attempt to enter was abandoned for that year, as Prof. Pumpelly had other exploring work awaiting his attention in the vicinity of what is now Great Falls.
The following year we made a second attempt; this time we decided to try an entrance from the west. In the month of August we started with a pack train from Helena, journeyed down past Missoula, came across the Big Blackfoot, on down to the Jocko Agency, thence crossing the reservation, following along the west side of Flathead Lake to the place where the town of Kalispell now stands, which at that time was bare prairie. From that point we moved up to the present site of Columbia Falls. At that time this fertile region, which is now so thickly populated, was inhabited by a few wandering bands of Indians, our party comprising the only whites in that section. From the site of Columbia Falls we plunged into the mountains through Bad Rock Canyon. After traversing over portions of the Flathead country for several days finally we came to the south shore of Lake McDonald, where we picked up an old Indian trail which led us over Cut Bank Pass. The trip was a strenuous one, as we had to chop almost our entire way through the mountains, the Indians having abandoned the trail some 25 or 30 years previous. Only one conversant with mountain travel can realize the difficulties to be encountered in making a trip of this nature, and more especially in following an old Indian trail, which is always laid out along lines of least resistance. Our first discovery of a glacier was at a place we called Mud Creek, the name of which in later days was changed to Nyack Creek. This glacier was afterwards named by me "Pumpelly Glacier," in honor of Prof. Pumpelly, the leader of the expedition. According to information I now have, Lieut. Ahern, of the United States Army, was the next man to enter, Ahern Pass being named after him. Then came the Great Northern Railway by way of the old Two Medicine Pass, opening up to the world the famous Lake McDonald, located at the southern end of the park, within 3 miles of their track at Belton, Mont. It was not long after that some enterprising people of Kalispell cut out a trail from Belton to Lake McDonald, and for years the people of Kalispell and the Flathead Valley visited the Lake McDonald region during the summer months. Finally the attention of the Members of Congress from Montana was called to the scenic beauties of this portion of the Rocky Mountains, and I believe Lake McDonald was visited by Senators Carter and Dixon, who were very much impressed with the scenic wonders to be found there, and steps were immediately taken to have Congress set the same aside as a playground for the American public.
Glacier National Park, the youngest of our national parks, was created by the act of Congress approved May 11, 1910. It is located in northwestern Montana, and its 1,400 square miles embraces rugged mountain peaks, forest-clad valleys, glistening glaciers, and deep blue mountain lakes. The park is bounded on the north by the Dominion of Canada, on the east by the Blackfeet Indian Reservation, on the west by the Flathead River, and on the south by the Great Northern Railway. The park possesses attractions for the scientist and tourist which are not surpassed in any country of the world, tourists of world-wide experience pronouncing it the Switzerland of America. Within its confines are 60 large glaciers, these enduring ice sheets spilling their pure chill waters over hundreds of cataracts and splashing cascades into foaming mountain streams, where all varieties of trout abound, into clear, cold lakes that lie long and ribbonlike in the forested valleys. Cut in twain as the park is by the Continental Divide, the lofty mountain peaks within its borders are covered with perpetual snow.
To quote an excerpt from an address by Mr. R. B. Marshall, chief geographer, United States Geological Survey, delivered before the Canadian Camp, New York City, March 6, 1911:
I say without fear of contradiction that Glacier National Park is one of the most beautiful mountain sections in the world. To the east lie great plains, drained by the Mississippi River system. To the west, in sharp contrast, rise great walls of mountains, forming the Continental Divide, extending apparently unbroken for miles. In the canyons are roaring streams, heading in the melting snow and ice, flowing into placid lakes and on into the arroyos of the plains beyond. The western portion is drained by Flathead River eventually into the Pacific.
Rising more than 10,000 feet above sea level is Mount Cleveland, the highest of innumerable lofty peaks. Dotted over the entire region are many beautiful lakes, some only a hundred feet, others 10 miles or more in length. There are in all more than 60 live glaciers, some containing but a few acres, others several miles in extent. The whole region is inhabited by wild animals, but the unwritten sign of the boundary line warns the hunter that the park game is reserved for the pleasure and enjoyment of the people. The numerous streams and lakes abound in gamy trout of many varieties, and, while you may not hunt in the park, Uncle Sam places no bar upon the use of the rod and reel. In fact, here is everything to satisfy the most ardent student and lover of nature.
