USFS Logo The North Cascades Study Report
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1891Act of March 3 (26 Stat. 1103) authorized the President to set aside forest reserves from the public domain. The act did not provide for forest management and the reserves were simply closed areas until 1897. See entry under 1897.
1893Presidential Proclamation of February 20 (27 Stat. 1063) established the Pacific Forest Reserve, Washington.
1897Presidential Proclamation of February 22 (29 Stat. 896) combined the Pacific Forest Reserve with other lands to establish the Mount Rainier Forest Reserve. It also established the Washington Forest Reserve.
1897The Organic Administration Act of June 4 (30 Stat. 35) provided for management of the forest reserves under the administration of the General Land Office in the Department of the Interior. This is one of the basic acts, with amendments, under which the National Forests have been administered since 1905 by the Forest Service, Department of Agriculture.
1899Act of March 2 (30 Stat. 993) established the Mount Rainier National Park from a part of the Mount Rainier Forest Reserve.
1904Act of December 21 (33 Stat. 595) transferred an additional portion of the Mount Rainier Forest Reserve to the Mount Rainier National Park.
1905Act of February 1 (33 Stat. 628) transferred forest reserves from the Department of the Interior to the Department of Agriculture. The Agricultural Appropriation Act of March 3 (33 Stat. 872) provided funds for the administration of the 60 forest reserves aggregating 56 million Government-owned acres. The present Forest Service stems from these two acts.
1906A North Cascades National Park, consisting of Lake Chelan region and surrounding mountains, proposed by the Mazamas, the Cascades' oldest alpine club.
1907Presidential Proclamation of March 2 (34 Stat. 3296) changed the name of the Mount Rainier Forest Reserve to the Rainier Forest Reserve.
1907Act of March 4 (34 Stat. 1269) changed the name of the Forest Reserves to the National Forests.
1908A Mount Baker National Park reportedly proposed for the first time.
1908Executive Order 820 of June 18 established the Columbia National Forest from a part of the Rainier National Forest; Executive Order 822 transferred a part of the Washington National Forest to the Rainier National Forest; and Executive Order 823 established the Chelan National Forest from still another part of the Washington National Forest. On the same date, Executive Order 824 established the Snoqualmie National Forest from another part of the Washington National Forest and Executive Order 825 established the Wenatchee National Forest from another part of the Washington National Forest.
1911Presidential Proclamation of June 30 (37 Stat. 1701) established the Okanogan National Forest from part of the Chelan National Forest.
1914Agreement entered March 27 by the Secretary of Agriculture and the Mayor of the City of Tacoma for the management of the National Forest lands within the Green River watershed. This agreement was in effect until November 23, 1964.
1916Act of August 25 (39 Stat. 535) established the National Park Service and assigned to it the administration of all National Parks.
1916S. 3775 by Jones and S. 3982 by Poindexter, each to establish a Mount Baker National Park in the State of Washington, received no action by the Public Lands Committee or by the 64th Congress, 1st Session. The same year, H.R. 9805 was introduced by Hadley to establish the Mount Baker National Park in the State of Washington. This bill was reported by the House Committee with amendment on January 29, 1917.
1917A National Park in the North Cascades area was endorsed by Mary Roberts Rinehart in a serialized account of her trip from Lake Chelan to Marblemount which appeared in the Cosmopolitan Magazine.
1917-1919Four bills were introduced in the 65th Congress, S. 312 by Poindexter, H.R. 6066 by Hadley, S. 3662 by Jones, and S. 4014 by Poindexter to establish the Mount Baker National Park in the State of Washington. They received no congressional action. Two bills were re-introduced in the 66th Congress, S. 371 by Poindexter and S. 626 by Jones. These also received no congressional action.
1919Yakima and Spokane Chambers of Commerce and neighboring communities called for creation of a North Cascades Park including Mount Adams, Glacier Peak and Mount Baker.
1919-1921Three bills were introduced by Senator Jones to create the Yakima National Park in the State of Washington in this period. These were S. 5612, in the 65th Congress, 3d Session, S. 623 in the 66th Congress, 1st Session and S. 2676 in the 67th Congress, 1st Session. They received no congressional action.
1920Trails Club of Oregon proposed Cascade Range be established as a National Park.
1920Executive Order 3380 of December 31 transferred entire Okanogan National Forest to the Chelan National Forest and discontinued the Okanogan name. See entry under 1955.
1922Mount Baker Construction Company formed to start construction of the Mount Baker Lodge.
1923Recreation development in the Mount Baker area began with the construction of a road from the town of Shuksan to Austin Pass and Heather Meadows. The Austin Pass Recreation Area Plan was approved by Forest Service calling for development on broad lines since the area would become a large center of recreation.
1924Executive Order 3943 of January 21 changed name of the Washington National Forest to the Mount Baker National Forest.
1925The Austin Pass Recreation Area was renamed the Heather Meadows Recreation Unit and a new plan for the area"s development was approved by the Forest Service.
1926Mount Baker Development Company completed construction of the Mount Baker Lodge. While the main Lodge was destroyed by fire in 1931, an annex remains today as a popular recreation and skiing center.
