CONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT OF THE MANZANAR WAR RELOCATION CENTER 1942-1945 (continued)
"BASIC CONSTRUCTION" UNDER THE CORPS OF ENGINEERS
Buildings and Structures
General Group. Griffith and Company of Los Angeles were the general contractors for all temporary buildings and structures, collectively referred to as the "general group," at Manzanar. This construction, which provided the housing and necessary support facilities for the evacuees, included the installation and furnishing of all plumbing equipment and fuel oil lines. Construction of the "general group" began in mid-March 1942, and Blocks 29-36, the last blocks to be completed, were opened to evacuees for occupancy during mid-June. The type size, use and number of buildings constructed as part of the "general group" were as follows:
The buildings were grouped in uniform block arrangement. Each block consisted of 15 barracks and a mess hall in "exact 40-feet-apart locations." In addition, each block had two latrines (men and women), a laundry room (20 feet x 40 feet), and an ironing room between the rows. The men's latrine had eight flush toilets, while the women's had twelve. Each latrine had a shower room (12 feet x 12 feet) with an average of seven shower nozzles, and each laundry room had 12 laundry tubs for clothes washing "by hand, scrub board method." 
The temporary buildings and structures in the "general group" were "regular Army Theater of Operations (T.O.) type of construction, supported on precast concrete blocks, 14 in. x 14 in. x 8 in." The blocks were "placed on 10-feet centers down the sides and through the center." Girders were constructed of "2 in. x 6 in. material, spiked together to form 2 in. x 6 in. for the outside and 6 in. x 6 in. for the center span, supported 2 in. x 6 in. floor joist spaced 2 feet on centers." The floors were "1 in. x 6 in. tongue and groove or 1 in. x 6 in. shiplap." The walls "were framed from 2 in. x 6 in. material spaced 8 feet on centers." A "2 in. x 4 in. nailing girt, spaced half the distance between the top and bottom plates, furnished center nailing for the sheeting that was applied vertically." The rafters were "of 2 in. x 4 in. material spaced 48 inches on centers with a double 1 in. x 6 in. ceiling joist or cord, and 2 in. x 6 in. knee bracing on every other set or rafters." The roof was sheeted "with 1-inch random width sheeting and covered with 45-pound roll roofing." The walls and gables "were covered with 15-pound building paper, held in place by 3/8 in. x 2 in. lath or batts." The "barrack-type buildings were equipped with sliding 4-light sash windows, size 36 in. x 40 in., and 12 sash on each side." The warehouse group had "the same type window but was reduced to six windows to each side with a 5 ft. x 7 ft. double door in each end." 
Military Police Group. Griffith and Company constructed 12 buildings that comprised the "military police group" located south of the Manzanar evacuee camp area. Construction of the "Military Post was typical of the general group in the Center" with several exceptions. Thus, construction of these buildings was sometimes referred to as "modified mobilization type." The exterior walls were covered with "1 in. x 10 in. drop siding," and the "interior walls and ceilings were lined with 1/2-inch sheet rock." All exterior walls were painted as "a protection against the weather." The four barracks buildings were designed to house 200 men. The officers' quarters, designed to house 12 officers, included seven bedrooms, one lounge, and a toilet, while the guard house included a gun room and a "cage." The motor repair building, or garage, was an open shed designed for 8 trucks and automobiles. The recreation building was designed for a capacity of 60 persons, while the mess hall was designed to feed 120 men at one time. The type, size in feet, and number of buildings in the "military police group" included:
Administration Group. Twelve buildings, constructed south of Block 1 by Griffith and Company, constituted the "administration group." The administration building (labeled in the chart below as "Administration buildings,") was an "L"-shaped building constructed by placing together two pre-existing 20-foot x 100-foot structures. The interior of the structure had interior offices separated by partitions. This building, completed in late July or early August 1942, was located near the main entrance to Manzanar and was the principal administrative building for the camp.
The buildings in the "administrative group" were constructed similar to those in the "military police group" with two exceptions. The reception building, built to accommodate visitors to the camp who wished to meet evacuees, and the service station were "of the same construction as those in the general group." The type, size in feet, use, and number of buildings in the "administration group" included:
Hospital Group, Including Children's Village. When the first evacuees arrived at Manzanar, it did not have a permanent hospital facility. A temporary facility was established on March 21, 1942, in Block I, Building 2. "Apartment 2" was used for the hospital facility, and Apartment 3 served as a temporary ward containing five beds. On April 13 the hospital was moved into a barracks building partitioned into units containing ten beds each, as well as an operating room, pharmacy, laboratory, x-ray room, sterilizing room, utility room, linen room, record room, and kitchen. Four more barracks were eventually acquired for additional patients. 