One of the most attractive features of the Glacier National Park, in my opinion, is its location immediately adjacent to the Canadian boundary line, with its possibilities for the creation of an international park.
With this brief introduction of our park, I will give a short résumé of the work accomplished during my administration from August 8, 1910, at which time I was detailed as superintendent of road and trail construction, up to the present time. Twenty-eight days before my arrival at the park and assuming charge forest fires broke out in various portions of the reservation, and immediately upon entering duty at the park I devoted all my attention and directed my energies in fighting the fire fiend, which for some time, on account of the unusually dry weather, threatened to wipe out the entire park. In connection with the fire fighting, I was rendered invaluable assistance by the War Department, which detailed six Companies of soldiers to assist in checking the fires. Too much praise can not be given the officers and soldiers for the excellent service they rendered during the month they were in the park. And right here at this point I might say that to my mind one of the most important problems with which a park superintendent has to deal is the fighting of forest fires, and I hope to hear this question discussed fully at the conference. I am glad to say that Mr. Graves has fully covered this question, and I know his remarks will be of great value to the superintendents present. The scenic beauty of our national park is enhanced to a great extent by virgin forests of western larch, cedar, white pine, Douglas fir, spruce, and hemlock, and if these forests are destroyed or even scarred it will take many generations to restore them to their present condition. I am glad to be able to say for our park that fortunately the terrific fires that swept within its borders last year were confined to portions not visited by tourists, and the scenic beauty of the park suffered little or no damage. This year we have not had a single fire of any consequence, as extra precautions have been taken and the season has been an unusually wet one. Upon the cessation of the fires in 1910 I turned my attention to trail work. Very little was done, however, along these lines, as the season was about over, and camp was broken September 26.
On the 28th day of April, 1911, I arrived at Belton and immediately commenced active operations, my first step being to secure deeds to the right of way between Belton and Lake McDonald from the owners of patented lands through which the proposed government road was to run. I called a conference of the several landowners, and after much persuasion and difficulty finally secured a right of way 60 feet wide and a little over 2 miles in length through the dense forest extending from the Middle Fork of the Flathead River to the south shore of Lake McDonald. The difficulty I had in securing this right of way, as well as other problems which have arisen by reason of private holdings within our park brings out another question which should be taken up at this conference, viz: "What are we going to do with the private holdings in our national parks?" This question naturally leads us up to the subject of jurisdiction over these patented areas, which is a very important matter. After securing deeds to the right of way and forwarding them to Washington, I commenced work on the road and here is where my real troubles started. The proposed route was almost a quagmire from one end to the other, the trees on the right of way averaging from 12 inches in diameter to 5 feet. First came the cutting of the trees on the right of way, sawing them into merchantable lengths and "skidding" them off the right of way; then the piling and burning of the brush. After this was done, came the next stage of the work, viz, blowing out the stumps. Approximately $1,000 was expended for dynamite and powder for this part of the work, so you can get an idea of the number of stumps. After the stumps were blown and the roots pulled out came the building of the subgrade. In order to get the best subgrade obtainable, I found it necessary to take the road down from 18 inches to 5 feet, to say nothing of the numerous fills that had to be made. During the period that we were engaged upon this part of the road incessant rains set in, which made the grading very difficult. Next came the putting down of the cushion over the subgrade, which had been crowned to the proper height, leaving it in proper shape for the crushed rock and dust coat, a coating of 6 inches of crushed rock and gravel going on and then the necesary dust coat. The road proper was made 24 feet wide, leaving 8 feet of a brim on each side, which I propose later to level to the proper grade and plant in grass seed, thus making a border of 8 feet of green grass on each side of the road. At the present time I am glad to say that the road is almost completed.
At the same time that I was engaged on road work I had small crews scattered throughout the mountains cutting and cleaning out old trails and building new ones. A great deal of this work was done by my ranger force, whom I wished to harden up and toughen for real ranger work in the mountains. In addition to my rangers I also had other small crews, out doing the same kind of work. While laying out and constructing trails this year I kept two points in mind: First, to have the trails run to the best scenic points of interest, and, second, with a view to a fire guard system, building the trails so that I can quickly throw a fire-fighting force from headquarters to any portion of the park which may be endangered by fire, always keeping in touch with my base of supplies at Lake McDonald.