1926The Mount Baker Park Division of the Mount Baker National Forest, comprising 74,859 acres, was established by Secretary of Agriculture. Logging, mining, and water development projects were permitted, if such utilization would not impair values of the area for recreational purposes.
1926The Glacier Peak Association reportedly proposed a National Park to surround Glacier Peak. The idea was later abandoned in favor of continued management by the Forest Service.
1929Forest Service adopted "L-Regulations" providing for a system of primitive areas with minimal road and construction developments.
1931Forest Service established the Glacier Peak-Cascade Recreation Unit embracing 233,600 acres around Glacier Peak.
1931Whatcom Primitive Area, comprising 172,800 acres adjacent to Mount Baker Recreation Area, established by the Chief of the Forest Service.
1931The Secretary of Agriculture, by a land classification order, designated as the Mather Memorial Parkway an area embracing the Naches Pass Highway consisting of 24,300 acres within the Rainier National Forest to be held "for the use and enjoyment of the general public for scenic and recreation purposes."
1931By act of January 31, Mount Rainier National Park was enlarged by the addition of approximately 35,000 acres of National Forest lands (46 Stat. 1047).
1933Congress enacted legislation for the establishment of Emergency Conservation work, later called the Civilian Conservation Corps.
1933Executive Orders 6333, 6334, and 6335 of October 13 divided the entire Rainier National Forest among the Columbia, Snoqualmie, and the Wenatchee National Forests.
1934Land Planning Committee of the National Resources Board proposed National Park status for several of the most scenic volcanic peaks. The Northwest Conservation League actively supported this proposal.
1935North Cascade Primitive Area (801,000 acres) was established by the Forest Service. This area included all of the Whatcom Primitive Area and extended from the Mount Baker Recreation Area easterly to include the summit of the Cascade Range and the more rolling mountain country of the Chelan National Forest.
1936Forest Service considered possible southern expansion of North Cascade Primitive Area by outlining a 794,400 acre area between the Primitive area and Stevens Pass for study and possible classification as the Glacier Peak Wilderness Area. Such consideration was renewed in 1939.
1937Director of the National Park Service appointed a special committee to investigate the park potential of the North Cascades. This committee recommended (Tomlinson Report) National Park status for Mounts Baker, Glacier Peak, Rainier, St. Helens and Adams, an area comprising about a 5,000 square mile area or over 3 million acres. (Later references to this report often call it the "Ice Peaks National Park proposal.")
1938Heather Meadows Recreation Unit Plan of development was revised by the Forest Service because of completion of highway, the addition of a winter sports area and improvements located in the unit.
1938-1939National Park Service studied mines and mineral claims, timber, grazing, and wildlife resources in the North Cascades region.
1939Secretary of Agriculture adopted "U—1" and "U—2" Regulations, providing for a system of Wilderness areas, more restricted than primitive areas, and revoked Regulation "L—20."
1939Washington State Planning Council began study of area from Mount Baker to Mount Adams. Seven public hearings held by Council during winter of 1939-40.
1939Joint National Park Service-Forest Service-Washington State Investigation Committee examined Mount Baker and other ice peaks of Washington.
1940National Park Service submitted its report to the Washington State Planning Council advocating a Cascades National Park encompassing the high, glacier bearing peaks of the Cascades.
1940On April 27, Forest Service preliminary report on North Cascades Joint Study was approved by Regional Forester endorsing continued Forest Service management, and opposing National Park status for area.
1940Washington State Planning Council completed its report, which opposed creation of National Park and affirmed multiple use management of North Cascades area.
1940Secretary of the Interior Harold L. Ickes, advised the Mining World Magazine that "the scenic wilderness areas of the high Cascades should be administered as National Recreation Areas" by the National Park Service.
1940Glacier Peak Limited Area of approximately 350,000 acres was reserved by the Forest Service for further study.
1946A 90,000-acre Cougar Lake Limited Area, a 256,000-acre Alpine Lakes Limited Area, and a 15,000-acre Monte Cristo Peak Limited Area were set aside administratively by Regional Forester for further study of their recreation potential.
1949Presidential Proclamation of June 15 (63 Stat. 1277) renamed the Columbia National Forest as the Gifford Pinchot National Forest. See entry under 1908.
1950Bellingham Chamber of Commerce formed a committee to consider development of Mount Baker Recreation Area. Establishment of the Mount Baker Recreation Area as a National Monument was also suggested. Later in the year, the Bellingham Committee recommended against the Monument proposal and supported then current appropriation legislation as a source of funds for National Forest recreation.
1955Public Land Order 1101 of March 23 renamed the Chelan National Forest as the Okanogan National Forest. See entries under 1911 and 1920.
1955The Multiple-Use Mining Act of July 23 (69 Stat. 367) was an important step toward preventing abuses of the mining laws and interference between mining claims and the management of resources of National Forests and other public lands and at the same time safeguarded legitimate development of mineral resources on such lands.
1955A Waptus Lake National Park of about 77,000 acres in the Wenatchee National Forest was proposed.
1956"Mission 66," a 10-year program to develop, expand, and improve the recreation resources of the National Park System was initiated by the National Park Service. It was aimed at bringing up to standards by 1966 a National Park System which would adequately meet the needs of the American people.
