Nature Notes

Vol. XVI March - June - 1938 Nos. 1 & 2

Field Key to Plants of Mount Rainier Nat'l Park


1. Woody plants; shrubs or trees... 2.
1. Herbaceous plants... 28.
2. Foliage needle-like or scale-like
... 3.
2. Foliage not needle-like or scale-like
... 8.
3. Plant saprophytic on evergreen trees; very small (3/4" to 4" tall), yellowish... LORANTHACEAE.
3. Not saprophytic; evergreen plants - trees or shrubs ... 4.
4. Fruit a woody cone or firm bluish berry
4. Not cone bearing
... 5.
5. Trees; fruit a small green, hard nutlet partially surrounded by a bright red gelatinous aril... TAXACEAE.
5. Shrubs; low growing plants not over 3' tall... 6.
6. Leaves serrate with small teeth, 1/4"-1" long, thick leathery, opposite; flowers yellowish to purplish, sessile in leaf axils
... Pachystima in
6. Leaves entire
... 7.
7. Fruit a small black berry; flowers small and inconspicuous, with scattered and solitary in leaf axils three petal-like sepals, corolla none... EMPETRACEAE.
7. Fruit a capsule; flowers white, yellow or red, not inconspicuous; petals united into bell-like or urn-like form.... Phyllodoce,
Harriminella in
8. Plants evergreen
... 9.
8. Plants not evergreen; deciduous
... 10.
9. Foliage spiny and holly-like; flowers yellow, in racemes; corolla not urn-shaped; fruit a dark blue berry... Berberis in
9. Foliage not as above; flowers not yellow but generally white to rose; corolla urn-shaped margins of leaves entire or serrate.... Vaccinium ovatum,
Kalmia & Arbutus in
10-Leaves opposite
... 11.
10-Leaves alternate
... 14.
11-Leaves toothed lobed or compound... 12.
11-Leaves entire... 13.
12-Leaves distinctly 3-9 palmately lobed; fruit dry and winged; petals of flowers distinct
12-Leaves not as above; fruit fleshy and not winged; petals of flowers united
13-Leaves acute, apparently whorled; flowers white, in terminal flat-topped clusters... CORNACEAE.
13-Leaves obtuse, not whorled; flowers pink and clustered in the leaf axils... Symphoricarpos in CAPRIFOLIACEAE.
14-Stems with spines or prickles
... 15.
14-Stems without spines or prickles
... 17.
15-Leaves compound, composed of three or more leaflets... ROSACEAE.
15-Leaves simple, toothed or lobed... 16.
16-Leaves very large and maple-like, covered with spines on the underside
... Oplopanax in
16-Leaves small to medium, spines not present on leaves; flowers in racemes
... Ribes.
17-Leaves compound with 5 or more leaflets... 18.
17-Leaves simple, entire of toothed... 19.
18-Flowers white; fruit juicy and red; leaflets 1"-2" long; a tall shrub 4-8 ft. high
... Sorbus.
18-Flowers yellow; fruit dry; leaflets 3/4" or less long; low growing, not over 12" tall
... Potentilla fruticosa.
19-Leaves entire; flowers in catkins, leaves usually with stipule; tall shrubs or small trees; buds single-scaled... Salix.
19-Leaves from finely toothed to lobed... 20.
20-Flowers in catkins, greenish to brownish, corolla lacking; fruit cone-like, nut-like, or a capsule
... 21.
20-Flowers never in catkins, not green, corolla present; fruit never cone-like
... 22.
21-Fruit cone-like or nut-like... 21a.
21-Fruit a small capsule; each seed with a tuft of hair... SALICACEAE.
21a-Leaves coarsely lobed; fruit an acorn. A very uncommon tree
... Quercus garryana.
21a-Leaves not lobed, coarsely and doubly toothed; fruit cone-like. Very common in moist ground.
... Alnus in
22-Leaves conspicuously lobed or about as long as broad
... 23.
22-Leaves toothed but never lobed
... 24.