The following table shows the number of miles of trails cleaned out and built this year:
Trails cleaned out and built, season of 1911.
making a total of 194 miles of trails which are now in fair condition.
This being the initial year of the park, the trails were hurriedly built to accommodate the tourist travel, which far exceeded our expectations. It is my purpose next year to extend these trails to a width of 8 feet, making the trail proper 4 feet wide, cutting out as much of the heavy grades as possible in order to insure the greatest possible safety to tourists. In this connection I might state that I can use $50,000 on trail work next year to good advantage.
During the time I was engaged on road construction and trail work I had a crew of men out installing a telephone system, and I now have 48 miles of telephone line, which includes 7 miles of a private line, which eventually we will take over. Ultimately I hope to connect up all the more important points by telephone in order to keep in touch with all parts of the park. In some instances use was made of the trees without felling them to string the wire on, but in most cases regulation telephone poles were put in, as for example, the line between Belton and Lake McDonald, where temporary headquarters have been established. The line between Lake McDonald and Logging Creek was installed more for the sake of fire protection than for any other purpose. By means of this line we can keep in touch with the forest ranger stationed on the south side of the Flathead River, who has a better view of the park from his station than my own rangers, and who can thus instantly notify us of any fires breaking out in that portion of the park. On the other hand, my rangers on the north side of the Flathead from their lookouts have an excellent opportunity of detecting fires in certain parts of the national forest, and they in turn have instructions to promptly notify the forest ranger should they see any indications of fire in the national forest. The forest ranger in charge of the Flathead National Forest and I have agreed upon this plan, and I believe such cooperation will prove highly beneficial to the national forest and the park.
Touching upon the matter of rates exacted from concessioners doing business within the confines of the park, the rates fixed for this season are purely tentative and will be adjusted to meet the increase in business. This subject of rates brings out another problem, viz: Should not certain privileges be granted for a longer period than one year? For instance, such concessions as permanent camps, hotel privileges, boat and stage privilegeswould it not be advisable to grant these privileges say for a period of five years, fixing the rates on a basis of every 1,000 people, the department maintaining the right to advance the rates to meet the increase in tourist traffic, say on a basis of 1,000? As conditions are now concessioners are inclined to hesitate about investing a great amount of capital without some assurance that their privilege will not be taken away. I simply touch upon this question in order to bring it to the attention of the conference, and will not at this time go into any discussion concerning it. To meet the increase in travel on Lake McDonald I advised Messrs. Denny & Kelly, who have the boat privilege on the lake, to build a larger boat, which they accordingly did, and we now have on Lake McDonald, in addition to the number of private boats, three passenger boats, having a carrying capacity all told of 175 persons.
During the summer I built one large dock and one smaller one, which are used by the licensed passenger boats as well as the private boats on the lake.
In conclusion I would state that in taking up the administering of Glacier National Park, which, as you know, is in a formative stage of development, I have kept in mind the following points, to which I shall adhere during the time I am superintendent:
To inaugurate and establish a definite and well-defined policy with respect to the handling of concessioners doing business within the confines of the park.
To develop the park as rapidly as possible consistent with facilities now obtainable, keeping in mind the future day, which I feel is not long distant, when the American traveling public will at last realize that the works of nature of their own country are unsurpassed anywhere in the world and our national parks will come into, their own.
The laying out of comprehensive roads and trails to the best scenic portions of the park and the installation of a telephone system in order to insure better supervision and protection from fire, always keeping in mind that the preservation of nature's wonderful handiwork for future generations is the primary object of Congress for setting aside this area as a national playground.
The SECRETARY. We will now hear from Mr. Hall, Superintendent of the Mount Rainier National Park.
ROAD AND TRAIL CONSTRUCTION.
The Government road in the park was opened for travel to the Camp of the Clouds, in Paradise Valley, a distance of 20-1/2 miles from the park entrance, late in the summer of 1910, although not completed at that time. During the present season approximately $10,000 is being expended on the road above Narada Falls, this amount remaining from the original appropriation of $185,000 for its construction.
The road is well located, but in places is narrow and poorly drained. Below Longmire Springs a 2 per cent grade is obtained, and between Longmire Springs and Paradise Valley it exceeds 4 per cent only in a few short stretches.