On July 22, 1942, the Manzanar hospital moved into a permanent 250-bed facility (having 563,087 square feet of floor space) west of Blocks 29 and 34, and on September 12 a formal dedication ceremony was held. The "hospital group" included 19 buildings that were constructed by Griffith and Company. The administrative building was divided into offices, an out-patient clinic, an ear, nose, and throat clinic, a pharmacy, sterilizing room, laboratory, and facilities for x-ray, minor surgery, and surgery. 
The hospital buildings were of "the same type of construction as the general group with the exception of the heating plant." This building was "wood frame construction with the walls and roof covered with galvanized corrugated iron." All other buildings within the "hospital group" were "spaced a minimum of 50 feet apart and connected with covered walks" and were "of wood-frame construction with wood floors covered with linoleum." The covered walks were "8 ft. 3 in. from the finished floor to the top of the plate line, with an overall width of 6 ft. 7 in."
The walks connecting the hospital administration building with the wards, mess hall, and morgue "were closed on the sides with double-hung windows spaced, approximately, 9 feet on centers." The "walks connecting the nurses' and doctors' quarters to the ward walks were open on the sides with a hand rail extending the full length of each walk."
The heating system consisted of three "Kewanee 60-H.P. oil-fired steam boilers, equipped with Johnston automatic oil burners, and all necessary piping valves, pumps, and radiators for complete and adequate heating of ail buildings, and for washing and sterilizing in all wards, operating rooms, offices, clinics, and laundry." The Children's Village (orphanage) buildings were in a separate building group, and each building was heated "by oil-burning space heaters." The hot water system for the hospital group consisted of "one 60-gallon H.C. Little automatic hot-water heater for each building." 
The Children's Village was an orphanage for evacuated Japanese children located in the firebreak south of Block 29. One of the buildings was a girls dormitory, one a boys dormitory, and a third contained a mess hall, administrative offices, and staff housing. As the three buildings comprising the Children's Village were nearing completion in mid-June 1942, it was reported that these structures were "larger than the standard barracks, having porches at each end." Compared with the evacuee barracks, the village buildings were "superior in construction, having double flooring, double walls, ceiling, double partitions, inside showers and toilet facilities." 
The type, size in feet, capacity, and number of buildings in the "hospital group" included:
Refrigerator Warehouses Two refrigerator warehouses were constructed under a contract sublet by Griffith and Company to Hugh Robinson and Sons of Los Angeles in the warehouse area south of Block 2 and west of the "administrative group" area in July 1942. The two structures "had an overall size of 20 ft. x 100 ft. with approximately 7 ft. 6 in. ceilings." The refrigerator rooms "proper were 20 ft. x 80 ft. with 7-ft. ceilings, and were insulated with 6 inches of Palco-wool on the sides, ceilings, and floors." The doors at each end were "3 ft. 6 in. x 6 ft. 6 in." and had "4 inches of Palco-wool for insulation." The interiors of the rooms were sealed with "1-inch tongue-and-groove ceilings." The exterior finish was "1-inch sheeting covered with 15-pound building paper and 3/8 in. x 2 in. batts to hold the paper in place." A 20-foot x 40-foot annex (sometimes referred to as the "reefer house"), connecting the two structures, "was used for meat cutting and the sorting of fruits and vegetables."
Each warehouse had "four evaporator condensers, recold humid-air type." Operating on defrost they "maintained a 34-degree to 36-degree temperature in the meat refrigerator, and 38- to 40-degree temperature in the vegetable refrigerator."
The compressor and condensing units were housed "in a 10 ft. x 10 ft. room, an integral part of the refrigerator rooms." The compressors were "Brunner, model E, Type C, driven by a 7 1/2-H.P. 220-volt, 3-phase Fairbanks Morse electric motors." Drayer Hanson condensing units, "model 11/4-inch, L-3, 1/4-H.P.," were used on both units. 
