Nature Notes

Vol. XIV December - 1936 No. 4


Barbour, T. Reptiles and Amphibians. 1926.

Cochran. Our Friend the Frog. National Geographic Mag. Vol. LXI, No. 5. May 1932.

Cope, E. D. The Batrachia of North America. U. S. National Museum Bulletin No. 34. 1889.

Dickerson, Mary C. The Frog Book. 1906, 1931.

Kirkland, A. H. The Habits, Food and Economic Value of the American Toad. Hatch Experiment Station of the Mass, Agricultural College. Bulletin #46. 1897.

---------. The Usefulness of the American Toad. U. S. D. A. Farmer's Bulletin #196. 1904.

Slevin, J. R. The Amphibians of Western North America. California Academy of Sciences. 1928.

----------. Handbook of Reptiles and Amphibians of the Pacific States. California Academy of Sciences. 1933.

Storer, T. I. A Synopsis of the Amphibia of California. Univ. of California pub. in Zoology. Vol. 27, pp. 1-342. 1925.

Stejneger L. and Barbour, T. A Check List of North American Reptiles and Amphibians. Harvard University Press. 1923, 1928, 1933.

U. S. Biological Survey. The Toad. U.S. Bio. Sur. Circular #664 (mimergraphed). 1922.

Western Nature Study Magazine. Frogs, Toads and Salamanders. Western Nature Study Magazine. Vol. 1, No. 1. Feb. 1930.

Wright, A. A. and Wright, A. E. Handbook of the Frogs and Toads of the United States and Canada. 1933.

Glossary of Technical Terms

Anterior - front or head portion of the body.

Caudel - tail-like or in the region of the tail.

Cloacal region - the common chamber into which the intestinal, urinary and genitive channels discharge.

Costal grooves - vertical grooves between the rib-like folds on the sides of the bodies of salamanders.

Dorsal - upperside of the animal's body.

Dorso-lateral fold - a fold or ridge extending on either side of the back.

Lateral - pertaining to the side.

Metamorphosis - a series of marked and radical change in the form and structure of the animal in its development from tadpole to adult.

Maxillary Teeth - Teeth on upper jaw.

Parotide gland - an enlarged gland situated on the side of the head back of the eye.

Posterior - hind part of the animal's body; the opposite of anterior.

Tympanic membrane - the drum-like membrane constituting the outer surface of the middle ear.

Tympanum - the middle ear.

Truncate - having the end cut off.

Ventral - the underside or abdominal portion of the animal's body; the opposite of dorsel.


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