The bridges are of heavy construction and well built except those over the Tahoma and Kautz Forks, spans of 40 and 30 feet, respectively, and these should be replaced with steel bridges.
Three and one-half miles of road has been constructed by the Government from the western boundary of the Rainier National Forest to the western boundary of the national park to connect the park road with the county road. This stretch of roadway is in bad repair and has not been brought to the grade intended by the engineer's survey. It should be transferred from the War Department to the Interior Department, placed under the control of the park superintendent, and appropriations made for its upkeep and repair.
The present road from the western boundary of the Rainier National Forest to the Camp of the Clouds, in Paradise Valley, should be widened to 16 feet, and at dangerous points parapets should be constructed to keep stages and automobiles from going off grade. It is estimated that the cost per mile for widening the road to 16 feet would be $3,500, except the section of rock work above the Nisqually Glacier which extends for a distance of 2 miles. This section is through a side cut of rock and hard pan, with the present wall from 12 to 40 feet in height, and with a perpendicular drop on the outside of from 800 to 1,200 feet. About 1,000 feet of the solid rock can be widened by a side chamber for approximately $2.50 per foot, the remainder must be widened from 8 to 10 feet on the bank side and the bank reduced to a slope of one to one to prevent the annual slides which are caused by the swelling of the material on the bank by rain and frost. Under present conditions the ditches fill completely with the first rain. Dry rubble walls can not be maintained on this material on account of the swelling and sloughing off under the foundations.
Dirt for surfacing is very scarce, volcanic ash being used where obtainable. This ash makes a solid and dry covering when mixed with the proper amount of moisture and clay but wears rapidly and is hard to secure in any quantity, as only a thin strata underlies a heavy growth of timber and moss. At a point 1-1/2 miles above Longmire Springs a deposit of clay mixed with sand and gravel has been opened and is being used for surfacing across meadows and rock slides. This is the only suitable soil for surfacing so far found in any quantity.
Unlimited quantities of tough rock for macadam are found along the road in the park. One large slide of columnar basalt, broken ready for the crusher, has 3,000 feet of road constructed through it, and many fine ledges of granite are cut by the road from Nisqually Glacier to the head of Paradise Valley. The value of material found in the park for binding purposes in macadam construction has not been proven, but the cementing properties of the soft rock and hard pan on Ricksecker Point is very noticeable.
It is estimated that by installing a rock-crushing plant in the park the road could be macadamized for $3,000 per mile, and I wish to recommend that $75,000 be expended for widening the road to 16 feet, constructing parapets at dangerous points, and building steel bridges over the Tahoma and Kautz Forks, and that an additional $70,000 be expended for the purchase of a rock-crushing plant and road outfit, and macadamizing the road its entire length, these estimates not including any improvement to the Government road outside of the park.
A survey has been made by the United States engineers for a road into Indian Henrys Hunting Ground. This proposed road would branch off from the present road 4 miles above Longmire Springs and would be approximately 6 miles long. It would open up another beautiful mountain valley, and it is recommended that an expenditure of $20,000 be made for the construction of this road.
A survey should be made for a complete system of roads in the park, and with this object in view I wish to recommend that an expenditure of $25,000 be made for this purpose. When this survey has been completed Congress should be asked to make an appropriation to cover the cost of constructing the entire road system, available each year in amounts that may be expended during the open season to the best advantage. If this plan is carried out construction work could be started on the north and south sides of the park at the same time, thereby opening the north side for tourist travel.
All Government trails in the park are well located and are in good repair. They are, however, entirely inadequate for its proper patrol and protection, and a system of trails should be laid out and constructed at the earliest possible date. Heavily timbered portions of the park are now all but inaccessible and in the event of fire great difficulty would be experienced in getting a fire fighting crew, with necessary tools and provisions, to these inaccessible points.
A trail should be constructed around the mountain at the lowest practicable elevation, and from this main trail short trails should be built that would reach all parts of the park. With the trails now constructed it is beileved that an expenditure of $10,000 would complete a very satisfactory system of trails, and it is recommeneded that this amount be expended during the season of 1912. This trail system is considered to be the most important and necessary improvement to be made in the park.
Trail construction in the park is difficult and expensive owing to the rough character of the ground, the heavy stand of timber, and the cost of transporting supplies.
