Alaska Subsistence
A National Park Service Management History
NPS Logo



List of Maps

List of Tables

List of Photographs



List of Acronyms

1. Alaska Native and Rural Lifeways Prior to 1971

A. Alaska's Native Cultures
B. Alaska Natives and the U.S. Government
C. The Lure of Gold and the Non-Native Population Influx
D. Federal Policies Toward Alaska's Natives, 1890-1950
E. Statehood and Its Ramifications
F. Toward a Land Claims Settlement

2. The National Park Service and the Subsistence Question

A. Early Policies Toward Native Americans and Subsistence
B. Establishing an NPS Management Policy, 1916-1933
C. Shifting Policies Toward Native Americans, 1933-1963
D. Emergence of New NPS Policies, 1963-Present

3. Subsistence in Alaska's Parks, 1910-1971

A. Mount McKinley National Park
B. Katmai National Monument
C. Glacier Bay National Monument
D. The Alaska Native Cultural Center Proposal

4. The Alaska Lands Question, 1971-1980

A. Congress Passes a Native Claims Settlement Bill
B. The Interior Department Begins Planning for New Parks
C. NPS Planners Consider the Subsistence Question
D. NPS Subsistence Activities in Alaska, 1972-1973
E. Studying the Proposed Parks, 1974-1976
F. The State Gets Involved
G. Congressional Alaska Lands Act Proposals, 1977-1978
H. An Alaska Lands Bill Becomes Law

5. Initial Subsistence Management Efforts

A. Establishing a Regulatory Framework
B. ANILCA and its Management Ramifications
C. Alaskans React to the State and Federal Subsistence Laws
D. The NPS Organizes a Subsistence Program

6. Managing Alaska's Subsistence Program, 1985-1989

A. The Madison Decision and its Impacts
B. The State of Alaska's Subsistence Management Program
C. Managing Subsistence Activities on Alaska's Parklands
D. SRC Recommendations: Eligibility Issues
E. SRC Recommendations: Access Issues
F. The Controversy over Traditional Use Zones
G. SRC Wildlife Management Issues
H. Glacier Bay Subsistence Conflicts
I. Miscellaneous NPS Subsistence Management Issues
J. The SRCs During the 1980s: Concluding Remarks

7. The Federal Assumption Process, 1989-1993

A. The Alaska Supreme Court Rules in the McDowell Case
B. Initial Federal Subsistence Management Efforts
C. Establishing the Federal Regional Advisory Councils
D. Alaskan Responses to Federal Assumption

8. NPS Subsistence Management Activities,1990-Present

A. Status of the NPS Subsistence Program, 1990-1991
B. NPS Subsistence Program Changes, 1991-1993
C. Agency Program Modifications, 1993-1996
D. The NPS Subsistence Program, 1996-present
E. Subsistence in the Legislature, Part I: The Case of Glacier Bay
F. Subsistence in the Legislature, Part II: Gates of the Arctic ATV Use
G. SRC Recommendations: Eligibility Issues
H. SRC Recommendations: Access Issues
I. A Renewed Discussion of Traditional Use Zones
J. Wildlife Management Issues
K. Miscellaneous Subsistence Management Issues
L. The Federal Program (Wildlife-Related Issues), 1993-Present: General Trends
M. The Federal Program (Wildlife-Related Issues), 1993-Present: Specific Issues

9. The Subsistence Fishing Question

A. The Federal Role in Subsistence Fisheries Management, 1980-1992
B. The Katie John Decision
C. State and Federal Responses to Katie John, 1995-1999
D. Federal Planning Prior to Fisheries Assumption
E. Implementing the Federal Subsistence Fisheries Program

10. Concluding Remarks


1. State and Federal Subsistence Leaders, 1974-present
2. Regional Advisory Commission Chairs and Coordinators
3. NPS Subsistence Officials, 1980-present
4. Subsistence Resource Commission Chairs, 1984-present
5. Subsistence Resource Commission Activity, 1984-present
6. Federal Subsistence Board Staff Committee Members, 1990-present

Selected Bibliography

Index (omitted from the on-line edition)

Graphics and layout for the original hardcopy edition by Frank Broderick of Archgraphics, Angelika Lynch (Archgraphics) prepared the maps, and A.T. Publishing Co. of Anchorage printed the volume under a Government Printing Office contract.

