I-Foliage needle-like and evergreen.
A-Needles 2" long and longer, growing on stem in "bundles"; two or
more per "bundle"
The Pines (Genus Pinus)
(Note: There are four pines in the Park; Western White Pine of the
lower forest has 5 needles per bundle; Lodge Pole Pine has 2 needles per
bundle and is found only around Longmire, White Barked Pine has five
needles per bundle but grows only on high rocky, timberline ridges;
Western Yellow Pine has two or three needles per bundle and is found
only in northern portion of the Park.
B-Needles less than 2 inches long, flat and soft to touch; grow
singly on stem.
1-Cones grow upright on branches always at top of tree. On maturity
cones fall apart leaving small spikes on branches. Crown compact,
usually symetrical and spire-like.
The True Firs
Note: There are four true firs in the Park, all
more or less alike except for altitudinal distribution, Grand Fir grows
at lower elevations, Nobile Fir is intermediate and Lovely Fir and
Alpine Fir in alpine meadows)
2-Cones hang down from branches and not limited to top of tree.
(a) Two to 2-1/2" long with long 3 pointed bracts protruding from
The Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga
(b) Rarely over 3/4" long. Foliage deep green and
lacy and about 1/2" long. Most common in dense forests.
The Western Hemlock (Tsuga mertensiana)
1" to 1-1/2" long, needles short and curved. Inhabits timberline ridges
where it is gnarled and twisted by the wind.
Mountain Hemlock (Tsuga heterophylla)
C-Needles less than 2" long, four sides in cross section and sharp to
touch; bark thin and scaly.
Sitka Spruce (Picea
Sitchensis). This tree is found chiefly in the Carbon River region.
II-Foliage scale-like; branches appear flattened.
1-Cones oblong and produced in abundance, bark scaly and shreds off in long strips.
Western Red Cedar (Thuya plicata)
2. Cones round and produced sparingly. Branches have decided droop;
grows at higher elevations chiefly about 5000 feet.
Alaska Cedar (Chameocyparis nootkatensis)
By C. F. Brockman, Information Ranger.