WAGON AND AUTOMOBILE TRANSPORTATION.
The Tacoma Carriage & Baggage Transfer Co. operate the principal stage line in the park, using 28 head of horses, three 4-seated and four 3-seated stages from Longmire Springs to Paradise Valley, and between Ashford and Longmire Springs three 18-passenger automobile stages, one automobile for transporting express and baggage, and a freight wagon. The automobile stages have not been found to be entirely satisfactory owing to the rough roads over which they are operated.
This company conducts its business in a satisfactory manner and the equipment is as good as may be expected considering that its permit to operate in the park is granted only from year to year.
George B. Hall conducts a livery business at Longmire Springs and uses 37 saddle and pack horses and 13 driving horses. He operates three 3-seated stage wagons between Longmire Springs and Paradise Valley, gives satisfactory service, and has had all the business he could handle during the present season.
Six persons have been granted permits for the use of "rent automobiles" in the park. These machines are operated between Tacoma and Nisqually Glacier, and will average perhaps 15 trips each during the season. They are not run on schedule and make trips only when a load can be secured.
Private automobile travel has been very heavy during the present season, 1,006 machines having entered the park for the season to September 5. A fee of $5 is charged for a season permit for each machine, and the revenue from this source to September 5 has been $3,750. To this date 9,513 persons have passed in over the Government road.
The rules and regulations governing the admission of automobiles into the park are rigidly enforced, and the disposition of most owners is to adhere to them without question. No automobile accidents of a serious nature have occurred in the park.
HOTELS AND TENT CAMPS.
The hotels and tent camps have been entirely inadequate to accommodate tourists visiting the park during the present season.
The National Park Inn is a three-story building 125 feet long by 32 feet wide, with 36 rooms, and by using 86 tents in connection will accommodate 225 guests. This hotel was constructed during the spring of 1906 and was opened for business July 1 of that year. It is not properly constructed for a first-class hotel, and it is understood that the company contemplates erecting a more modern building before the opening of another season. A log clubhouse has recently been constructed near the main building. It is attractive in appearance and is used as a recreation hall by the hotel guests.
The tents used in connection with the hotel have board floors and walls, are equipped with doors, electric lighted, and are well furnished. The hotel table is supplied from the commissary of the Chicago, Milwaukee & Puget Sound Railway at Tacoma and is satisfactory. A complete refrigerating plant is operated in connection with the hotel.
The Longmire Hotel, maintained on the Longmire patented tract, is a small frame building with 12 rooms. Tents are used in connection, and it is operated as a second-class hostelry and does a large business.
At Paradise Valley, a distance of 6-1/2 miles by trail and 14 miles by road from Longmire Springs, a tent camp with 60 tents is maintained. This camp is run at its full capacity during the months of July and August.
At Indian Henrys Hunting Ground, a distance of 7 miles by trail from Longmire Springs, a tent camp with 15 tents is maintained, and does a good business.
These two tent camps are of a second-class order and are not often patronized by persons who expect first-class accommodations, and it is believed that the lack of first-class tent camps or hotels in these two mountain valleys reduces the aggregate number of persons visiting and remaining in the park many hundred each year.
The sanitary conditions at these camps are not satisfactory, and this defect can only be remedied by the construction of a sewer system or septic tanks.
The SECRETARY. Mr. Richard Wright will now tell us something about the Mesa Verde National Park.
The Mesa Verde National Park was created at a comparatively recent date; that is, by the act of June 29, 1906. It is not a large reservation, containing but 66 square miles. It is situated in the extreme southwestern part of Colorado, adjoining the northern boundary of the Southern Ute Indian Reservation.
The park was established for the preservation of an extensive and remarkable group of cliff dwellings, the habitations of a tribe of prehistoric men of the stone age. The cliff dwellers themselves were small of stature, peaceable in character, dwelt in communities for mutual protection and were skillful and industrious to a high degree. The archaeologists tell us that from the mummies which have been found in the cliff houses these human beings were dolicocephalic, or narrow headed, in this respect differing markedly from the local Indians, who are brachycephalic, or broad headed. On account of the diminutive stature of these men they did not excel in combat or warfare, and hence were obliged to fortify themselves in the high and almost inaccessible recesses of the cliffs. That they were peaceable and industrious is shown by the remains of the lasting and artistic pottery they made, the tracts they cultivated on the level mesas above the cliffs, and the care and skill with which their dwellings were constructed. That their age was a stone era is shown by the absence of any metals from their abodes, and the presence of exclusively stone implements, such as grinders, hammers, arrowheads, and the like. That they dwelt in communities is demonstrated by the construction and architecture of their buildings, their dwellings containing hundreds of individual living rooms and chambers, and larger rooms, called kivas, which were used for assembling places, either for the purpose of worship, councils, or ceremonies.