23-Fruit like a raspberry; petals 1/4"-1/2" long... Rubus.
23-Fruit like a currant; petals less than 1/4" long... Ribes.
24-Petals united so that corolla is urn-shaped; fruit juicy with minute seeds
... Vaccinium.
24-Petals distinct
... 25.
25-Fruit juicy with a single large seed... Prunus.
25-Fruit dry or, if juicy, containing two or more seeds... 26.
26-Flowers in racemes, fruit juicy
... Amelanchier.
26-Flowers not in racemes; fruit either dry or juicy
... 27.
27-Stamens 4 or 5; flowers green or white... RHAMNACEAE.
27-Stamens 15 or more; flowers pink or white... ROSACEAE.
28-Grasses or grass-like plants
... 29.
28-Plants not as above
... 31.
29-Flowers enclosed by husk-like scales, without a proper calyx or corolla; fruit 1-seeded and not opening... 30.
29-Flowers not enclosed by husk-like scales, composed of 3 petals and 3 sepals; fruit a capsule containing 3 or more seeds... JUNCACEAE.
30-Leaves 2-ranked on the stem; stems round or somewhat flattened, usually hollow, leaf sheaths usually split; flowers with 2 bracts - one above and one below
30-Leaves 3-ranked on the stem; stems usually 3 angled, sometimes round; leaf sheaths not split; flowers with only one bract and this below
31-Plants leafless, parasitic; no green coloring matter present, instead plant brownish or yellowish... OROMANCHACEAE.
31-Foliage pressent though sometimes leaves reduced to scales; either sapropytic or not... 32.
32-Leaves composed of three or more leaflets or lobed to the mid-rib
... 33.
32-Leaves simple, entire or toothed if not lobed to the mid-rib
... 49.
33-Plants floating on or submerged in water; leaves alternate and flowers white... Batrachium.
33-Plants not growing in water... 34.
34-Flowers sessile, in dense heads surrounded by bracts and often resembling a single flower
34-Flowers not in dense heads surrounded by bracts
... 35.
35-Leaves opposite or else all arising from the base of the flower stem ... 36.
35-Leaves alternate, stems leafy... 41.
36-Flower-bearing stems naked
... 37.
36-Flower bearing stems leafy
... 40.
37-Leaves tri-ternately compound; leaflets thin and somewhat heart-shaped at base, 3/4-2 inches long, angularly 3-lobed or margin repand or sub-untire; scape naked or bearing a single leaf; flowers white, in raceme or panicles; fruit a follicle... Vancouveria.
37-Leaves not tri-ternately compound... 38.
38-Outer margin of leaflets coarsely sinuate-dentate; flowers small, white and in an erect spike; fruit dry and one seeded
... Achyls.
38-Margin of leaflets entire
... 39.
39-Petals united but deeply 5-parted; flowers in racemes 10-20 flowered; peduncles stout; plant of marshy situations... MENYANTHACEAE.
39-Petals distinct; flowers solitary on slender short peduncles; plant of the deep woods... Oxalis.
40-Plants generally hairy; corolla of distinct petals
40-Plants glabrous or nearly so; corolla of united petals, tubular or funnel-form
41-Petals united... 42.
41-Petals distinct or sometimes wanting... 43.
42-Capsule 3-celled; flowers not in 1-sided racemes
42-Capsule 1-celled; flowers mostly in 1-sided racemes, these often clustered
43-Flower pea-like; fruit a legume... LEGUMINOSAE.
43-Flower and fruit not as above... 44.
44-Flowers in umbels
44-Flowers not in umbels
... 45.
45-Four petals; flowers in racemes; fruit a pod and this splitting into 2 parts... 46.
45-Five or more petals or sometimes petals wanting; flowers not in racemes... 47.
46-Petals unlike, one spurred; leaves finely divided into numerous narrow lobes
46-Petals all alike, small, not spurred; leaflets toothed or lobed
47-Stamens 5 or 10; flowers white or pink... SAXIFRAGACEAE.