Net Garnishing or Camouflage Buildings Five buildings were constructed at Manzanar by the Q.R.S. Neon Corporation of Los Angeles for "garnishing or camouflaging" nets for Army use. Three of these buildings were of uniform size and construction: 300 feet x 24 feet with an overall height of 18 feet from the finished floor to the plate line. Two buildings had additions that served as offices: 12 feet x 20 feet with shed roofs.
The camouflage buildings exhibited "heavy construction" techniques. Posts "measuring 6 in. x 12 in. on 10-foot centers supported a double set of 2 in. x 6 in. rafters bolted to each side of the post." The rafters were "tied together with a 2 in. x 6 in. cord and 2 in. x 6 in. knee braces, extending from approximately 2 feet below the plate line forming a modified form of scissors truss." Intermediate "2 in. x 6 in. rafters with 2 in. x 6 in. cords and spaced 2 feet on centers completed the roof framing." The roof "was covered with 1-inch random-width sheeting laid diagonally and covered with 90-pound roll roofing."
The walls were constructed with "two horizontal 2 in. x 6 in. nailing girts and 2 in. x 6 in. verticals spaced on 2-foot centers." The sides were "covered with 10-inch drop siding from the floor to 10 feet above." The ends were "covered from the floor to the ridge." The walls were braced "with 2 in. x 6 in. bracing." Cement floors were constructed throughout the buildings.
Another building in this group, typical in construction detail except for size, was "24 ft. x 100 ft. with an adjoining open shed for storage 60 ft. x 100 ft." This shed had "8-foot walls open on one side, and covered on one side and one end with "10-inch drop siding." "Two-by-six rafters, spaced on 4-foot centers were sheeted with 1-inch random-width sheeting and roofed with roll roofing." A wood floor "of 1 in. x 6 in. sheeting" was constructed in this addition.
A fifth structure in the camouflage buildings group was a cutting shed, "150 ft. x 24 ft. 6 in." All the materials necessary for the fabrication of the nets were processed in this building. It was constructed of "2 in. x 4 in. floor joists with 1 in. x 6 in. shiplap flooring, 2 in. x 6 in. studding 8 feet long, spaced on 4-foot centers, 2 in. x 6 in. knee braces with every forth [sic] set of rafters." The rafters were "2 in. x 6 in., spaced 3 ft. 4 in. on centers." One side was left open while the other side was sheeted from the floor to the plate line with 10-inch drop siding." Both ends "were sheeted from the floor to the ridge with the same material." 
Oil-Storage Tanks and Platforms Griffith and Company constructed 37 oil-storage tanks and platforms one in each block of evacuee barracks and one at the military post. The structures were built for the storage of fuel oil for distribution through pipe lines to the hot-water heaters (and later the ranges) in the mess halls, to the hot-water boilers in the boiler rooms attached to the latrines, and to the boiler in the rooms attached to the laundries. Fuel oil was also stored in the tanks for daily distribution to the evacuees for use in the spare heaters in their barracks.
The storage-tank platforms rested on "12-in. x 12-in. concrete piers projecting approximately 12 inches above the natural grade, and of sufficient depth to insure a solid footing." Four posts, "6 in. x 6 in. x 5 ft., spaced 7 feet on centers with a 6 in. x 6 in. cap projecting 2 feet beyond the posts, formed the bents for a deck or floor of 3 in. x 10 in. x 12 ft. Douglas fir." A gable roof, covered with roll roofing, covered the platforms. The roofs were "open on the gables" and were "supported by 2 posts, 4 in. x 4 in. x 5 ft., at each corner with 3 intermediate studs of 2 in. x 4 in. material." Plates, "2 in. x 4 in.," and ties were used for support and for bracing the roof. The "under-structure" was braced "horizontally and diagonally with 2 in. x 6 in. material."
Twelve of the cylindrical galvanized iron tanks had a capacity of 2,450 gallons, while 25 of the tanks had a capacity of 1,250 gallons. Two 6,000-gallon reinforced concrete tanks at the hospital boiler house were used for fuel storage for the hospital. These tanks were buried below grade. 