1-1. National Parklands in Alaska
1-2. Alaska's Native Languages and Cultures
1-3. Federal Lands in Alaska, 1968

3-1. National Parklands in Alaska, 1971
4-1. ANCSA Native Corporations, December 1971
4-2. Proposed National Conservation Areas, December 1973
4-3. Newly-Established National Monuments, December 1978
4-4. Proposed Regional Management Councils, 1978
4-5. National Conservation Areas in ANILCA, December 1980

5-1. Resident Zone Communities for Alaska's National Parks and Monuments
5-2. State-Managed Subsistence Regions, 1982-1992

6-1. NPS Traditional Use Zone Proposal, Gates of the Arctic National Park, November 1984

7-1. Federally-Managed Wildlife Subsistence Regions, 1992-present

8-1. Resident Zone Community Boundary Proposals, Wrangell-St. Elias National Park, 1992-1993

9-1. Federally-Managed Fisheries Subsistence Regions, 1999-present

1-1. Population of Alaska and Selected Areas, 1890-2000

2-1. Known Subsistence Uses in Non-Alaskan NPS Units That Were Established Prior to 1976

4-1. Proposed NPS Areas in Alaska, March 15, 1972
4-2. Evolution of Proposed NPS Areas, September 1972 to January 1975
4-3. Subsistence Eligibility in the Proposed Alaska Parklands, 1973-1980

5-1. Resident Zone Communities for Alaska National Parks and Monuments, 1979-1981
5-2. Regional Advisory Council Chronology, 1971-present
5-3. State Subsistence Budgets and Federal Reimbursements, 1982-1990
5-4. Subsistence Resource Commission Chronology, 1977-present

6-1. Population of Resident Zone Communities for Alaska National Park Units, 1970-2000

7-1. Federal Subsistence Hunting Regulations Chronology, 1990-1993
7-2. Proposals Considered by the Federal Subsistence Board, by region, 1991-1993

8-1. Federal Subsistence Hunting Regulations Chronology, 1993-present
8-2. Hunting Proposals Considered by the Federal Subsistence Board, 1993-present
8-3. Office of Subsistence Management ­ Budget and Employee Strength, 1990-present

9-1. Proposed Staff and Budget for Federal Subsistence Fisheries Management, Summer 1999
9-2. Federal Subsistence Fishing Regulations Chronology, 1997-present
9-3. Fisheries Proposals Considered by the Federal Subsistence Board, 2000-present


Cover photo: Inupiat woman Fannie Kigrook Barr of Shishmaref boiling walrus flippers. This photo was taken in 1974 by the late Robert Belous, who was one of the primary architects of the National Park Service's policy toward subsistence management during the critical, nine-year period between the passage of the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act and the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act. NPS (Alaska Task Force Box 8), Photo 4467-5

Chapter 1:
1-1. Dipnetting along the Copper River
1-2. Northwestern Alaska subsistence fishers, 1974
1-3. Acting Gov. Hugh Wade and Gov. William A. Egan

Chapter 4:
4-1. Mike Gravel and Ted Stevens
4-2. Inupiat hunters hauling a seal kill, Cape Krusenstern area, 1974
4-3. Inupiat woman poling a boat, 1974
4-4. Drying fish nets near Ambler, September 1974
4-5. Snowmachine in Barrow, 1968
4-6. Bob Belous
4-7. Bryan Harry
4-8. Ray and Barbara Bane
4-9. Gov. Jay Hammond
4-10. Rep. Nels Anderson
4-11. Reps. Morris Udall and John Seiberling
4-12. Anna and Pete Gregory at Nikolai, 1985
4-13. Rep. Don Young