47-Stamens 15 or more; flowers varied in color... 48.
48-Leaves without stipules; sepals distinct and petals often absent
48-Leaves with stipules; sepals more or less united petals always present
49-Plants floating on, or submerged in, water; attached to bottom of lakes or streams... 50.
49-Plants not floating on, or submerged in, water... 54.
50-Leaves in whorls of 6 to 12
... Hippuris.
50-Leaves not whorled, alternate or opposite
... 51.
51-Leaves heart-shaped at base, 6-8 inches wide or wider flowers yellow and 2-4 inches across... NYMPHAEACEAE.
51-Leaves not heart-shaped; much less that 6 inches wide; flowers small and green... 52.
52-Flowers in globose heads
52-Flowers not in globose heads
... 53.
53-Leaves 1/4 - 3/4 inches long; flowers sessile in leaf axils; leaves opposite; fruit not beaked... GALLITRICHACEAE.
53-Leaves usually much more that 3/4 inch long; flowers in spikes or sometimes sessile in the leaf axils but then the fruit is beaked ... NAJADACEA.
54-Leaves opposite, or whorled (sometimes a few of the upper leaves alternate); stems leafy
... 55.
54-Leaves alternate or else all borne at base of stem, stems often naked (1 or 2 pair of lowest leaves rarely opposite)
... 78.
55-Leaves toothed or lobed... 56.
55-Leaves entire... 63.
56-Stems with slender stinging hairs; flowers green and in cymes
56-Stems without stinging hairs; flowers colored or if green not in cymes
... 57.
57-Flowers in dense heads surrounded by an involucre of bracts ... COMPOSITAE.
57-Flowers not in dense heads as in above case... 58.
58-Petals distinct or absent altogether
... 59.
58-Petals united
... 61.
59-Leaves not evergreen, thin; petals 2-4... ONAGRACEAE.
59-Leaves evergreen, leathery; petals 5... 60.
60-Leaves scattered along stem, oblanceolate in outline; flowers in corymbs
... Chimaphila.
60-Leaves basal and broadly ovate; flowers in racemes
... Pyrola.
61-Foliage evergreen; stems creeping; flowers 2, pendant at the end of a slender stalk... Linnaea.
61-Leaves not evergreen; stems erect; flowers not in pairs as in above case... 62.

62-Fruit a capsule; corolla 2-lipped; stems not squared


62-Fruit of four nutlets in bottom of calyx; corolla 2-lipped or regular; stems square

63-Leaves in whorls of 3 or more, or else a single pair on the stem ... 64.
63-Leaves opposite and several pairs on each stem... 69.
64-Leaves 2 on each stem
... 65.
64-Leaves 3 or more on each stem
... 66.
65-Petals 3, very unlike and green; leaves oval, rounded or kidney-shaped... Listera.
65-Petals 5, all alike, white or pink; leaves lanceolate ... Claytonia.
66-Flowers sessile in leaf axils
... Hippuris.
66-Flowers not sessile in leaf axils
... 67.
67-Stems bearing numerous whorls of leaves... RUBIACEAE.
67-Stems bearing a single whorl of leaves... 68.
68-Flowers in dense head surrounded by 4 white, petal-like bracts; leaves 4-6
... Cornus.
68-Flowers one per stem with three petals; leaves three
... Trillium.
69-Plants parasitic on branches of evergreen trees ... LORANTHACEAE.
69-Plants not as above; growing on ground... 70.
70-Corolla lacking or of distinct petals
... 71.
70-Corolla of united petals
... 74.
71-Leaves very thick and fleshy... CRASSULACEAE.
71-Leaves thin... 72.
72-Petals yellow; leaves with black dots
72-Petals not always yellow; leaves not black dotted
... 73.
73-Calyx and usually a corolla present; calyx borne on top of ovary and fruit; petals 2-4... ONAGRACEAE.
73-Calyx borne at base of ovary and enclosing capsule; petals usually five... CARYOPHYLLACEAE.
