1. Each specific unit will be mentioned in the report where such information is essential; the terms "National Park" and "National Park complex" will be used liberally in the generic sense throughout.
2. Edward S. Curtis, The North American Indian, 9 (Norwood, Mass., 1913), p. 74. The Skagit News, June 10, 1884, reported that it had tried to learn the meaning of Skagit but could find no Indians who knew. The Indians interviewed believed that the name was first applied to themselves, then later to the river.
3. John R. Swanton, The Indian Tribes of North America, Smithsonian Institution, Bureau of American Ethnology, Bulletin 145 (Washington, 1962), pp. 441-42 and 448. John Osmundson, "Camano Island--Succession of Occupation From Prehistoric to Present Time," in "Washington Archeologist," 5 (April 1961), 5, says that a subdivision of the Swinomish, the Kikialos, lived on Camano Island and were oriented to the Skagit River, their ties being mostly with the lower Skagit Indians.
4. Swanton, pp. 441-42; House Ex. Doc. 129, 33d Cong., 1st sess., "Report of . . . the Several Pacific Railroad Explorations" (Report of Governor Stevens), 1 (Washington, 1855), p. 465; University of Chicago, Map, "The North American Indians, 1950, Distribution . . ." (Dec. 1960).
5. Hubert Howe Bancroft, The Native Races of the Pacific States of North America, 1 (1874), p. 211; Curtis, p. 157; Albert Buell Lewis, "Tribes of the Columbia Valley and the Coast of Washington and Oregon," Memoirs of the American Anthropological Association, 1, part 2 (Sept. 1906), pp. 157 and 159.
7. Lewis, pp. 155-60 and 172; Paul Kane, Wanderings of an Artist Among the Indians of North America (Tokyo 1968), p. 153 (Kane discusses potlatches on Vancouver Island.); The Skagit News, June 10, 1884, and March 10, 1865. The potlatch and other features of Coastal Indians' daily life are discussed in depth in Drucker, pp. 55-65, and in Tom McFeat, editor, Indians of the North Pacific Coast (Seattle, 1966).
15. Drucker, pp. 84-85; Thelma Adamson, Folk-Tales of the Coast Salish (New York, 1934); Ella E. Clark, Indian Legends of the Pacific Northwest (Berkeley, 1953), pp. 138-41. Clark's version of the legend should be regarded as one that has been filtered through white logic and thought processes.
16. U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Indian Affairs, Indian Reservations of the Northwest, Idaho, Oregon, Washington, The People, Their Land, Their Life (1960), pp. 67-71. (Hereafter cited as USDI.)
19. Otto Klement, "Early Skagit Recollections," typescript, p. 8. Jimmy Jones, a Skagit Indian, said many years later that the Skagits got their horses from the Columbia basin by way of Cascade Pass. Burlington Farm Journal, Dec. 6, 1961.
22. Klement, pp. 5-6; Interstate, pp. 122 and 473; University of Chicago, Map. On March 25, 1884, the Skagit News reported a rumor that the Skagits were uneasy about a new survey--which stopped, however, because of lack of funds.
26. Swanton, pp. 589-91; James Teit, The Thompson Indians of British Columbia in Memoirs of the American Museum of Natural History, 2 April 1900), pp. 168, 268, 270, and 390. Teit's account is a thorough anthropological view of the Thompsons.
27. Swanton, pp. 430-33; USDI, pp. 77-82; Jessie A. Bloodworth, "Human Resources Survey of the Colville Confederated Tribes" (June 1959), pp. 3-4. Bloodworth is more valuable for her statistics than for historical accuracy.
30. The above summary of these tribes comes from numerous sources. Among them are: An Illustrated History of Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan, and Chelan Counties, State of Washington (Spokane, 1904); Edgar I. Stewart, "Alexander Ross," in Le Roy Hafen, ed., The Mountain Men and the Fur Trade of the Far West, 6 (Glendale, 1968), pp. 387-97; Ross, The Fur Hunters; Edson Dow, Passes to the North, History of the Wenatchee Mountains (Wenatchee, 1963); J. Neilson Barry, "The Indians in Washington, Their Distribution by Languages," Oregon Historical Quarterly, 28 (1927), pp. 147-62; Mary W. Avery, Washington, A History of the Evergreen State (Seattle, 1961); Bancroft, The Native Races of the Pacific States, 1; Bloodworth; and USDI, Indian Reservations of the Northwest.
