Lake Roosevelt
Administrative History
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Ackermann, William C., et al., eds. Man-Made Lakes: Their Problems and Environmental Effects. Washington, D.C.: American Geophysical Union, 1973.

Contains a number of essays that put Lake Roosevelt in a larger context, such as one on "outdoor recreational use of man-made lakes."

Blonk, Hu. Behind the By-line Hu: A Feisty Newsman's Memoirs. Wenatchee, Wash.: 1992.

Contains his reminiscences (and reprints of his articles) about the clearing of the reservoir and the construction of Grand Coulee Dam.

Bohm, Fred C., and Craig C. Holstine. The People's History of Stevens County. Colville: Stevens County Historical Society, 1983.

A useful overview of the region's history, written for the general public. Contains information from a number of oral interviews.

Carr, Ethan. Wilderness by Design: Landscape Architecture and the National Park Service. Lincoln, Neb.: University of Nebraska Press, 1998.

Includes a chapter on the National Park Service and national recreational planning, with a detailed bibliography.

Chance, David. People of the Falls. Colville, Wash.: Don's Printery, for Kettle Falls Historical Center, Inc., 1986.

Good history of the Kettle Falls area and its archaeology, with descriptions of the major archaeological periods.

Clark, Robert. River of the West: Stories from the Columbia. New York: HarperCollins West, 1995.

Includes a very readable chapter on David Thompson's travels in the Columbia River drainage, with good information on Thompson himself.

Clawson, Marion. Land and Water for Recreation: Opportunities, Problems, and Policies. Chicago: Rand, McNally, 1963.

Analysis of outdoor recreation, mostly focused on conditions in the United States in the 1960s.

Cody, Robin. Voyage of a Summer Sun: Canoeing the Columbia River. Seattle: Sasquatch Books, 1995.

Includes some anecdotes about controversial issues on Lake Roosevelt and about an encounter the author had with a park ranger.

Cohen, Fay G. Treaties on Trial: The Continuing Controversy over Northwest Indian Fishing Rights. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1986.

Good overview of the issue of Indian fishing rights throughout the region.

Collier, Donald, et al. Archaeology of the Upper Columbia Region. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1942.

The first archaeological report on the Lake Roosevelt area, from the Columbia Basin Archaeological Survey of 1939-1940. Some of its conclusions have since been disproved.

Cone, Joseph and Sandy Ridlington. The Northwest Salmon Crisis: A Documentary History. Corvallis, Ore.: Oregon State University Press, 1996.

A series of essays that provides a good explanation of the background of the decline in salmon populations, with emphasis on factors within human control.

Conservation Foundation. National Parks for a New Generation: Visions, Realities, Prospects. Washington, D.C.: Conservation Foundation, 1985.

Examines a wide variety of management issues of the National Park System and makes recommendations.

Davis, Mary B., ed. Native America in the Twentieth Century. New York: Garland Publishing, Inc., 1994.

Excellent source of information on a wide variety of issues relating to Native Americans, from allotment to Indian Reorganization Act to water rights. Subjects are arranged alphabetically.

Deloria, Vine, Jr. Behind the Trail of Broken Treaties: An Indian Declaration of Independence. New York: Dell Publishing Co., Inc., 1974.

A good account of actions nationwide during the time of the Red Power movement in the 1970s, with useful background information.

______. Custer Died for Your Sins: An Indian Manifesto. Macmillan Co., 1969.

Contains information on the effort to terminate the Colville Confederated Tribes.

Downs, L. Vaughn. The Mightiest of Them All: Memories of Grand Coulee Dam. Fairfield, Wash.: Ye Galleon Press, 1986.

Concentrates on the construction of Grand Coulee Dam, based on the author's personal recollections.

Ellis, Richard N., ed. The Western American Indian: Case Studies in Tribal History. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1972.

Includes essays on the Indian Reorganization Act, the Bureau of Indian Affairs since 1933, the Indian Claims Commission, and termination.

Everhart, William C. The National Park Service. New York: Praeger Publishers, 1972.

One of the standard, still useful histories of the National Park Service. Author not only provides history of the agency but also discusses its many aspects and functions.Contains chapters on various administrative aspects of the National Park Service.

Ficken, Robert E. Rufus Woods, The Columbia River, and the Building of Modern Washington. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1995.

Describes Rufus Woods' efforts to have the Grand Coulee Dam built.

Fixico, Donald L. Termination and Relocation: Federal Indian Policy, 1945-1960. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1986.

Excellent source on the movement to terminate Indian tribes.

Foresta, Ronald A. America's National Parks and Their Keepers. Wash., D.C.: Resources for the Future, 1984.

A study of the National Park Service, the bureaucracy that has shaped its growth, and the stresses it faces. Valuable source.

Glover, Richard, ed. David Thompson's Narrative. Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1962.

One of the standard versions of Thompson's journals of his travels, including the Inland Northwest. Useful footnotes.