74-Fruit of two long pods; juice milky
74-Fruit not as above; juice not milky
... 75.
75-Corolla 2-lipped... 76.
75-Corolla not 2-lipped; lobes all alike... 77.
76-Fruit of four nutlets in bottom of calyx; corolla purple
... Prunella.
76-Fruit a capsule; corolla variously shaped
77-Capsule 1-celled; corolla 1/2 - 1-1/2 inches long and deep blue ... GENTIANACEAE.
77-Capsule 3-celled; corolla 1/8-3/4 inches long, white and light blue or purple... POLEMONIACEAE.
78-Leaves evidently parallel veined; petals and sepals (when present) 3 each
... 79.
78-Leaves net veined; sepals (always present) and petals (often absent) usually 4-5 each (some plants occasionally appear to be parallel-veined but such never have 3 sepals)
... 85.
79-Flowers sessile, in dense globose heads... SPARGANIACEAE.
79-Flowers not sessile in dense globose heads... 80.
80-Flowers sessile in dense cylindrical heads; lower part of spike brown and velvety; plants 2-4 feet tall with spongy linear leaves; plant of marshy situations
80-Flowers not as above; habitat of plants various
... 82.
81-Flowers sessile in spike, this surrounded by a yellow hood-like spathe; leaves basal; plant of marshy situations.... ARACEAE.
81-Flowers never as above; leaves various... 82.
82-Fruit numerous small akenes in a head; petals white; leaves arrow-shaped
... Sagittaria.
82-Fruit not as above; petals variously colored; leaves never arrow-shaped
... 83.
83-Petal unlike, one very different from the other two... ORCHIDACEAE.
83-Petals all alike... 84.
84-Petals (blue) and sepals at top of the avary; stamens 3; fruit dry
84-Petals and sepals at base of ovary; stamens 6;. fruit dry or juicy
85-Plants without green coloring matter; saprophytic; leaves all scale-like... 86.
85-Plants with green leaves... 89.
86-Plant glabrous
... 87.
86-Plant hairy; 1-5 feet tall; stem straight and simple; flowers in a raceme; purple to brown in color; petals united and urn-shaped
87-Petals none; plant reddish; flowers in a spike; stem stout and erect, 10-15 inches tall, 1/4-1/2 inch in diameter... Allotropa.
87-Petals present... 88.
88-Petals united except at tips; plant stout and fleshy, white or brownish; flowers in short, crowded racemes leaves imbricated
... Newberrya.
88-Petals free almost to base of corolla; white or tawny-red; flowers one to several per stem
... Monotropa.
89-Stems naked; leaves all basal upon flowering stem... 90.
89-Stems leafy; usually with 2 or more leaves... 104.
90-Flowers in dense head on a common receptacle surrounded by one or more rows of bracts; heads one to many; fruit an akene, usually with tuft of bristles at the top
90-Flowers not in dense head upon a common receptacle surrounded by bracts (if they appear to be so the perianth is composed of distinct petals); fruit never an akene with tuft of bristles
... 91.
91-Leaves with long, gland-tipped sticky hairs; flowers in racemes ... DROSERACEA.
91-Leaves without gland-tipped hairs; flowers various ... 92.
92-Flowers in dense cyclindric spikes; leaves a with 3 or more ribs
92-Flowers not in spikes; leaves not ribbed
... 93.
93-Corolla none; calyx 3-lobed, bell-shaped or hemispheric; leaves large and reniform-cordate... ARISTOLOCHIACEAE.
93-Corolla present or if flower without petals, then with colored sepals... 94.
94-Petals united
... 95.
94-Petals distinct or if no corolla present then with distinct sepals
... 96.
95-Flowers one per stem; corolla spurred, purple; leaves sessile ... Pinguicula.
95-Flowers more than one on a stem... 96.
96-Flowers in umbels; leaves longer than broad
96-Flowers not in umbels; leaves as long as broad
... Romanzoffia.
97-Petals none; flowers with six sepals; flowers in clusters surrounded by an involucre of united bracts... Eriogonum.
