Historic Resource Study/Special History Study
STANDARDS AND DETAILS1
Standards and DetailsConstruction of Japanese
Evacuee Reception Centers (June 8, 1942)
June 8, 1942.
STANDARDS AND DETAILSCONSTRUCTION OF JAPANESE
EVACUEE RECEPTION CENTERS
(As agreed upon 6-8-42 by Lieutenant
General John L. DeWitt and Colonel L. R. Groves from the Office of the
Chief of Engineers)
1. For the purpose of providing uniformity of
construction and in order to obviate she necessity of miscellaneous
correspondence in connection with construction of Reception Centers in
Relocation Areas, it is requested that the following standards and
details be observed in all future construction and to the extent
possible in current construction of Japanese Evacuee Reception
2. In general facilities to be provided by the U. S.
E. D. will include the following:
a. Shelter for evacuees arranged in rectangular block units, each
containing mess, recreation or vocational building, baths, latrines,
b. Hospital facilities based on minimum 150 beds for 10,000
population and 250 beds for 20,000.
c. Warehouse facilities based on one (1) 20'x100' refrigerated
storehouse and twenty (20) x 100' storage warehouse or equivalent in
floor space per 5,000 population.
d. Administrative facilities, including store and post office
buildings, and one shop building.
e. Quarters for administrative personnel, including messing
f. Shelter and facilities for MP units.
g. Utilities to include:
(1) Adequate water for culinary, sanitary and fire protection
(2) Water-borne sewage disposal conforming to minimum health
(3) Electric power and light.
(4) Necessary access and service roads.
h. Adequate fire protection.
3. Layouts should be made conforming to
recommendations supplied by the Civil Affairs Division of the Western
Defense Command and Fourth Army. Schools, churches, theaters, stores and
shop facilities will be constructed by the operating agency, but space
and basic utilities must be provided for these items. in layouts made by
4. The typical block should be designed to
house not to exceed 300 persons. General standards to be as follows:
a. Barracks. to be T/O type construction
modified to include partitions for family groups, asphaltic roofing
weighing more than 45 lbs. per square, interior lining where warranted
by climatic conditions, concrete or wooden floors, and electrical
service to include one drop outlet in each apartment, with circuit
capacity to per mit future installation of one convenience outlet in
b. Bath and Toilet Facilities will generally
conform to mobilization type requirements and will provide bath and
toilet fixtures on the following basis per 300 persons, or per block.
Showers will be individually controlled for women,
but with central thermostatic installation for men, and control valve
for maximum hot water temperature will be provided.
Individual control valves for showers will be placed
low enough so as. to permit operation by a person of 5'-0" height. Foot
baths will be installed in the entrance to each shower room. Showers and
toilets will be spaced sufficiently far apart and for women provided
with separate partitions to allow reasonable degree of privacy.
c. Laundries will contain six tubs with hot
and cold water and six ironing boards per 100 persons. Standard benches
in the laundry and tables in the ironing room should also be
Convenience outlets for ironing, laundry tubs and
ironing boards should be installed lower than usual due to small stature
d. Kitchen and Mess Hall to be of modified T/O
construction, with concrete floor, if practicable, otherwise double wood
Refrigerator of suitable capacity will be
Ranges should be provided on rise basis of one
standard No. 5 Army Range or suitable substitute per 100 persons served.
Certain No. 5 Army and other ranges will be supplied upon request to
Headquarters Western Defense Command and Fourth Army, from evacuated
Assembly Centers or from available Army stocks. When fuel other than
coal and wood is to be used, the construction engineer will supply
necessary type of range and advise this Headquarters so that the
shipment of No. 5 ranges will nor be made. When oil is to be used as
fuel, suitable con version units may be provided for the No. 5 ranges by
the Engineer. Ranges will be installed with insulation to protect floors
and adjacent walls, also with ventilated hood. Hot water facilities will
include storage tanks of not less than 160 gallons capacity and booster
hearers in addition to water jackets in ranges. Dishwashing facilities
will be arranged so as to have scullery directly connected with mess
hall and will include nor less than two three-compartment or one two and
one three-compartment sinks with necessary drainboards and counters.
Standard sit down, wooden mess tables will be provided, tables to be
covered with pressed wood or plywood and varnished.
e. Recreation Building to be modified T/O type
construction with concrete or wood floor. Ten convenience outlets will
be installed along walls to permit use of sewing machines etc.