Grand Coulee Dam Bicentennial Association. From Pioneers to Power: Historical Sketches of the Grand Coulee Dam Area. Nespelem, Wash.: Rima Printing and Graphics, 1976.

Contains contributions from many area residents, written in 1958 and 1976, concerning the history of the area, with a few mentions of Lake Roosevelt and its impact on people in the area.

Harvey, Mark W.T. Symbol of Wilderness: Echo Park and the American Conservation Movement. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1994.

Analyzes the controversy over the construction of the Echo Park Dam on the Green River in the 1950s and discusses the broader history of the American conservation movement and its response to a perceived pattern of threats to the National Park System.

Holstine, Craig E. Forgotten Corner: A History of the Colville National Forest, Washington. Colville: Colville Statesman-Examiner, 1987.

Contains a good introductory section on the history of northeastern Washington, including information on mining along the Columbia River. Includes a section on area recreation.

Hosmer, Charles B., Jr. Preservation Comes of Age: From Williamsburg to the National Trust, 1926-1949. Vol. 2. Charlottesville: University of Virginia Press, 1981.

Detailed history of the early years of the historic preservation movement in the United States.

Ise, John. Our National Park Policy: A Critical History. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1961.

Ise provides a chronological critique of the National Park Service, with discussion of topics such as national recreation areas, Mission 66, and financing the parks. Invaluable resource.

Kaufman, Polly Welts. National Parks and the Woman's Voice: A History. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1996.

A history of women's roles in the National Park Service.

Keller, Robert H., and Michael F. Turek. American Indians and National Parks. Tucson: University of Arizona Press, 1998.

The book focuses on several case studies, such as Grand Canyon and Glacier National Park. Does contain a couple of chapters on the history of tribal/National Park Service relations in general.

Knapp, Richard F., and Charles E. Hartsoe. Play for America: The National Recreation Association, 1906-1965. Arlington, Virg.: National Recreation and Park Association, 1979.

History of the organization that was a major institutional influence on the development of public recreation in the United States. Some information on the National Park Service and federal recreation management.

Lowry, William R. The Capacity for Wonder: Preserving National Parks. Washington, D.C.: Brookings Institute, 1994.

A study of the changes in the park services of the United States and Canada between the late 190s and the early 1990s.

McClelland, Linda Flint. Building the National Parks: Historic Landscape Design and Construction. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1998.

Detailed history through the CCC era. Includes a section on the Park, Parkway, and Recreational Area Study of 1936 and a chapter on National Park Service design since 1940.

Miles, John C. Guardians of the Parks: A History of the National Parks and Conservation Association. Washington, D.C.: Taylor & Francis and the National Parks and Conservation Association, 1995.

Discusses the National Parks and Conservation Association's development and activities in relation to National Park Service programs.

Mueller, Marge and Ted. Fire, Faults & Floods: A Road & Trail Guide Exploring the Origins of the Columbia River Basin. Moscow, Idaho: University of Idaho Press, 1997.

Well-illustrated guide to geological features of the Columbia River Basin, with much information on the Ice Age Floods. Non-technical.

National Parks and Conservation Association. Interpretation: Key to the Park Experience. Washington, D.C.: Feb. 1988.

Includes chapters on environmental education, volunteers, cooperating associations, and concessions.

National Parks and Conservation Association. Investing in Park Futures: The National Park System Plan: A Blueprint for Tomorrow. Washington, D.C.: National Parks and Conservation Association, 1988.

The NPCA, an independent oversight organization, provides an analysis of the current National Park System and recommendations for the future, based on interviews with agency employees, independent advocates, and researchers. It covers a wide variety of topics, from interpretation to establishment of new parks.

______. Washington, D.C. Parks and People: A Natural Relationship: Visitor Use of the National Parks. Washington, D.C.: National Parks and Conservation Association, 1988.

Looks at visitor use of the parks, examining appropriate activities and facilities that both encourage use and preserve resources. Includes a useful section on concessions, providing a brief historical background but emphasizing many aspects of recent concessions management.

______. Washington, D.C. Planning and Public Involvement: Constituency Building for the Parks. Washington, D.C.: National Parks and Conservation Association, 1988.

A useful guide to the complex National Park Service planning process, with historical background on early master plans, information on current planning documents, and a critique of the often cumbersome process that has led to inappropriate development in some units.

______. To Preserve Unimpaired: The Challenge of Protecting Park Resources. Washington, D.C.: National Parks and Conservation Association, 1988.

This publication provides a critical look at 1980s National Park Service policies, with suggestions for improvement. One section discusses Resource Management Plans and their implementation, including law enforcement aspects of resource protection.

Nisbet, Jack. Sources of the River. Seattle: Sasquatch Books, 1994.

A popular account of David Thompson's travels in western North America, with present-day observations by the author.