97-Petals present; sepals 4,5,8, or 10; flowers not in a cluster surrounded by an involucre... 98.
98-Petals and sepals 8-10 each; leaves white-woolly beneath
... Dryas.
98-Petals and sepals 4-5 each; leaves not white woolly beneath
... 99.
99-Petals and sepals 4 each, inserted at top of ovary and fruit ... ONAGRACEAE.
99-Petals and sepals 5 each, not inserted at top of ovary and fruit ... 100.
100-Petals yellow; fruit of numerous akenes
100-Fruit a capsule; petals variously colored
... 101.
101-Petal Yellow or violet and 1-spurred at base... VIOLACEAE.
101-Petals white green or pink, none spurred... 102.
102-Leaves thick end evergreen
... 103.
102-Leaves thin and not evergreen
... Parnassia.
103-Flowers in corymbs; stems leafy... Chimaphila.
103-Flowers in racemes; leaves basal... Pyrola.
104-Flowers in dense heads on a common receptacle surrounded by one or more rows of bracts; heads one to many; fruit an akene, usually with tuft of hairs a top
104-Flowers not as above; fruit not an akene
... 105.
105-Petals of corolla united... 106.
105-Petals distinct or often wanting; calyx often corolla-like ... 111.
106-Stems more or less creeping; fruit fleshy; leaves leathery and evergreen; flowers pink to white
... Gaultheria.
106-Stem erect, rarely prostrate or trailing; fruit dry
... 107.
107-Fruit of four nutlets; leaves entire; corolla a regular ... BORAGINACEAE.
107-Fruit a capsule; leaves entire, toothed or lobed; corolla regular and 2-lipped... 108.
108-Corolla 2-lipped or saucer shaped
108-Corolla not as above
... 109.
109-Stamens protruding from corolla; leaves entire or lobed ... Phacelia.
109-Stamens shorter than corolla; leaves entire or toothed ... 110.
110-Leaves entire; corolla tubular and about 1/4 inch long, pink or pale purple, not drooping
... Collomia.
110-Leaves finely toothed; corolla bell-shaped and about 1/2-3/4 of an inch long, blue and drooping
111-Petals none; calyx sometimes corolla-like; leaves entire, toothed or lobed... 112.
111-Petals present... 115.
112-Fruit a utricle; endosperm mealy; a white, mealy glandular pubescent herb; flowers very small, green, sessile and in axillary or terminal (often panicled or compound) spikes
... Chenopodium.
112-Fruit not a utricle
... 113.
113-Fruit a head of numerous hairy akenes; sepals petal like ... Anemone.
113-Fruit a capsule or a single akene; sepals various... 114.
114-Fruit containing two or more seeds; leaves toothed or lobed; flowers in racemes
... Lepidium.
114-Fruit 1-seeded; leaves entire, toothed or lobed, with sheathing stipules; fruit often 3-angled
115-Petals unlike, one with a spur at base... VIOLACEAE.
115-Petals all a like or nearly so; none spurred... 116.
116-Sepals two; leaves fleshy
116-Sepals four or more, or none
... 117.
117-Leaves fleshy... CRASSULACEAE.
117-Leaves thin, often hairy... 118.
118-Flowers with four petals and four sepals
... 119.
118-Sepals and petals each 5 or more
... 120.
119-Sepals at top of ovary and fruit... ONAGRACEAE.
119-Sepals at base of ovary and fruit... CRUCIFERAE.
120-Flowers in umbels
120-Flowers not in umbels
... 121.
121-Sepals distinct... 122.
121-Sepals united at base... 123.
122-Fruit of numerous akenes or of several pods
122-Fruit a berry; flowers in lateral peduncled small cymes
... Solanum.
123-Fruit composed of numerous sections (as in an orange) covered with long, stiff hairs; stemens united into a column... MALVACEAE.
123-Fruit of 2-4 distinct or united pods; not long-hairy; stamens distinct... SAXIFRAGACEAE.


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