These ancient ruins are spectacular and impressive in appearance, being constructed in the recesses of the solid cliffs, walled about like ancient fortresses and crowned with towers and bastions like castles of the Middle Ages.
Little is known as to the exact era of the cliff dwellers' existence. Dr. Hewitt, a leading archaeologist, has said:
The time element in the history of these ancient groups is obscure. We know that the cliff cities were in ruins at the time of the coming of the Spaniards. Any statement of the date of their abandonment must be largely conjectural. If we were to venture such a conjecture, it would be to suggest from 8 to 10 centuries ago as the most recent date of occupation in the localities above described.
The greatest problem which has confronted the department in the past in connection with the development of the Mesa Verde National Park has been the transportation of tourists from Mancos, the nearest railroad point, to the cliff dwellings, a total distance of about 30 miles. The Mesa Verde proper (meaning green plateau) is an immense and intensely interesting geological formation, consisting of tinted rim rock, huge and precipitous slopes of sand and shale, with rolling hills of verdure on the top. The cliff dwellings are found in the huge canyons located in the extreme southern part of the park and in the sections of the Southern Ute Indian Reservation lying directly south of the center of the park and within the 5-mile strip over which we have jurisdiction.
The mesa rises almost abruptly from the plain to a height of about 2,000 feet. When once on top, travel is comparatively easy. The problem we have had to meet is the construction of a highway so graded that the top of the mesa can be reached by a passable wagon road.
The line of road was surveyed to wind around the foothills at Point Lookout, the northern extremity of the park, thence up the west side of the mesa through the shale to a saddle at the head of what is known as Moorefield Canyon. The road then turns into Moorefield Canyon, out again on the side of the mesa, and then into the head of Prater Canyon. At intervals along this route the roadbed is necessarily cut into the shale. This substance is a sort of decomposed or disintegrated rock which can easily be crushed in the fingers and wholly lacks substance or any degree of resistance to either wind or water erosion. Those portions of the road which run through this shale are continually caving away or being blocked with slides from above, caused by rains. The only remedy for this, in my opinion, is the widening of the roadbed at these points at least five feet, surfacing with crushed rock, cribbing with stone or timber, where necessary on the outside edge, and the building of solid retaining walls on the inner side. This strengthening of the road must be done if we are to have a safe and substantial road for tourists. We must have the money to do the work.
At the end of this routethat is, at the head of Prater Canyon, where the road leaves the slope and runs on top of the mesathis difficulty ceases. The contractor who has been working on the road this summer has built 3-1/2 miles of good road along the line of survey southward toward the ruins. We need further road construction for approximately 6 miles in order to connect up with that portion heretofore built northward from the ruins along Chapins' Mesa. When this work is finished the entire route will be open to wagons and carriages, and if we can obtain sufficient money to properly rebuild the shale road the grade will permit automobile traffic.
The principal ruins, as I have stated, are situated south of the Indian reservation line, outside of the park proper but within the five-miles strip, over which we have jurisdiction. Through the efforts of assistant Commissioner of Indian Affairs Abbott, Maj. McLaughlin, and Inspector Linnen, a treaty was entered into last spring with the Southern Utes whereunder the Government takes a tract lying directly south of the park and embracing the most important ruins in exchange for certain public lands suitable for grazing south of Ute Mountain and far west of the park. I am informed, however, by Mr. R. W. Berry, Geological Survey topographer, who has been engaged on a map of the park, that the lines run southward by these gentlemen to include the ruins omit the inclusion of Balcony House, one of the most important structures. This was due, no doubt, to the inaccurate composition of the Land Office map of the park. This omission should be remedied by such action as the department may deem advisable.