Nullet, Lewis, and Joan Nullet, comps. A Brief History of Kettle Falls: The First 50 Years. n.p.: 1992.

Book contains copy of article detailing preparations for the last salmon run in 1938. In addition, it describes the merging of Kettle Falls and Meyers Falls and the moving of buildings from Kettle Falls to the new site.

Pitzer, Paul. Grand Coulee: Harnessing a Dream. Pullman: Washington State University Press, 1994.

Standard reference work on the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project. Quite detailed. The book also explores the project's significance to Pacific Northwest history.

Raufer, Maria Ilma. Black Robes and Indians on the Last Frontier: A Story of Heroism. Milwaukee: Bruce Publishing Co., 1966.

Good source on regional American Indian history, particularly in connection with the Catholic Church. Contains many excerpts from a wide variety of hard-to-find documents.

Richardson, Elmo R. Dams, Parks and Politics: Resource Development and Preservation in the Truman-Eisenhower Era. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1973.

Uses mostly primary sources to analyze the political maneuverings of the Secretary of Interior, National Park Service, and other interests during the Truman-Eisenhower years. Contains some discussion of Park Service resistance to managing reservoir-based recreation areas in the 1940s and some mention of the Mission 66 program.

Robinson, Michael C. Water for the West: The Bureau of Reclamation, 1902-1977. Chicago: Public Works Historical Society, 1979.

Provides good information on the establishment of the Reclamation Service and its shift to multiple-purpose water management.

Ruby, Robert H., and John A. Brown. A Guide to the Indian Tribes of the Pacific Northwest. Norman, Okla.: University of Oklahoma Press, 1986.

The authors provide relatively brief but useful histories of the tribes in the Pacific Northwest, including the Confederated Colville Tribes and the Spokane Tribe.

Sellars, Richard West. Preserving Nature in the National Parks: A History. New Haven, Conn.: Yale University Press, 1997.

An important history of National Park Service management of natural resources, including a discussion of the agency's role in recreational tourism.

Simpson, Sir George. Narrative of a Journey Round the World, During the Years 1841 and 1842. Vol. 1. London: Henry Colburn, 1847.

First-hand account of travels of the North American Governor of Hudson's Bay Company, with an account of Fort Colvile.

Steele, Richard F. An Illustrated History of Stevens, Ferry, Okanogan and Chelan Counties, State of Washington. Spokane: Western Historical Publishing Co., 1904.

A subscription history of the northeastern Washington region, with much useful information on the early history.

Walker, Deward E., Jr., editor. "Plateau." In Handbook of North American Indians, ed. by William C. Sturtevant. Vol. 12. Washington, DC: Smithsonian Institution, 1998.

Numerous authors contributed articles on a variety of aspects of Plateau culture; separate chapters on individual tribes.

Washburn, Wilcomb E. Red Man's Land/White Man's Law: A Study of the Past and Present Status of the American Indian. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1971.

Contains essays on the termination movement, hunting, fishing, and water rights, and the Indian Claims Commission.

White, Richard. The Organic Machine: The Remaking of the Columbia River. N.Y.: Hill & Wang, 1995.

Explores the relationship between the natural history of the Columbia River and the human history of the Pacific Northwest. The book includes sections on the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and its impact on the regional salmon fishery.

Wirth, Conrad L. Parks, Politics, and the People. Norman: University of Oklahoma Press, 1980.

Former National Park Service Director Wirth compiled a history of the administration of the national park system. The sections on the Parks, Parkway and Recreation Study Act of 1936 and on Mission 66 are particularly helpful.

Wright, R. Gerald. Wildlife Research and Management in the National Parks. Urbana, Ill.: University of Illinois Press, 1992.

Good overview of Park Service wildlife management that includes chapters on the history of wildlife research and management policies.

Wynecoop, David C. Children of the Sun: A History of the Spokane Indians. Wellpinit, Wash.: 1969.

Information on the tribe up to 1969. Contains the text of the Acquisition of Indian Lands for Grand Coulee Dam and Reservoir.


Bearss, Edwin C. "The National Park Service and Its History Program: 1864-1986 - An Overview." Public Historian 9 (spring 1987): 10-18.

Provides an interesting review of the National Park Service history program that started under Horace Albright, a history buff, in the 1930s. With the expansion of the Park Service during that period to include historical areas, the agency acquired already-established history programs that dated back to the Civil War.

Beaty, Laura. "How Well Is the National Park Service Managing Its Cultural Resources: The NPCA Point of View." Public Historian 9 (spring 1987): 125-134.

Article includes discussion of a 1980 report on National Park Service facilities and the resulting program to address some of the identified problems.

Bloch, Ivan. "The Columbia River Salmon Industry." Reclamation Era 28 (February 1938): 26-30.

Outlines several threats to the Columbia River salmon including overfishing, diversion of water for irrigation, siltation of spawning beds, pollution, and dams.