Observation or Watch Towers According to the Final Report, Manzanar eight wood observation or watch towers were constructed on the perimeter of the camp by Charles I. Summer, a contractor in Lone Pine. The eight watch towers, however, were not all built at the same time. After War Relocation Authority officials visited Manzanar on May 7, 1942, as negotiations were underway for transfer of the center from the WCCA to the WRA, John H. Provinse, chief of the WRA Community Services Section, reported to Milton Eisenhower that it was proposed
Despite WRA opposition, however, four watchtowers were constructed on the perimeter of the center by late July 1942. On July 31, Manzanar Director Roy Nash observed:
During August 31 to September 2, 1942, P. J. Webster, Chief, Lands Division, for the WRA in San Francisco conducted an investigation of Manzanar, focusing on claims of lax security at the relocation center. Among other observations he reported to his superiors on September 7:
On August 11, 1942, Lieutenant Colonel Claude B. Washburn of the WCCA inspected the security arrangements at Manzanar. He reported that three guard towers were "needed in back" [west side] of the center. "Guards in [the] rear walk[ed] through brush" and were "unable to see much of their area." "One man alone" had "no protection against attack." 
The last four observation or watch towers at Manzanar were completed by early November 1942. An inspection report by WRA and military officials on November 5-7, 1942, noted that there "Should be 8 [watch or observation towers] at this center." The eight towers in use were "weatherproofed." Searchlights on four of the towers (Nos. 1-4) were wired, while those on four (Nos. 5-8) were not wired. 
The towers, as completed by Summer, were supported on "24 in. x 24 in. concrete piers embedded in the ground a sufficient depth to insure a sound footing" to "take care of the weight and wind load." Each pier had anchor straps to secure the "6 in. x 6 in. corner posts." The towers were "8 feet square at the base and 6 feet square at the top." The corner posts, "6 in. x 6 in., were of Douglas fir." Each tower had two platforms. The lower one (30 feet high), "6 ft. x 10 ft., was enclosed with 2 in. x 6 in. joists and 2 in. x 6 in. flooring with 1 in. x 8 in. shiplap and two sash windows, 2 ft. x 3 ft 6 in., were installed on each side. " The upper platform (40 feet high) was "8 ft. x 12 ft. with 2 in. x 8 in. girders, 2 in. x 6 in. joists, and 2 in. x 6 in. flooring." A railing of "2 in. x 4 in., with 2 in. x 4 in., posts encircled this platform." The towers were "securely braced, both horizontally and diagonally." A "2,000 candle power searchlight was mounted on each tower." 
Fencing Installation of the fencing at Manzanar is not well documented, and many of the documents appear to provide conflicting information. On July 31, 1942, Roy Nash, director of Manzanar, stated:
The aforementioned inspection of Manzanar conducted on November 5-7, 1942, by WRA and military personnel contained minimal information on fencing. The inspection report stated:
In connection with the inspection, the Corps of Engineers prepared a "Transfer of New Construction" form dated November 5, 1942. This document stated that a five-foot-high, five-strand, two-point barbed wire fence, mounted on wood posts, which would eventually run for 19, 388 linear feet around the camp, was only half complete. 
The Final Report, Manzanar notes that the C. J. Paradise Company, a contracting in Los Angeles, removed "5,000 lineal feet of old fencing" from the Manzanar site and installed "18,871 lineal feet of new fence of 5-strand barbed wire around the boundaries of the Center area [evacuee residential area]." This fence "was contracted for through the U.S. Engineers." 
The aforementioned "Fixed Asset Inventory" listed three fencing categories at Manzanar that "were acquired" from the WCCA "at the time that the War Relocation Authority took possession of the lands from the War Department."  The categories, as listed in the aforementioned "Appraisal Report," were:
The aforementioned "Explanatory Notes" attached to the "Appraisal Report" provide additional information on the fencing at Manzanar. The "Notes" state that the "boundary fence of the main portion of the camp is built of 5 strands of medium heavy barbed wire on sawed fir posts." The fences around the motor pool and camouflage building areas had "a good many rough posts made of locust wood which, although smaller than the sawed posts, is more durable." Some of these latter fences had "7 or 8 wires - a few only 4 wires," but the "average of each enclosure" was selected "as the best method of appraising the value." The number of posts for each category of fencing was: boundary fence, 1,174 posts; motor pool area, 61 posts; camouflage building area, 44 posts. 
Water and Sewage Disposal Systems
Water. Initially, the water supply for the Manzanar camp was provided on a temporary basis by a water tank located west of Block 24. The tank, which had a capacity of 98,000 gallons, was emptied an average of 15 times each 24-hour period. Because of the inadequacies of this system, construction was begun on a new concrete basin reservoir located northwest of the camp along Shepherd Creek on May 22, 1942. 