Chapter 5:
5-1. Michael Finley
5-2. Paul Starr and airplane
5-3. John Cook
5-4. Alaska Region NPS employees, 1981
5-5. Bill Brown
5-6. Mack Shaver
5-7. Ronald Skoog
5-8. Rep. Ramona Barnes
5-9. William P. Horn
5-10. John Sandor, Keith Schreiner, Sec. James Watt, Sen. Ted Stevens, Sen. Frank Murkowski, and Curt McVee
5-11. Roger Contor
5-12. Lou Waller
5-13. Alaska NPS superintendents, ca. 1984
5-14. Preparing a beaver skin at the Paul Starr cabin

Chapter 6:
6-1. Alaska Supreme Court, February 1985
6-2. Gov. Bill Sheffield
6-3. Sen. Rick Halford
6-4. Robert E. Gilmore
6-5. John G. (Jack) Fuller
6-6. Janie Leask
6-7. Sec. Donald Hodel, John Sandor, Vernon Wiggins and Gov. Jay Hammond
6-8. Flensing a seal, 1974
6-9. Aerial view of McCarthy, Alaska
6-10. Allakaket, Alaska from the air
6-11. Boyd Evison
6-12. A fresh subsistence harvest loaded on a canoe
6-13. Charles Budge
6-14. Byron Mallott
6-15. Snowmachine in northwestern Alaska
6-16. Paul Haertel
6-17. George Ahmaogak
6-18. Dick Ring
6-19. Gates of the Arctic National Park Subsistence Resource Commission, 1984
6-20. Dick Martin
6-21. Minnie Gray, from Ambler, butchering a caribou
6-22. Boyd Evison, William Penn Mott, George Dalton, Sr. and Mike Tollefson
6-23. Bill Ellis
6-24. Subsistence catch with gillnet, Unalakleet River drainage, June 1976

Chapter 7:
7-1. Alaska Supreme Court
7-2. Sam McDowell
7-3. Bill Knauer
7-4. Regional staff coordinators, Office of Subsistence Management
7-5. Walter J. (Wally) Hickel
7-6. McKie Campbell

Chapter 8:
8-1. Alaska's NPS superintendents, 1991
8-2. Roger Siglin
8-3. John M. (Jack) Morehead
8-4. Alaska NPS leaders, 1993
8-5. Bob Gerhard
8-6. Ralph Tingey
8-7. Jon Jarvis
8-8. Paul Anderson
8-9. Denali National Park Subsistence Resource Commission letterhead
8-10. Alaska subsistence resource commission chairs, 2001
8-11. Marvin Jensen
8-12. Sen. Frank Murkowski
8-13. Karen Wade
8-14. Lake Clark National Park SRC Meeting, 2001
8-15. Woman flensing a seal, 1974
8-16. Russell Berry
8-17. Steve Martin
8-18. Caribou crossing a stream
8-19. Raymond Paneak
8-20. Sec. Manuel Lujan
8-21. Dave Spirtes
8-22a. 8-22b. Bristol Bay Regional Advisory Council meeting, 1999
8-23. Gerald Nicholia
8-24. Sandy Rabinowitch
8-25. Judy Gottlieb
8-26. John Nusunginya
8-27. Mitch Demientieff
8-28. Tom Boyd and Peggy Fox

Chapter 9:
9-1. Katie John, 1994
9-2. Alaska Supreme Court, 1996
9-3. Gov. Tony Knowles
9-4. Lt. Gov. Fran Ulmer
9-5. Sen. Ted Stevens
9-6. Julie Kitka
9-7. Bob Penney
9-8. Sen. Robin Taylor
9-9. Rep. Joe Green
9-10. NPS subsistence staff, 2001
9-11. Judge Alex Kozinski

Note: Selected photos have been eliminated from the on-line edition.

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Last Updated: 14-Mar-2003