Blodgett, Peter J. "Striking a Balance: Managing Concessions in the National Parks, 1916-33." Forest and Conservation History 34 (April 1990): 60-68.

Discusses the need for regulations regarding park concessions and how these were developed and implemented under Stephen Mather and Horace Albright.

"Boating on the Grand Coulee Dam Reservoir." Reclamation Era 30 (December 1940): 349.

Good history of the Grand Coulee Dam Yacht Club and its activities on the newly forming lake.

"Boulder and Grand Coulee Dams Attract Tourists." Reclamation Era 29 (November 1939): 294.

Brief discussion of motels and tourist camps available for visitors to the dam, and of recreational facilities.

Bretz, J Harlen. "The Lake Missoula Floods and the Channeled Scabland." Journal of Geology 77 (1969): 505-43.

Account of the great Ice Age events that shaped the landscape of eastern Washington, written by the geologist who postulated the floods and was eventually proved right.

Campbell, Frederick L., John C. Hendee, and Roger Clark. "Law and Order in Public Parks." Parks & Recreation 3 (December 1968): 28-31ff.

Authors studied behavior problems in three public campgrounds in Washington, noting types of violations and vandalism. After speculating on the underlying causes, they offer potential solutions.

Casseday, Graeme. "A Big Dam's Big Lake." Trailer Boats 24 (Dec. 1980): 24-26.

Short article written for people planning to visit Lake Roosevelt.

"Clearing the Grand Coulee Reservoir." Public Works 73 (April 1942): 28-30.

Discussion of the clearing project, repeating much of what had been written before.

Conrad, Wafford. "Probing the Depth of Lake Roosevelt." Reclamation Era 34 (March 1948): 57-58.

Short article on the preparation of nautical charts for Lake Roosevelt by the Coast and Geodetic Survey.

Corson, James W. "Volunteers in the Parks." National Parks & Conservation Magazine 48 (April 1974): 23-24.

Describes the VIP program, which began in 1970.

Dellwo, Robert D. "Indian Water Rights - The Winters Doctrine Updated." Gonzaga Law Review 6: 215 (spring 1971): 215-240. Available in file A44 Triparty Agreement, LARO.HQ.ADM.

Dellwo, lawyer for the Spokane Tribe, provides excellent background on the Winters Doctrine (tribes have dominant right to all waters touching or within reservation boundaries) and its present and future use in the Pacific Northwest.

______. "The Spokane ‘Reservations' — 1872 to 1881." Rawhide Press (Jan. 1981): 27.

Useful historical account of the establishment of the Spokane Indian Reservation.

Dick, Wesley Arden. "When Dans [sic] Weren't Damned: The Public Power Crusade and Visions of the Good Life in the Pacific Northwest in the 1930s." Environmental Review 13 (Fall-Winter 1989): 113-153.

Looks at the promise of large dams and hydroelectric projects of the 1930s and 1940s, before they became symbols of ecological disaster.

Fish, Byron. "Grand Coulee's Undiscovered Lake." Ford Times 46 (Nov. 1954): 38-43.

Early article about the attractions of Lake Roosevelt, with photographs

Gibby, Lon, and Donald Ball. "Echoes of Yesterday — Moving 1388 Indian Graves." Pacific Northwestern 41 (1997 no. 4): n.p.

Account of the grave relocation project of 1939 that moved Indian and white graves just prior to filling the reservoir behind Grand Coulee Dam.

"Highway Relocation at Grand Coulee." Better Roads 11 (November 1941): 13-15.

Article details the relocation of roads and railroads in the reservoir area, from the planning to the actual work on the ground.

Johnson, Ralph W. "The Canada-United States Controversy over the Columbia River." University of Washington Law Review 41 (August 1966): 676-763.

Analysis of the negotiations and events that culminated in the Columbia River Treaty of 1961 and its potential impact on future Canada-United States relations.

"Joint Investigations, Columbia Basin Project." Reclamation Era 30(August 1940): 219-220.

Article outlines extensive planning underway for the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project. Investigations were divided into 28 separate problems and included the issue of recreation on the lake behind Grand Coulee Dam.

"Lake Roosevelt-Paradise Found." Reclamation Era 32 (September 1946): 605-606.

Reports that new lake is haven for boating and seaplane enthusiasts, with public campsites to be developed soon.

Martin, Emilie. "Student Volunteers in the National Parks and Forests." National Parks & Conservation Magazine 47 (Feb. 1973): 24-27.

Short article describing the work done by Student Conservation Association volunteers.

McBride, Dennis. "Grand Canyon-Boulder Dam Tours, Inc.: Southern Nevada's First Venture into Commercial Tourism." Nevada Historical Society Quarterly 27 (Summer 1984): 92-108.

Article covers a tour business that focused on Hoover Dam and Lake Mead, starting in 1935.

Neuberger, Richard L. "The Great Salmon Mystery." Saturday Evening Post 214 (13 September 1941): 20-21, 39-45.