5. Hospital Facilities.
Hospital to be modified mobilization type
construction. Instructions. for layout and equipment will be provided
by the Civil Affairs Division, Western Defense Command and Fourth
a. Warehouse to be improved T/O type
construction with heavier roofing and concrete floor. Refrigerated
storehouse to be designed according to local conditions.
b. Railroad siding should be provided in
connection with warehouse area when possible, but no spurs for branch
lines will be constructed. Some toilet facilities, pit. chemical or
flush type and drinking water should be provided in warehouse area if
such facilities are nor immediately adjacent.
7. Administrative Facilities should include
a. On the basis of 10.000 population two (2)
40'x120' buildings, one (1) 20'x100' warehouse, garages for emergency
vehicles, one shop building approximately 40'x100', and buildings to
house post office, store and fire station. Construction to be of T/O
type. Suitable electric outlets and necessary plumbing to be provided in
administrative buildings, post office and fire station.
8. Quarters for Administrative Personnel.
On the basis of 10,000 evacuees provide dormitories,
for minimum 40 persons, four modified T/O type buildings 20'x100'
divided into 8'x12' or 16' cubicles and equipped with bath and toilet
facilities. Wiring should include one drop and one convenience outlet in
each cubicle. One central mess and one recreation building to be
provided for a capacity of about 100 persons.
9. Shelter and Facilities for MP Personnel to be
provided for a strength of a minimum of one company of four (4) officers
and 126 enlisted men. Actual strength will be indicated in specific
directives. Officers' quarters should provide individual cubicles for
sleeping quarters with bath and toilet facilities in the same manner as
for administrative personnel quarters. One 20'x100' building will be
provided for each of the following: Administrative Headquarters and Unit
Supply, Guard House, Recreation Room and Post Exchange, and one 20'x30'
equipped with hot water and sanitary facilities to be used as a
dispensary. Garage or shed (depending on climate) to house emergency
vehicles of the Unit.
a. Water supply should be designed on the
basis of 100 gallons per capita per day with sufficient pressure to give
adequate fire protection, and should have necessary standby supply
b. Sewage Disposal. Sewer capacity should be
based on approximately 75 gallons per capita per day. Complete sewage
treatment should be provided where indicated by local conditions.
c. Electric Power and Lighting. Installations
should be designed on the basis of 2000 KVA per 10.000 population, so as
to handle a reasonably ample load for all needs and with sufficient
capacity of individual building circuits to prevent constant blowing of
fuses. In lieu of street lighting, one (1) light at each end of all main
buildings (one for warehouses) should be provided.
11. Fire Protection, generally to be the same as
provided for mobilization type Army Camps. Barrels and buckets to. be
provided on the basis of one set for every four (4) buildings. Fire
hydrants should be located throughout area. Two (2) trucks equipped with
pumping equipment, hose and ladders to be stationed in each Center (on
the basis of 10,000 evacuees.)
12. Access and Service Roads should be properly
graded and drained and provided with a simple type of surfacing
material, preferably bituminous. A reasonable amount of surfacing
material will be left at the Center by the Engineer, to be used for
a. Space heating in suitable form, depending
on climate and fuel, moss easily and economically obtained, to be
provided in accordance with zone requirements established by the Chief
b. Standard mobilization type plumbing
fixtures to be provided in hospital, administration and MP
c. Electrical installation to provide for
special requirements for equipment in hospital and warehouses as well as
refrigeration, should be installed in accordance with good building
practice and should have a central cut-out switch for blackout needs if
the Center is located within an air frontier zone. Separate circuits to
be provided for central storage refrigerator and hospital installations
to permit operation during blackout.
d. Adequate refrigeration consistent with
local climatic conditions to be provided in all kitchen,. Meat Blocks
will be provided, one for each kitchen.
e. Suitable shelving will be constructed in
kitchen storerooms and MP supply room, Post Exchange and barracks,
f. All buildings will be screened unless local
climatic conditions dictate otherwise and in any case hospitals, messes
and latrines will be screened.
g. Materials for interior lining of barracks,
and screening for windows may, when not installed during normal course
of construction, be left at the Center by the Engineer for installation
by Camp Manager with Japanese labor.