31. Edmond S. Meany, "Washington Geographic Names," Washington Historical Quarterly, 8-14 (1917-23); Edmund S. Meany, History of the State of Washington (New York, 1909), pp. 357-59; Grant McConnell, "The Cascades Wilderness," Sierra Club Bulletin, 41 Dec. 1956), p. 25.
1. Stewart, pp. 387-97. Ross transferred to the North West Company in 1813. He continued to serve in the Columbia Basin: Fort Kamloops, Fort Nez Perce (Walla Walla), Snake River Expeditions, and Flathead Post. He eventually retired to the Red River Settlement. A critic described him as a man possessing almost every virtue except charity.
1. NA, RG 76, Northwestern Boundary, Envelope 3, "List of Persons. . .;" Herman J. Deutsch, "A Contemporary Report on the 49° Boundary Survey," Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 53 (January 1962), p. 18; Marcus Baker, Survey of the Northwestern Boundary of the United States, 1857-1861, USGS Bulletin No. 174 (Washington, 1900), p. 14.
2. Baker, p. 11; Daniel T. Goggin, compiler, Preliminary Inventory of the Records Relating to International Boundaries (Washington, 1968), p. 38; Otto Klotz, The History of the Forty-Ninth Parallel Survey West of the Rocky Mountains (New York, n. d.), reprinted from The Geographical Review, 3 (May 1917), pp. 382-87.
9. Ibid., Envelope 4, Report of Henry Custer, May 1866. This report was cited in Chapter 1 when describing the Indians' contributions to the success of the survey. Custer could not claim grammar as his forte. Someone (Campbell?) heavily edited this report later. Here I have used Custer's original constructions wherever possible. Minor punctuation has been added, but every effort has been made to retain Custer's enthusiasm.
15. International Boundary Commission (IBC), Joint Report upon the Survey and Demarcation of the Boundary between the United States Canada, from the Gulf of Georgia to the Northwesternmost Point of Lake of the Woods (Washington, 1937); Map, "International Boundary, From the Gulf of Georgia to the Northwesternmost Part of the Lake of the Woods;" Sheets 4 and 5 include the northern border of North Cascades NP.
1. Mitchell, By River, Trail, and Road, p. 4; Philip Henry Overmeyer, "George B. McClellan and the Pacific Northwest," The Pacific Northwest Quarterly, 32 (1941); Senate Ex. Doc, 78, 33d Cong., 2d Sess., 1, pp. 196-97 (Pacific Railroad Survey).
4. Henry H. Pierce, Report of An Expedition From Fort Colville to Puget Sound, Washington Territory, by way of Lake Chelan and Skagit River . . . August and September, 1882 (Washington, 1882), including indorsements and maps; Alfred Downing, Sketch Book, Washington State Historical Society, Tacoma, Washington.
4. Herbert Hunt and Floyd C. Kaylor, Washington, West of the Cascades, 1 (Chicago, 1917), p. 434; Concrete Herald, June 21, 1951. Everett later started a farm on the upper Skagit and grubstaked miners of the Ruby Creek district. In 1904, he sold this land, where the Portland Cement Company later erected its plant.
33. Chelan Leader, Dec. 10, 1891; Aug. 20, 1897; May 12, Sept. 7, and Oct. 19, 1899. Coon Lake was first mentioned by Lieutenant Pierce in 1882. It had several names over the years. A prospector in the area was Wilson Howard, a Negro. Unfortunately, Howard's name did not stick.
9. Pitzer, pp. 53-54; Glee Davis, interview; H. C. Chriswell, "Historical Sketch, Mt. Baker National Forest," typescript; Concrete Herald, June 21, 1951, says that at one time McMillan lived on the east side of the Skagit, then switched with Tommy Rowland for the latter's place on Big Beaver Creek. The reason for this swap was that Rowland's place had more hay, which McMillan needed for his pack animals.