1957Forest Service presented preliminary proposals for Glacier Peak Wilderness Area of about 434,000 acres.
1957North Cascades Conservation Council, a private organization, was established.
1957Only large mine in North Cascades, Holden Mine, closed.
1957Operation Outdoors, a five-year program to improve and expand recreation facilities in the National Forests, was started by the Forest Service.
1958In a report prepared for the Sierra Club, David Simons recommended the creation of a Lake Chelan-Glacier Peak National Park comprising 1,300,000 acres.
1958The National Parks Association, the North Cascades Conservation Council, and the Sierra Club adopted resolutions advocating establishment of a National Park in the Glacier Peak area of the North Cascades. The Federation of Western Outdoor Clubs recommended a joint study by the Interior and Agriculture Departments to determine how the area's wilderness, scenic, wildlife and recreational resources might best be protected by law.
1959In March, Representative Thomas Pelly proposed that the National Park Service make a recreation evaluation in the Glacier Peak area. He contacted the Forest Service, which recommended against such a study.
1959In February, the Forest Service announced its proposal to establish a Glacier Peak Wilderness Area of approximately 422,000 acres, and conducted hearings thereon at Bellingham and Wenatchee during October.
1959A "Program for the National Forests," a comprehensive, long-range plan for improvement and development of public forests, was submitted to the Congress by the Secretary of Agriculture.
1959Construction was started on the North Cross-State Highway.
196086th Congress, 2d Session, H.R. 9342 and H.R. 9360, introduced January 6 by Magnuson and Pelly, respectively, and S. 2980, introduced February 4 by Magnuson, to provide that the Secretary of the Interior, in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall investigate and report to the Congress on the advisability of establishing a National Park or other unit of the National Park System in the central and North Cascades region of the State of Washington. Referred to Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. These bills received no congressional action.
1960The Multiple Use-Sustained Yield Act of June 12 (74 Stat. 215) declared that the National Forests are to be administered for outdoor recreation, range, timber, watershed, and wildlife and fish purposes. It gave congressional confirmation of the long-established policy of developing and administering renewable surface resources of the National Forests for multiple use and sustained yield of their several products and services. It stressed that consideration be given relative values of resources in particular areas and declared that the establishment and maintenance of areas of wilderness is consistent with purposes and provisions of the act.
1960In a decision of September 6, the Glacier Peak Wilderness Area (458,505 acres) was established by Secretary of Agriculture. The Secretary also provided in the decision that the Cascade Pass-Ruby Creek Area would be managed for preservation of scenic values and general types of recreation.
1961Secretary of Agriculture directed that no further logging development be undertaken in 20 specified areas in the North Cascades pending preparation of a high mountain policy statement for Oregon and Washington.
1961Columbia Basin Inter-Agency Recreation Subcommittee released its report on recreation survey of Pacific Northwest Region.
196187th Congress, 1st Session, H.R. 2056, introduced January 6 by Pelly. To provide that the Secretary of the Interior, in cooperation with the Secretary of Agriculture, shall investigate and report to the Congress on the advisability of establishing a National Park or other unit of the National Park System in the central and North Cascades region of the State of Washington. Referred to the Committee on Interior and Insular Affairs. This bill received no congressional action.
1962In its report to the President and the Congress, the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission recommended, among other things, a land classification system for outdoor recreation resources.
1962Secretary of Agriculture directed that no new developments, including building of new roads or making of new timber sales, would be undertaken until 1967 in 10 specified areas in the North Cascades.
1962Basic multiple use management objectives for the high mountain areas of the National Forests in Oregon and Washington were approved by Secretary of Agriculture.
1963Washington State Forest Area Use Council released a report recommending declassification of Cougar Lake Limited Area and suggesting the area be managed under regular multiple-use practices.
1963Forest Service adopted policy on National Forest Recreation Ways.
1963North Cascades Conservation Council's report, "A North Cascades National Park," called for a 1,038,665-acre National Park and a 269,521-acre Chelan National Mountain Recreation Area.
1963A "new era of cooperation" between the Department of Agriculture and the Department of the Interior was announced in a joint letter of understanding sent to the President by the two Secretaries. This called for, among its several specific proposals, a joint study "of the Federal lands in the North Cascade Mountains of Washington to determine the management and administration of those lands that will best serve the public interest."
1963North Cascades Study Team was appointed by the Secretaries of the Interior and Agriculture. Later that year, the team inspected the area and conducted public hearings.
1964The Wilderness Act of September 3 (78 Stat. 890) provided for the establishment of a National Wilderness Preservation System. The Glacier Peak Wilderness Area became a part of that System.
1965The Eldorado Peaks High Country of some 537,000 acres in the Cascade Pass-Ruby Creek area was given publicity by the Forest Service. It was announced that this area would be managed for mass recreation purposes in accord with the directive contained in the 1960 Secretary of Agriculture designation of the Glacier Peak Wilderness.
1965"Wild Cascades: Forgotten Parkland" released by the Sierra Club to promote a National Park in the North Cascades.

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Last Updated: 26-Mar-2010