14. Special Items.
a. Watch towers of a height commensurate with
terrain conditions and equipped with searchlights as required shall be
constructed around outside of Camp in locations and numbers requested by
local MP, Commander or Center Managers, but not more than eight to each
Center, without approval by this Headquarters.
b. Standard stock fence will be built around
the occupied area, excluding MP area. Materials may be left for
construction with Japanese labor. Military Police area should be located
to provide easy access to main highway serving the Center with out
having to pass through evacuee area.
c. A 90' flagpole to be erected in suitable
location of the MP area.
d. One (1) T/O type barrack-building equipped
with benches and tables and a receiving counter to be constructed near
entrance to Center to be used for visiting purposes. Adequate parking
space for visitors also to be provided.
e. When required, suitable coal bins will be
provided for each kitchen and in such other locations as may be
indicted. Materials to be provided by the Engineer, and left with Camp
Manager for construction with Japanese labor. Screened garbage racks
will be provided in connection with each kitchen, to be constructed in
same manner as coal bins.
15. Engineer will submit to Civil Affairs Division,
W. D. C., and Fourth Army for approval the following:
a. Site plan.
b. Hospital plans,
c. Kitchen and mess layout (floor plan).
d. Bath, toilet and laundry building floor
16. As soon as available, three complete sets of
plans will be forwarded to the Civil Affairs Division, W. D. C., and
Fourth Army, Two of these sets will be for the W. R. A.. one of which is
for the Center Manager.
|Supplement No. 1
||June 18, 1942.|
STANDARDS AND DETAILSCONSTRUCTION OF
JAPANESE EVACUEE RECEPTION CENTERS
1. The following list of hospital equipment is added
as a supplement to Paragraph 5 of "Standards and
DetailsConstruction of Japanese Evacuee Reception Centers", dated
June 8, 1942, as prepared by this Headquarters. Included are items to be
provided by the U. S. E. D. and items to be procured by the Medical
Depot upon request by the War Relocation Authority.
2. Hospital equipment to be provided and installed by
the U. S. E. D. will include the following:
(1) Main hospital kitchenone extra large
electric refrigerator of approximately 40 cu. ft. capacity.
(2) Ward kitchenone medium size electric
refrigerator of approximately 8 cu. ft. capacity for each kitchen.
(3) Neighborhood dispensary building(when
Center layout indicates need), One small electric refrigerator to be
placed in pharmacy room of approximately 4 cu. ft. capacity.
(4) Out-patient buildingone medium-size
electric refrigerator of approximately 8 cu. ft. capacity to be placed
(5) Morguemorgue refrigerator for three
or four bodies, preferably four,
b. Kitchen Equipment
(1) Large mechanical dishwasher for main hospital
kitchenone dishwasher, electric, large (capacity 150-250 hospital
beds); automatic; with pump and motor; with capacity 265 gallons per
minute; with 3/4" Powers steam and hot water mixing valve for final
rinse; including necessary racks and other equipment to operate.
Equipment requires connections to maintain water for washing at 140
degrees, and to deliver rinse water at 195 degrees. Reference: Hobart
Model CM preferred. Second choice, Crescent or equal. Powers valve extra
on all makes.
(2) Small mechanical dishwasher for hospital and
isolation wardone dishwasher, electric; small;
semi-automatic; rack type dishwasher with three doors; with pump
and motor to deliver 120 gallons per minute; with 3/4" Powers steam and
hot water mixing valve; with steam sterilizer attachment; with necessary
racks. For hospital isolation ward of 35 beds. Equipment requires
connections to maintain wash water at 140 degrees, and to deliver rinse
water at 195 degrees. Reference: Hobart Model AM-4. Second choice:
Crescent, or equal. Powers valve and steam sterilizer attachment extra
on all makes.
(3) Usual drain sink in each ward kitchen.
(4) Large double compartment drain sink in main
kitchen for cooks' use.
(5) Usual vegetable preparation sink in kitchen
(6) Small electric range for each ward kitchen,
Hotpoint model RB-11 or equal. This model has four hot plates and one
(7) Standard Army ranges for main kitchen. Note:
Other kitchen equipment such as steam tables, deep fat fryer, large
coffee urn, etc., is not detailed here, assuming it is included in the
standard Army hospital kitchen. However, an electric potato peeler and
other equipment of the purely labor-saving type should not be provided
in these Centers.
c. Laundry Equipment
(1) One 42" x 84" wood washer, having one vertical
partition, two doors, and two compartments; motor drive; with unit
control; with water piping and automatic valves; with dial type
(2) One 30" x 36" wood washer; one compartment; motor
drive; with unit control with water piping and automatic valves and dial
(3) One 30" solid curb extractor; with motor drive;
with unit control with galvanized basket.
(4) One 20" solid curb extractor; with motor drive;
with unit control; with galvanized basket.