The permanent water supply system for Manzanar, which was completed in July 1942, was constructed under contract by Vinson and Pringle, a construction firm in Los Angeles. The system consisted of a concrete dam and settling basin on Shepherd Creek, "approximately 3,250 feet north and west of the Center in T 14 S, R 35 E, Sec. 9." Water was carried through an open cement-lined flume from the settling basin to the storage reservoir. Water passed through a chlorinator on the way to the reservoir. The reservoir, "120 ft. x 180 ft. with a capacity of 540,000 gallons," was constructed "with 45-degree earth embankments reinforced with wire mesh and lined with concrete." Two "14-inch calico gates regulated the water within the reservoir." One gate "emptied into a control spillway and the other emptied into a 14-inch supply line."
Water was carried from the reservoir through "4,650 feet of 14-inch welded steel pipe into a 90,000 gallon steel storage tank." An "8 ft. x 22 ft. chlorinator house of temporary frame construction" was built adjacent to the storage tank for the housing of a "H. T. H. chlorinator machine, Clayton valve, sand traps, meters, and a 6-inch by-pass line." The water line from the reservoir to the storage tank was laid "in the open ditch that carried the temporary water supply into the camp area." This line was insulated by "covering it with an earth fill." Drainage facilities were provided by the "installation of hexagonal wooden culverts placed below the level of the pipe line."
The pipe line and the steel storage tank were constructed by the Los Angeles Department of Water and Power. The pipe line was insulated and the wooden drainage culverts were installed by the C. J. Paradise Company of Los Angeles.
A 12-inch distribution main of welded steel pipe, equipped with 12-inch Sparling meter having a capacity of 2,000 gallons of water per minute, carried water from the storage tank to branch mains throughout the center. The water distribution main system consisted of 5,170 feet of 12-inch, 6,340 feet of 10-inch, 8,822 feet of 8-inch, 29,745 feet of 6-inch cast-iron pipe and 706 feet of galvanized steel pipe. All service lines were "of galvanized iron pipe ranging in size from 3/4-inch to 2 1/2 inches," A total of "40,266 lineal feet of pipe" was used for the system.
An emergency standby system was installed to supplement the water supply "during freezing weather and in the event of a bad fire, which would necessitate the use of more than the normal amount of water supplied by Shepherd Creek." The standby system was installed at well 75 and consisted "of one 10,000-gallon redwood storage tank, and two 4-inch 50 horse power motor driven Fairbanks Morse booster pumps." Water was pumped through a master meter into the storage tank "by the City of Los Angeles pump with a 75 horse power electric motor." The water was pumped from the tank into the mains by the Fairbanks Morse booster pumps. To facilitate the control of water within the center, "34 6-inch, 20 8-inch, 15 10-inch and 8 12-inch gate valves" were installed throughout the water system.
At the time of its completion, the water system provided a daily supply of 1,500,000 gallons of water from Shepherd Creek to the camp. The remainder of the creek's flow went to the Owens River.
Fire protection was provided by the installation of 84 fire hydrants in the center. Additional protection was afforded the hospital by installation of an automatic sprinkler system, consisting of 522 sprinkler heads, placed in seven ward buildings, the hospital mess, and the covered walks. A 3-inch pipe was used in the covered walks, while a 1-inch pipe was used in the wards and mess hall. 
Sewage Disposal. The sewage disposal system at Manzanar, consisting of a collection and outfall system and a sewage treatment plant, was constructed by Vinson and Pringle of Los Angeles. Considered to be one of the most modern sewer systems of its time in California, the system cost some $150,000 to construct. 
The sewage treatment plant was located approximately 1,000 feet east of the evacuee residential area in T 14 S, R 35 E, SW 1/4 of Sec. 12. Construction of the system was commenced in April 1942, but it was not completed until mid-summer. During the construction period, a temporary septic tank "100 ft. x 20 ft. x 6 ft.," was used, with excess waste being "allowed to run over the desert waste land." All sewage entering this tank was treated with chlorine. 
The collection system within the center "consisted of 2,500 lineal feet of 18-inch, 1,100 lineal feet of 15-inch, and 26,502 lineal feet of 8-inch vitrified clay pipe." A siphon was constructed to carry the outfall line under the Los Angeles Aqueduct. This siphon consisted of two 12-inch cast-iron pipes encased in concrete.