Account of the efforts to transport salmon from below Grand Coulee Dam to fish hatcheries for artificial propagation.

Peterson, Otis. "Grand Destiny for Coulee Dam." Reclamation Era 55 (Nov. 1969): 104.

Discusses Kenneth Brooks' plan to improve the environment of the dam and surrounding area. Proposed visitor facilities are discussed.

"Pioneer Tugboating on Lake Roosevelt." Marine Digest (Dec. 14, 1946): 9-10.

Article on early tugboats on Lake Roosevelt.

Ross, John Alan. "Political Conflict on the Colville Reservation." Northwest Anthropological Research Notes 2 (1968): 29-91.

Investigates conflict and factionalism among the ethnic groups of the Colville Indian Reservation. Discusses how pressure by whites for Indian land intensified the factionalism.

"Sails and Motors to Dot Dam Lake." Columbian 5 (23 Feb. 1939): 11.

Brief article describing the initial meeting of the group that became the Grand Coulee Dam Yacht Club. It mentions a proposed log boom and floating wharf near Rattlesnake Canyon.

Schuster, R. L. "Reservoir Induced Landslides." Bulletin of the International Association of Engineering Geology 20 (1979): 8-15.

Includes a case study, with excellent photographs, of landslides along the shores of Lake Roosevelt.

Simonds, William Joe. "The Bureau of Reclamation and its Archeology: A Brief History." CRM 23 (2000 no. 1): 5-8.

Author provides useful background history on Reclamation's program of archaeology in connection with its projects.

Sperlin, O. B., ed. "Our First Horticulturalist." Washington Historical Quarterly 22 (Jan. 1931): 48.

This portion of the edited journal of the Wilkes Expedition covers the exploration of present-day eastern Washington in 1841. The account describes native plants of the region and foods gathered by American Indians in the area. In addition, it mentions Euroamerican settlements and offers a good description of the Hudson's Bay Company farm at Fort Colvile.

Sprague, Roderick. "American Indians and American Archaeology." American Antiquity 39 (January 1974): 1-2 (reprint).

Writer offers several suggestions to reduce or remove the Indian-archaeologist conflict that intensified during the height of the Red Power movement.

Swain, Donald C. "The National Park Service and the New Deal, 1933-1940." Pacific Historical Review 41 (August 1972): 312-32.

Discusses several aspects of the National Park Service during the 1930s, including the agency's historic preservation program and recreational planning and development.

"Vista Points on Columbia Basin Project." Reclamation Era 26 (December 1936): 286-287.

Short article on the Bureau of Reclamation vista houses adjacent to Grand Coulee Dam.

Webb, Melody. "Cultural Landscapes in the National Park Service." Public Historian 9 (Spring 1987): 81-89.

Traces the evolution of the idea of cultural landscapes and how interest within the Park Service has broadened from the initial inclusion of event-related landscapes to cover a wide variety of complex landscapes.

"Widening Columbia River Channel by Contract." Reclamation Era 31 (Jan. 1941): 7.

Discusses the widening of the channel near the Canadian border to prevent flooding of Canadian lands above Lake Roosevelt.

Reports and Government Documents

Ackerman, Lillian A. Ethnographic Overview and Assessment of Federal and Tribal Lands in the Lake Roosevelt Area Concerning the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Indian Reservation. Project Report Number 30. Pullman: Center for Northwest Anthropology, Washington State University, 1996.

Report provides a useful ethnographic overview and history of the native people in the Lake Roosevelt area.

Allen, R., et al. "Investigative Reports of Columbia River Fisheries Project." Vancouver, Wash.: Pacific Northwest Regional Comm., 1976.

Includes a report by Lloyd A. Phinney of the Washington Department of Fisheries concerning the implementation of programs for Columbia and Snake rivers salmon and steelhead runs.

Arnold, Edwin L. "Project Report on the Recreation Aspects of the Columbia Basin Project, Washington." San Francisco: National Park Service, 1967. Available at LARO research library.

Makes recommendations on recreation planning for the Columbia Basin area, including Banks Lake.

Beckman, Lance G. et al. "Assessment of the Fisheries and Limnology in Lake F. D. Roosevelt, 1980-83. Final Report 1985." Seattle: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, 1985. Available at Eastern Washington University Library.

The authors obtained baseline data 1979-83 and formulated recommendations for enhancing the Lake Roosevelt fishery by controlling water levels. They recommended caution in trying to establish kokanee salmon or rainbow trout by using hatcheries. They concluded that Lake Roosevelt could support a viable fishery.

Behrens, Greg W., and Phillip J. Hansen. "Geology and Related Construction Problems of the Grand Coulee Dam Project," pp. 357-69 in Joseph, N.L. et al., eds., Geologic Guidebook for Washington and Adjacent Areas, Washington Division of Geology and Earth Resources, Information Circular No. 86, 1989. Available in "Grand Coulee Dam" section of Dams box, LARO research library.

