List of Figures
Chapter 1. EXPLORATIONS, IMPRESSIONS, AND EXCAVATIONS
The Prehistoric Ruins of the Verde Valley in the Nineteenth Century
Chapter 2. THREATS AND RESPONSES
The Preservation and Protection of Ruins in the Verde Valley
Chapter 3. A CHALLENGE IN PRESERVATION
The Early Management of the Monument
Chapter 4. THE JACKSON YEARS
The Protection, Development, and Promotion of Montezuma Castle National Monument
Chapter 5. MOVING ON UP
The Modern Development of the Monument
Chapter 6. WITHIN A CHANGING LANDSCAPE
Managing the Natural Resources of the Monument
Chapter 7. FOR FUTURE GENERATIONS
Cultural Resource Management at the Monument
Appendix A. Montezuma Castle National Monument Annual Recreational Visitation
Appendix B. 1906 Establishment Proclamation
Appendix C. 1937 Proclamation Expanding Monument Boundaries
Appendix D. 1943 Addition of Montezuma Well Property to the Monument
Appendix E. 1959 Revision of Monument Boundaries
Appendix F. 1978 Boundary Changes
Index (omitted from the on-line edition)
Figure 1. Site location map.
Figure 2. Routes of Espejo and Farfán to the
Figure 3. Sketch of Montezuma Well by Edward Palmer,
Figure 4. Picnic at Montezuma Well, ca.
Figure 5. Ruins along the rim of Montezuma Well in the
Figure 6. Sketch of Montezuma Castle from
Figure 7. Picnic party in front of Montezuma Castle prior
Figure 8. Montezuma Well and cliff
Figure 9. Rothrock's advertisement for his photography
studio painted at Montezuma Well.
Figure 10. Montezuma Castle in 1896.
Figure 11. S. L. Palmer excavating burials from the
midden on the ledge on Level 2 of the Castle.
Figure 12. Montezuma Castle in the late
Figure 13. Hand-tinted postcard of Montezuma
Figure 14. Hand-tinted postcard of Montezuma
Figure 15. Views of needed repairs at Montezuma Castle,
Figure 16. Weakened sections of Montezuma Castle, ca.
Figure 17. Panoramic view looking westward along the face
of the Castle ruins.
Figure 18. Repairing the Castle walls, ca.
Figure 19. Shelter cabin and later monument museum.
Figure 20. Castle A from the east, after the second tier
of rooms was cleaned.
Figure 21. Castle A ruins in the process of being
Figure 22. Proposed tunnel at Montezuma
Figure 23. Stabilization plans, ca.
Figure 24. Custodian Earl Jackson showing Montezuma Castle
to a visitor.
Figure 25. Panoramic view of Mr. Back's ranch at
Figure 26. The Montezuma Well museum with Ranger
Albert Schroeder in doorway,
and the old log smokehouse and Back
Figure 27. Superintendent John O. Cook pointing out
the details of the new Castle model, and the model shelter after remodeling
Figure 28. Example of the high visitation to the
monument during the late 1950s.
Figure 29. Image of Montezuma Castle used in
an advertisement for Malco Gasoline.
Figure 30. Front page of the Verde
Independent celebrating the dedication
of the new Montezuma Castle visitor center
Figure 31. The new apartment building at Montezuma
Castle, one of the
modern-style Mission 66 developments at the
Figure 32. Proposed development changes at the
Montezuma Castle unit.
Figure 33. Proposed development changes at the Montezuma
Figure 34. Environmental impact of mining in the
Figure 35. Verde Crossing, showing the intensity of
grazing in the Verde Valley, 19 May 1901.
Figure 36. H. J. Charbonneau and monument staff
preparing for diving research at Montezuma Well.
Figure 37. Joint water users' ditch cleaning project
at Montezuma Well, and traces of the prehistoric ditch in the bottom of the
modern ditch located during the ditch-cleaning project.
Figure 38. Burro from neighboring lands looking for water
in a prehistoric irrigation ditch.
Figure 39. Montezuma Castle National Monument
Environmental Backdrop Unit.
Figure 40. Photograph of Yavapai domed brush houses by A.
F. Randall, before March 1888.
Figure 41. Camp Verde Indian Reserve, map on file at
the Bureau of Land Managment Office, Phoenix.
Figure 42. Pit House 3 after excavation.
Figure 43. 1996 stabilization project
Copyright © 2002 by Josh Protas
Published by Western National Parks Association, Tucson, Arizona
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A past preserved in stone : a history of Montezuma Castle / Josh Protas
Includes bibliographical references and index.
1. Montezuma Castle (Ariz.) 2. Montezuma Castle National Monument (Ariz.)History. 3. Sinagua culture. I. Title.
E99.S547 P76 2001
Written by Josh Protas
Edited by Abby Mogollón
Designed by Bill Benoit
Printing by Cushing-Malloy Inc.
Printed on recycled paper with inks from renewable resources