After leaving the outfall sewage line, the raw sewage entered the treatment plant which was located on one acre of land and had a designed capacity of 1,250,000 gallons per day. The plant consisted of seven units: (1) grit chamber; (2) scum and distribution box; (3) clarifier; (4) control house; (5) digester; (6) chlorine contact tank; and (7) sludge beds. Each unit with the exception of the control house and sludge beds was constructed with concrete. At the plant liquid and solid wastes were separated and treated. Any gas extracted went into boilers to be used for heating, while solid wastes passed through a chlorinator and into sludge pits where evaporation converted them into a substance used for fertilizer. 
At the treatment plant sewage first passed through the grit chamber which was equipped with bar screens. Then it entered the parshall flume where the metering and extension of the chlorination system occurred. The sewage left this unit to enter the distribution box, consisting of two calico gates.
The clarifier unit was a tank constructed of concrete, 60 feet in diameter and 9 feet in depth. The tank, with a rate of flow that varied from 500 to 1,750 gallons per minute, was equipped with a mechanism to process the sewage.
The control house, a "32 ft. x 58 ft. frame building with concrete floors, rustic siding and roll roofing," contained an office, laboratory metering gauges, and chlorinator control equipment. Manual and automatic control chlorinators were used, each having a maximum capacity of 200 pounds of chlorine per unit for each 24 hours. Each tank was equipped with a meter to register the flow of chlorine within its working range.
The sludge and scum pumps were housed in a concrete pit, "16 ft. x 14 ft. x 5 ft., with a frame roof covered with roll roofing to protect them from the weather."
The sludge digester was the "2-stage type, 40 feet in diameter with 22 feet 6 inches overall water depth." The water depth "in the upper compartment was 12 feet 3 inches and the lower compartment was 10 feet." The digester was arranged "with a horizontal concrete tray separating the lower and upper compartments which were operated in series." Intensive mixing was provided "in the upper compartment followed by quiescent settling in the lower compartment." The two compartments were connected by exterior piping.
The chlorine contact tank was made of reinforced concrete with reinforced concrete baffle walls. The dimensions of the tank were "8 ft. x 16 ft. 6 in. x 38 ft.," and it was "equipped with three standard manhole frames and covers." A "6-inch cast-iron pipe to the scum pump line removed any collection of material in the bottom of the tank." An l8-inch cast-iron influent pipe "served the contact tank from the clarifier." The chlorinated sewage was removed to the drainage area through an 18-inch vitrified clay pipe.
Four sludge drying beds, 50 feet x 100 feet, were constructed. The ground surface was leveled, and dikes or berms 31/2 feet high were constructed. Six inches of sand was placed in each bed. The sludge was carried to these beds through a 6-inch cast-iron pipeline. 
Electrical, Telephone, and Fire/Police Signal Systems
Electrical System. Electrical power was supplied to Manzanar by the Los Angeles City Bureau of Power and Light from its power station on nearby Cottonwood Creek. The system consisted of 58,400 lineal feet of overhead distribution lines that provided service to 730 buildings. A master switch controlled the entire camp, and a master meter registered all electricity used within the camp. In addition to lighting the buildings, 190 alley and street lights were served. To service the camp, 79 transformers were installed, ranging in size from 2 kVA to 37 1/2 kVA. 
Telephone System. The telephone system was installed by the Interstate Telegraph Company. Telephone wires were strung across arms that were installed on existing power poles. The system included a 40-line switch. To complete the project seven miles of "3-circuit #9 wire" and seven miles of "2-circuit #12 N.B.S. copper wire" were installed. 
Fire/Police Signal System. A signal system adequate to meet the needs of both the "Fire Protection and Internal Security" sections was installed by the Interstate Telegraph Company under contract with the U.S. Signal Corps. Outside installation included cross arms and "approximately 1,500 feet of lead covered cable and 20,700 lineal feet of 2-wire telephone line." "Inside plant and station equipment" included installation of an additional strip of ten jacks in the existing switchboard and "21 telephone instruments, drops, protectors, and appurtenances." 
Initial land improvements at Manzanar were carried out under contract by the C. J. Paradise Company of Los Angeles. Streets, alleys, and building sites were graded and given a light coat of penetrating oil to permit passage of motor vehicle traffic and enable construction operations to proceed. "No primary grading of the streets or drainage structures," however, was conducted by this firm. 
Last Updated: 01-Jan-2002