(5) Two 36" x 30" air drying tumblers; with double
steam coil; with motor drive.
(6) One 16" x 100" single cylinder return apron
flatwork ironer; steam heated; motor drive.
(7) Two 32" x 22" x 24" galvanized washroom trucks
(8) Two 32" x 22" x 24" wood washroom trucks with
(9) Eight canvas washroom baskets, 30" x 20", with
(10) One 5-gallon copper starch cooker.
(11) Four ironing boards (Troy No. 1-D or Bishop No.
7 type or equal); with suitable electric irons. Approximate weight 6
lbs.; and cords. Note: Some variation in sizes of this equipment may be
necessary due to procurement difficulties.
The above laundry equipment was planned on the basis
of a hospital capacity not in excess of 200 beds. Larger hospital
capacity will require washers and extractors of slightly larger
(1) Ceiling fan type with motor for:
(a) X-ray developing room.
(b) Main laboratory.
(c) Dental laboratory.
e. Special Ceiling Lights
For Operating Room, Major Surgery standard Army
For Operating Room. Minor Surgery, and for
obstetrical delivery roomsee typical hospital plan.
f. Autopsy or Morticians' Table
Standard Army type acceptable.
3. The surgery, delivery room, obstetrical ward, and
all wards in the isolation building shall be so painted as to permit
frequent soap and water washing.
4. The following list of hospital equipment will be
requested by the War Relocation Authority for procurement by a Medical
Depot. However, all items not installed by the manufacturer to be
installed by the U. S. E. D.
(1) Operating Room Unitone four-piece
battery unit for use with steam, to be installed in surgery sterilizing
room. Battery unit to consist of one dressing pressure sterilizer # 6
size; One water sterilizer # 2 size with separate tanks for cold and hot
water; one instrument sterilizer, boiling type, # 4 size; one utensil
sterilizer, boiling type. # 1 size.
(2) Obstetrical Ward Sterilizing Roomone
utensil sterilizer, # 1 size, for use with steam.
(3) Disinfecting Roomone bulk pressure
sterilizer and disinfector, rectangular type, for use with steam, double
door, size 36" x 42" x 84".
(4) Small electric instrument sterilizers, 1000 Watt
type. Wall plug outlets should be provided in each ward utility room,
the dispensary buildings, and the out patient building, as shown on the
typical hospital plan. Note: All of the above sterilizers, except the
small electrical instrument sterilizers, will require water. steam, and
waste outlets and proper connections after delivery of equipment. All
steam supply lines should have suitable piping to permit uniformly
maintained, adequate pressure at the instrument to assure a steam supply
for capacity operation of the equipment.
Steam supply systems should deliver normal steam, free from
b. X-Ray Equipment
(1) One X-ray machine for fluoroscopy and
radiography, 100 to 200 MA type.
(2) One X-ray machine, portable, 15 to 50 MA type,
for use with base plug connection in each ward.
(3) One developing tank.
Note: Necessary wiring detail and developing room
arrangement are shown on the typical hospital plan. Barium plaster or
lead lining should be provided on all inside walls of X-ray room,
whichever is cheaper. Control Room partition should be lead shield with
leaded window. Hall door and developing room door should be lead
c. Operating Room Table
No special attachments necessary.
HEADQUARTERS WESTERN DEFENSE COMMAND AND FOURTH
OFFICE OF THE COMMANDING GENERAL
PRESIDIO OF SAN FRANCISCO,
June 29, 1942.
SUBJECT: Equipment for Fire protection in Japanese
TO: The Division Engineer, South Pacific Division, U.
S. E. D., 351 California Street, San Francisco, California.
1. Reference par. 2h and par. 11 of "Standards and
DetailsConstruction of Japanese Evacuee Reception Centers," dated
June 8, 1942. The following are submitted as minimum requirements:
a. Fire TrucksTwo of these to be
provided for each center of 10,000 capacity or less. For centers of
greater capacity one truck will be provided for each 5,000 capacity.
When service pressure in water mains averages 60 lbs. or more, pumping
equipment may be omitted from the trucks. These trucks will be equipped
with minimum 600' of 2 1/2" hose, wrenches, hand operated chemical
extinguishers and two ladders 12' long. When pressure is less than
average of 60 lbs. conventional pumper engines with capacity of not less
than 600 GPM will be provided, Not less than 600' of 2-1/2" hose and two
ladders 12' long will be included in the equipment.
b. ExtinguishersTo he provided for each
building on the following basis:
S & A2
|H Type Sanitation Building||1||1||..|
c. Fire HoseSufficient hose should be
provided so that including what is carried on the trucks or engines
minimum 2000' of hose is available. Hose to be 21/2" single jacket,
rubber lined, in 50' lengths with pin lug couplings.