14. Glee Davis, interview; Concrete Herald, June 21, 1951. Although only a few feet from the road, Gilbert's Cabin is difficult to find. The writer scoured a relatively small area of Devil's Club and stinging nettles on three separate occasions and has yet to locate it. The illustration in this report is due to the keener eyes of the park staff.
15. Illustrated History of . . . Chelan, pp. 671-83, 720-23, 743, and 766; Chelan Falls Leader, Aug. 6 and Aug. 13, 1891; Mitchell, "River, Trail and Rail," p. 27. The well-known Campbell Hotel, Chelan, was erected in 1898. The original building is kept in good repair, while a motel has grown around it.
23. Chelan Leader, Sept. 17, 1891; Jan. 14, sept. 29, 1892; Aug. 10, 1893; Aug. 13 and 31, Dec 2 1898; Feb. 24 and aug. 25, 1899; Pacific Monthly, 9 (May 1904), p. 303; Robert Bird, Harry Buckner, and Ray Courtney, interviews.
6. Dolly Connelly, "Indians, Miners, Stockmen Blazed the Way," Seattle Times, July 10, 1960; Pitzer, p. 33; Glee Davis, interview. Davis says that the women of Anacortes raised the money for blasting powder for Devil's Corner by giving dinners.
9. Murray, pp. 51-53; Connelly in Seattle Times, July 10, 1960, quoting the Bellingham Bay Weekly-World Herald. Connelly records that in 1890, Okanogan Smith had succeeded in driving cattle from eastern Washington to Anacortes via Cascade Pass.
12. Murray, p. 55; Connelly, Seattle Times, July 10, 1960; Bellingham Herald, Sept. 30, 1968; Wenatchee Daily World, Sept. 30, 1968. Retired Forest Ranger Tommy Thompson, then 84, cut the ribbon at Rainy Pass in 1968. Thompson had cut the first trail through Rainy Pass back in 1906. He died in 1969.
14. Chelan Leader, Oct. 10, 1901; Concrete Herald, June 21, 1951; Burlington Farm Journal, Dec. 16, 1961; Mitchell, "River, Trail, and Rail," p. 22; Allen Johnson, editor, Dictionary of American Biography (New York, 1943), 9; Lelah Jackson Edson, The Fourth Corner, Highlights from the Early Northwest (Seattle, 968), pp. 263 and 263n.
15. Seattle City Light, "The Seattle Skagit River Railway," mimeographed; and "Seattle City Light's Skagit Hydroelectric Project Visitor's Guide"; E. M. Sterling and Bob and Ira Spring, Trips and Trails . . . North Cascades and Olympics (Seattle, 1967), p. 28.
20. Bruce Mitchell, "Index to Historical Source Materials of North Central Washington in the Files of the Wenatchee Daily World", 1, 1905-50, and 2, 1951-59; Ray Courtney, interview. In 1948, a flood washed out part of the present road above the tenmile mark. Until the repairs were made, travelers used the old road up past Coon Lake as a detour.
23. Illustrated History of . . . Chelan, p. 427; Chelan Leader, March 12, April 9, May 7, Sept. 17, Oct. 15, 1897; March 11, June 17, July 22, 1898; March 15, June 2, Aug. 11, 1899; March 15, June 14, 1900; and May 9, 1901.
28. Illustrated History of . . . Chelan, p. 727; Chelan Leader, Sept. 7, 1899; June 14, Aug. 30, and Dec. 27, 1900. The paper reported in December 1900 that in addition to the Allger Brothers, M. S. Berry was a part-owner.
3. Chelan Weekly Leader, April 7, 1899, and August 22, 1901; Field, pp. 7 and 16. Other rangers included: Oliver S. Coleman, Axel E. Larson, J, R. Smith, R. V. Leitch, George Bokting, O. G. Armstrong, P. H. Farley, Cal Farrar, Joseph Galbraith, Joe Ridley, Carl Bell, Alfred B. Conrad, Norman MacCauley, Walter Cure, Len W. Stillwell, James Wallace, John Chamberlain, Charles Armstrong, and A. B. Conrad.