The future promises well for the Mesa Verde National Park provided we can secure a congressional appropriation sufficient for its proper development. The present route to the ruins is by a horseback trail. This trail is fearfully rough and precipitous, and it seems almost unnecessary to refer to the utter impossibility of promoting heavy tourist travel to the ruins under these circumstances.
I have asked in my estimate for a sum of approximately $28,000 for road construction. Compared with the amounts asked for by the custodians of some of the other national parks, this amount seems modest indeed.
The Denver & Rio Grande Railroad has tentatively promised that excursion rates to the park will be made as soon as the main wagon road is completed and the running of excursion trains thereby justified.
Upon the completion of the various improvements which we contemplate, such as the completion of the main wagon road, telephone lines, custodian's house, artesian wells, etc., we have every just reason to believe that tourist traffic will come to the Mesa Verde in numbers hitherto undreamed of. The park is reached by the Denver & Rio Grande Southern, a narrow gauge railroad leading into Mancos by two routes, the northern and the southern. The southern route, which, in my opinion, is the best one for eastern travel, comes down from Denver by way of Pueblo, Alamosa, and Durango. At present visitors must stop over night in Durango and leave for Mancos, a three hours' journey, late the following morning. I think we will have no trouble in persuading the railroad authorities to run the cliff-dwellings excursion trains right through Durango to reach Mancos before dark during the summer season.
The travel which will come over the northern route will bring tourists down from Grand Junction and points west by way of Telluride and Montrose.
To my mind the Mesa Verde Park has wonderful possibilities for development. If properly provided for and effectively administered it should rank among the most important of the national reservations, a position which its quaint and mystic contents, its natural beauty, and its historical value fully justifies.
The SECRETARY. Gentlemen, I think from the character of this and the previous report there is really no useful purpose to be subserved in reading reports concerning which there is no occasion for discussion. I mean the detailed reports on particular parks will be quite as useful in the record as they will be to simply read them to this audience. If there are any of the papers, however, that are of a character which will lead to discussion by the entire body that would be different.
Assistant Secretary THOMPSON. Before this body finally adjourns, I think it proper to show our appreciation in some formal manner of the the entertainment we have had at the various magnificent hotels throughout the park and also of the courtesies extended to us by the Yellowstone Park Hotel Association, the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co. and the Yellowstone & Monida Stage Co. They have by their kindness and courtesy added materially to the comforts and success of this gathering. I offer therefore for your consideration the following resolution:
Be it resolved by the conference of National Park Superintendents now in session at the the Canyon Hotel in the Yellowstone National Park, That the hearty thanks and sincere appreciation on the part of this gathering are hereby extended to the Yellowstone Park Hotel Association, the Yellowstone Park Transportation Co., the Yellowstone & Monida Stage Co., and in particular to Messrs. H. W. Child and F. J. Haynes, for the uniformly kind and courteous treatment and consideration accorded by them to the officers of the Interior Department here assembled and to all other members of the conference.
Mr. E. M. SUNDERLAND. As I am the only one who made a remark which could be construed as a criticism of this magnificent house, it gives me great pleasure to second the motion.
The SECRETARY. I thought it would be wise not to have any formal resolutions, but I think this resolution would be a proper one now. I assume the intention was to include all those who have contributed to our pleasure. Are there any remarks on this resolution? If not, all of those in favor of it will signify by rising. (Resolution unanimously carried.)
Mr. STEEL. Before this meeting adjourns I want as one to express my gratitude to the Secretary of the Interior for the action he has taken in bringing this conference to pass, which has advanced the cause of national parks ten years since yesterday morning, and I would like to ask that all delegates rise to show their appreciation to the Honorable the Secretary.
The SECRETARY. I thank you. I want to say, in concluding, that perhaps mention should be made of those papers that have not been read or otherwise referred to. I want to say that Mr. Arant, superintendent Crater Lake National Park, is here, as well as Maj. Hallock, of the Hot Springs Reservation. I wanted merely to call attention to those papers that have not been read. Now, I think there is nothing that can be said in conclusion of what I regard as an exceedingly successful conference. I want to express my appreciation of the attendance of those who have come herethose who are connected with the service, those who have business relations with it, and those whose interests are indirect. I think we can all congratulate ourselves on this the first conference on national parks, and with that I shall declare the conference adjourned.
Last Updated: 03-Mar-2009