3. Request that every effort be made to have the equipment listed above
actually on hand is, each Center at such time as may be set for
completion of essential facilities required for beneficial
For the Commanding General:
WILLIAM L. RITTER,
Asst. Adjutant General.
September 23, 1942.
STANDARDS FOR MILITARY POLICE HOUSINGJAPANESE
(Based on "Standards and DetailsConstruction of
Japanese Evacuee Reception Centers" and "Directive for War Time
Construction," O. C. E.)
1. GeneralShelter and facilities to be
provided on the basis of a company of four (4) officers and 126 enlisted
men. Buildings to be of modified Theater of Operations type.
2. BuildingsAdministration and Supply;
Guard House; Recreation Room and Post Exchange; Dispensary; Garage; Mess
Hall and Kitchen; Officers' Quarters; Latrine and Bath House; Enlisted
Men's Barracks Buildings (4).
a. WaterAdequate water for culinary,
sanitary and fire protection purposes on basis of 100 gallons per capita
b. Water-borne sewage disposal.
c. Electric light and power.
d. Heating by separate space heaters such as
4. Officers' QuartersIndividual rooms,
approximately 8'x12' for sleeping quarters. Each room to have one
ceiling outlet and one convenience outlet. Toilet and shower room in
building. Hot water to be provided by individual water heater.
Recreation room to be provided. Windows to be screened against flies.
Building to be lined with sheet rock or other type wall board.
5. Enlisted Men's Barracks (4)Buildings
to be 20'x100' each, of modified T/O type. One-room building.
6. Administration and Supply BuildingTo
be 20'xl00' in size. Office space to be provided and space for company
supply storage and issue. Toilet facilities. Shelving to be constructed
in supply room.
7. Guard HouseTo be divided into
prisoners' quarters, guards' quarters, prisoners' toilet and shower
room, guards' toilet and shower room, and space for the office of the
Sergeant of the Guard.
8. Recreation and Post Exchange
BuildingSpace to be provided for Post Exchange with suitable
shelving for merchandise; major portion of building to be large open
room for use as recreation room.
9. DispensaryBuilding approximately
20'x30' with hot water and sanitary facilities consisting of water
closet, lavatory and sink.
10. Mess Hall and KitchenTo have
standard sit-down mess tables, with tops covered with pressed wood or
ply wood, and varnished; two (2) # 5 Army ranges, 40 cu. ft. mechanical
refrigerator, hot water heater and tank, meat block. kitchen store room
with shelving. Building to be screened. Scullery sink. Serving counter
or tables. Where gas is the fuel, two heavy duty restaurant type ranges
having capacity equal to two (2) # 5 Army ranges will be provided.
11. Latrine and Bath HousePlumbing
fixtures to be provided on the following basis:
|Flush toilets||1 per 20 enlisted men|
|Urinals||1 per 30 enlisted men|
|Lavatories||1 per 20 enlisted men|
|Showers||1 per 20 enlisted men|
Foot baths to be provided at entrance to shower
12. GarageTo provide space for four (4)
vehicles. In warmer sections of country, will be of open shed type.
13. Watch TowersTowers of a height
commensurate with terrain Conditions and equipped with searchlights as
required shall be constructed around outside of occupied area in
locations and numbers requested by local Military Police Commander, but
not more than eight to each Center without the approval of this
14. FencesFences will not be built
around Military Police area. Materials will be furnished Center
directors to fence the evacuee occupied areas only.
15. FlagpoleNinety-foot flagpole will be
erected in suitable location in the Military Police area.
16. Fire ExtinguishersTo be provided for
each building on the following basis:
S & A2
17. MiscellaneousAll buildings with the
exception of the garage will be screened and the interiors lined with
wall board. Material for coal bins and screened garbage racks will be
furnished the Center directors who will construct same with Japanese
1When oil is used for heating purposes one 2-1/2
gallon foamite extinguisher will be substituted for one S & A where
the oil is used.
2Pump type extinguishers nor he. substituted for S & A
type when he latter are note obtainable.
3One qt. C. T. C. extinguishers to be provided for us, in
operating delivery, and other room, where electrical appliances, or
central electric switches are located.
1. U.S. War Department, Final Report, pp.
Last Updated: 01-Jan-2002