4. Field, pp. 15, 16,65, 83, 88, 90, 96, 102-01, 109, and 146-17; Lois W. Englebright, "Guardians of the Forest: A Story of the Fire Look-Outs on the Mount Baker National Forest," typescript, Mt. Baker NF files.
5. Of particular value concerning Skagit River logging are two documents: Ray Jordan, "A Sense of History, Logging in Skagit County . . . A Hundred-Year Sketch," six articles in the Skagit Valley Herald, Jan. 31-March 9, 1966; and Otto Klement, "Early Skagit Recollections." Also cited or otherwise useful: Chelan Leader, May 16, 1901; Skagit News, March 18 and April 1, 1884; Henry Manning, The Wild Cascades, Forgotten Parkland (San Francisco, 1965), pp. 108-09; Walt Woodward, "East Side Opposed to Park But Resigned to Its Inevitability" and "Bill Moved Too Fast for Timbermen," in Seattle Times, March 26 and Nov. 6, 1967; Fred G. Plummer, Forest Conditions in the Cascade Range, Washington (Washington, 1902), p. 33; James Stevens, "Logging and Mining," in The Cascades, Mountains of the Pacific Northwest, edited by Roderick Peattie (New York, 1949), pp. 145-56; Interstate, pp. 125 and 391.
Interstate listed the logging camps to be found in the Skagit area about 1906: English Lumber Co., Conway, 4 railroad engines, 125 men; Tyee Logging Co., Conway, logs by rail, 75 men; Dickey and Angel, Fredonia, 35 men; Clear Lake Lumber Co., Clear Lake, 2 railroad engines, 125 men; Lyman Lumber Co., 2 railroad engines, 75 men; Bradsbury Logging Co., Sedro Woolley, 25 men; Patrick McCoy, Edison, 1 locomotive, 6 miles of railroad, 3 donkey engines, 50-60 men; Ballard Lumber Co., Bay View, 1 locomotive, 3 miles of railroad, 40 men; and Houghton Lumber Co., McMurray, 125 men. None of these locations are within today's park.
10. George Wayne Douglas, A Preliminary Biological Survey of the North Cascades National Park and the Ross Lake and Lake Chelan National Recreation Areas (1969), pp. 172-73; Plummer, pp. 36-37; Harry Buckner, Interview.
12. Chelan Weekly Leader, July 14 and 28, 1899; W. G. Steele, "Lake Chelan and the Valley of the Stehekin," Oregon Native Son and Historical Magazine, 1 (January 1900), pp. 407-15. The Sierra Club, founded in California, dates from 1892. The Mountaineers, of Washington, organized in 1907 as "The Seattle Mountaineers Club, Auxiliary to the Mazamas." See Manning, High Worlds, p. 39, and Joseph T. Hazard, "Recreation," in Building a State, Washington, 1889-1939, edited by Charles Milnes and O. B. Sperlin, Washington State Historical Society Publications, 3 (Tacoma, 1940), p. 197.
14. Robert Ormond Case and Victoria Case, Last Mountains, The Story of the Cascades (New York, 1945), p. 112; Peattie, pp. 359-63; Lloyd Anderson, "First Ascent of Despair," Mountaineers, 32 (Dec. 15, 1939), p. 28; Lloyd Anderson, "First Ascent of Sinister," Mountaineers, 32 (Dec. 15, 1939), p. 27; Manning, High Worlds, pp. 116 and 118.
15. Robert H. Wills, High Trails (Seattle, 1962), pp. 9 and 25; Clinton C. Clarke, The Pacific Crest Trailway (Pasadena, 1945), pp. 15-17 and 25-27; Sunset Discovery Trips in Washington (Menlo Park, 1956), p. 56.
18. Work Projects Administration, Washington . . . Evergreen State, pp. 512-13; 89th Congress, 2d Sess., Hearings . . . North Cascades-Olympic, p. 104; 90th Congress, 1st Sess., Hearings, North Cascades, pp. 57-58. 216
Last Updated: 11-Jun-2008