Technical report on the geology of the Grand Coulee Dam area as it relates to construction and operation of the dam, with a suggested road trip to view major project features.

Bennett, David H., and Robert G. White. "A Survey of Existing Literature on Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake." University of Idaho, Forest, Wildlife and Range Experiment Station, Contribution No. 61, January 1977. Available at LARO research library.

Useful summaries of many different scientific studies of Lake Roosevelt.

Biery, Ken D., Jr. "National Park Service Security & Fire Protection Survey: Coulee Dam National Recreation Area, Fort Spokane District, Park Headquarters." n.d. Available in file Coulee Dam NRA, Kent Bush, Columbia Cascades Support Office.

Detailed report on Fort Spokane's physical security systems, with recommendations.

Bloodworth, Jessie. "Human Resources Survey of the Colville Confederated Tribes: a Field Report of the Bureau of Indian Affairs." Portland: Colville Agency, 1959.

Good tribal history along with sociological information from the late 1950s.

Bouchard, Randy, and Dorothy I. D. Kennedy. Indian Land Use and Occupancy in the Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake Area of Washington State. Unpublished report prepared for the Colville Confederated Tribes and the United States Bureau of Reclamation, June 1984.

Comprehensive report contains excellent history of the Colville tribes. Emphasis of document is on area place names.

Brooks, Kenneth W. Grand Coulee Dam Environmental Plan. Prepared for U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, 1968. Available at Coulee Dam Town Hall.

This environmental plan was set into motion by the construction of the third powerhouse. Provides recommendations on tourist and recreational facilities in the area, including along the shores of Lake Roosevelt. Proposes a Columbia River Parkway.

Brown, Daniel R. "Coulee Dam National Recreation Area: Statement for Interpretation, FY93." 1993. Available in K1817 Interpretive Plan, LARO.HQ.CIO.

Overview of interpretation program themes, objectives, costs, and patterns.

Bruesewitz, Sally L., et al. "Hooking Mortality of Walleye Caught from Deep Water." Olympia: Washington Dept. of Fish & Wildlife, 1996.

This study of Lake Roosevelt walleye concluded that walleye caught from deep water could be protected through length limits and catch-and-release fisheries.

Bucy, Lisa K., and William H. Funk. Lake Roosevelt Management Plan. Prepared for the Lake Roosevelt Water Quality Council. Pullman, Wash.: WRC Report No. 93, State of Washington Water Research Center, 1996.

Review and summary of existing water quality conditions and a management plan for Lake Roosevelt.

Chance, David H. Fort Colvile: The Structure of a Hudson's Bay Company Post, 1825 to 1871 and After. Moscow, Idaho: Department of Sociology/Anthropology, 1972.

Detailed report by the chief archaeologist of the Fort Colvile site that includes excellent descriptions of the fort buildings and outlying sites based on extensive archival research.

______. "Kettle Falls: 1976. Salvage Archaeology in Lake Roosevelt." University of Idaho Anthropological Research Manuscript Series, No. 39. Moscow: Laboratory of Anthropology, University of Idaho, 1977.

Lengthy report describing the archaeological field work during the 1976 season at sites in the Kettle Falls area. The analysis pulls together several years of work at these sites and offers descriptions of at least three phases of cultural activity there over the past two thousand years.

Collier, Donald, Alfred E. Hudson, and Arlo Ford. "Archeology of the Upper Columbia Region." University of Washington Publications in Anthropology 9. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1942.

Report covers the salvage archaeology operations of the Columbia Basin Archaeological Survey in the area that was later flooded by Lake Roosevelt. Although later archaeologists have criticized the authors both for their field work and their conclusions, this report remains important since it covers the first excavations done in this region.

Colville Confederated Tribes. "The Year of the Coyote: Centennial Celebration, July 2, 1972." Nespelem, Wash.: Colville Confederated Tribes, 1972.

Provides a detailed overview of the land history of the Colville Confederated Tribes.

Colville Confederated Tribes, National Park Service, Spokane Tribe of Indians, Bureau of Reclamation, and Bureau of Indian Affairs. "Lake Roosevelt Concession Management Plan." Jan. 1991. Available in Special Park Use, etc. notebook, LARO.HQ.CIO.

This document provides guidelines and recommendations for managing concessions along all of Lake Roosevelt, with emphasis on specific development areas.

Colville Confederated Tribes, and Spokane Tribe of Indians. "Proposal for Fishery and Wildlife Evaluation and Development of Management Alternatives for Franklin D. Roosevelt Reservoir and Its Tributary Streams." ca. 1975. Available in file N1423 Fish (Annual Report), LARO.HQ.ADM.

Reports on an effort to develop a comprehensive research program to evaluate the existing fishery and wildlife resources of Lake Roosevelt and to initiate management programs.

Combes, John D. "A Preliminary Investigation at Old Military Fort Spokane, Washington." Report of Investigations No. 30. Pullman: Laboratory of Anthropology, Washington State University, 1965.

Brief report includes a useful history of Fort Spokane.

Elvidge, Janice A. "The Interpretive Desires of Overnight Visitors at Four Campgrounds in Coulee Dam National Recreation Area." n.d. [short and long versions] Available in file K1817 Visitor Survey, LARO.HQ.CIO.

This 1990s survey analyzed the characteristics of those who attended interpretive programs at LARO and those who did not.

Fish, Frederic F., and Mitchell G. Hanavan. "A Report Upon the Grand Coulee Fish-Maintenance Project, 1939-1947." Special Scientific Report No. 55, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, ca. 1948.

Discusses the natural and artificial propagation of relocated fish, concluding that it is questionable whether the early-running Columbia River salmon races can surmount the increasing development of the river and its tributaries.

Frizzell, Kent, U.S. Department of the Interior Solicitor, to Secretary of the Interior. "Opinion on the boundaries of and status of title to certain lands within the Colville and Spokane Indian Reservations." 3 June 1974. Available in file A44 Tri-party Agreement, LARO.HQ.ADM.

This opinion discusses the boundaries and status of title to lands within the reservations. It overturned much of the 1945 opinion written by Warner Gardner.

Galm, Jerry R., ed. A Design for Management of Cultural Resources in the Lake Roosevelt Basin of Northeastern Washington. Eastern Washington University Reports in Archaeology and History 100-83. Cheney: Archaeological and Historical Services, Eastern Washington University, 1994.

Report contains an excellent summary of previous archaeological work in the Lake Roosevelt reservoir, as well as a fine history of northeastern Washington.

Gangmark, Harold A., and Leonard A. Fulton. "Preliminary Surveys of Roosevelt Lake in Relation to Game Fishes." Washington, D.C.: U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Special Scientific Report: Fisheries No. 5, 1949.

Survey completed as a first step towards improving the sport fishing in Lake Roosevelt.

Gardner, Warner W., U.S. Department of the Interior Solicitor. Opinion (Memorandum to Assistant Secretary Chapman). 29 Dec. 1945. Available in file 2, box 3 of 3, LARO #95, Cat. #3250, LARO.HQ.PAO.

This key opinion defined Indian rights at Lake Roosevelt until 1974, when much of the findings were overturned by a subsequent opinion. It provided the basis for the first thirty years of Park Service management of the NRA.

Gilbert, Cathy A., and Renata Niedzwiecka. "The Historic Landscape of Fort Spokane: A Design Proposal." Seattle: National Park Service, 1985.

Contains management plans and a brief history of Fort Spokane.

Gilbert, Cathy A., Renata Niedzwiecka, James Thomson, and Laurin Huffman II. "Comprehensive Design Plan for Fort Spokane." Seattle: Cultural Resources Division, Pacific Northwest Region, National Park Service, 1991.

Comprehensive report details design problems and alternative solutions for Fort Spokane.

Hall, Bert A. Final Construction Report on Lake Roosevelt Reservoir. Coulee Dam, Wash.: Bureau of Reclamation, 1952. Available at Grand Coulee Project Office, Bureau of Reclamation.

Detailed report on the relocation of highways, bridges, and railways and the clearing work necessary for the clearing of the area now known as Lake Roosevelt.

Howerton, Jack, Jennifer Creveling, and Brent Renfrow. "Wildlife Protection, Mitigation and Enhancement Planning for Grand Coulee Dam, Final Report." Portland: U.S. Bonneville Power Administration, 1986.

Contains summary of effects on wildlife and habitat caused by the creation of Lake Roosevelt, plus recommendations for mitigation.

Hussey, John A. "Fort Spokane, Washington: A History of the United States Army Post and of the Fort Spokane Military Reservation." San Francisco: U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Region Four, April 1958.

Brief but useful history of Fort Spokane, including its use by the Bureau of Indian Affairs.

Jones, Fred O. "Report on Geologic Conditions at the Gifford-Inchelium Ferry Landings, Stevens and Ferry Counties, Washington." Spokane: U.S. Geological Survey, 1949.

Study conducted to determine potential landslide conditions at the two ferry landings.

Jones, Fred O., Daniel R. Embody, and Warren L. Peterson. "Landslides along the Columbia River Valley, Northeastern Washington." Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, U.S. Geological Survey Professional Paper 367, 1961. Available at Mid-Columbia Regional Library, Kennewick, Washington.

Detailed study of more than 300 landslides in the Pleistocene terrace deposits of Lake Roosevelt and downstream of Grand Coulee Dam. The authors developed techniques for judging the stability of natural slopes and estimating the extent of impending landslide actions.

Larrabee, Edward McM., and Susan Kardas. "Archaeological Survey of Grand Coulee Dam National Recreation Area. Part 1: Lincoln County above Normal Pool." Pullman: Laboratory of Anthropology, Washington State University, Report of Investigations No. 38, 1966.

Report includes list of informants, some interviewed in the 1960s, as well as a copy of information from Billy Curlew on Indian campsites.

Lewis, Ralph H. Museum Curatorship in the National Park Service, 1904-1982. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1993.

Detailed, comprehensive history of the National Park Service museum program.

Mackintosh, Barry. Interpretation in the National Park Service: A Historical Perspective. National Park Service, 1989.

Provides a context in which to place interpretation at Lake Roosevelt NRA.

______. The National Parks: Shaping the System. Washington, D.C.: National Park Service, 1985.

Author provides a concise history of the National Park Service and shows how it has evolved since its creation. Includes a section on the creation of reservoir areas.

______. Visitor Fees in the National Park System: A Legislative and Administrative History. Wash., D.C.: National Park Service, 1983.

Detailed history of National Park Service administration of visitor fees, up to 1980.

McCrary, Paul F. "Interpretive Prospectus for Coulee Dam National Recreation Area." Sept. 25, 1964. Available in file K1817 Interpretive Prospectus: Coulee Dam NRA 1964, LARO.HQ.CIO.

Provides guidelines for interpretation of LARO to visitors.

McDonough, Maureen H., and Donald R. Field. "Coulee Dam National Recreation Area: Visitor Use Patterns and Preferences." Seattle: National Park Service, College of Forest Resources, University of Washington, 1979. Available in LARO research library.

Study of visitors to Coulee Dam NRA.

McDowell, Amy C., and Janelle R. Griffith. "Retrospective Analysis: Fisheries: Summary and Recommendations." Wellpinit, Wash.: prepared by Spokane Tribe of Indians for the Lake Roosevelt Water Quality Council, 1993.

Includes a useful summary of trends in the Lake Roosevelt fishery by decade since the 1940s.

Nielsen, J. R. "Investigation of the Walleye Fishery in Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake." pp. 28-50 in, "A Survey and Evaluation of Sport Fisheries in the North Management Area, Region One, with Special Emphasis on the Walleye Fishery." Washington Department of Game. Project No. F-64-R, Job No. 2, 1974. Available in Fisheries section, Fisheries box, LARO research library.

Reports on a study to determine the angler utilization and catch rate and some of the age and growth characteristics of the walleye population in the lake. Includes management recommendations.

Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Outdoor Recreation for America: A Report to the President and to the Congress by the Outdoor Recreation Resources Review Commission. Wash., D.C.: 1962.

Important recommendations for federal outdoor recreation management, including the creation of a Bureau of Outdoor Recreation.

Peone, Tim L., et al. "Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program: Annual Report, August 1988-December 1989." Volume 1. Portland: Bonneville Power Administration, 1989.

This report gives historical data on fisheries management on Lake Roosevelt.

Powell, J. W. Eighteenth Annual Report of the Bureau of American Ethnology to the Secretary of the Smithsonian Institution, 1896-97. Part 2. Wash., D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1899.

Includes information on legislation setting aside land for both the Colville and Spokane reservations.

Ray, Verne F. "Ethnic Impact of the Events Incident to the Federal Power Development on the Colville and Spokane Indian Reservations." Prepared for the Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation and the Spokane Tribe of Indians. Port Townsend, Washington: 1977. Available at Eastern Washington State Historical Society, Spokane.

Ray describes not only traditional aspects of tribal culture but also the drastic impact on this culture brought on by the flooding caused by Grand Coulee Dam. He provides excellent information on many aspects of this cultural change, including a discussion of the acceptance of modern tribal government formed under the Indian Reorganization Act.

______. "Salmon Fishing by the Colville Tribes," in The Confederated Tribes of the Colville Reservation, et al. v. The United States of America, Indian Claims Commission, Docket No. 181-C, n.d. Available at Eastern Washington State Historical Society Archives (RE SC 395).

Excellent information on the importance of salmon to the Colville Confederated Tribes, presented as part of the Tribes' case before the Indian Claims Commission. Ray also provides his own estimates of the historic native population of the area, disputing accounts of various explorers.

______. "The Sanpoil and the Nespelem: Salish Peoples of Northeastern Washington." Seattle: University of Washington Publications in Anthropology, vol. 5, 1933.

Lengthy anthropological description of the traditional way of life of the Sanpoil and Nespelem people, based on field research done 1928-1930.

Riedel, Jon L. "Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area, Washington, Water Resources Scoping Report." National Park Service, March 1997.

Riedel addresses a variety of water quality and other water resource issues, including the role of the National Park Service in management of water resources. The report concludes with a recommendation that the Park Service fund a full-time water resource management position at LARO.

Roberts, Edward G. "A Report on the Coulee Dam National Recreation Area." Sept. 1969. Available in file Archives, Drawer 2, LARO.FS.1107.

Report prepared for the National Park Service that makes recommendations to improve public relations and recreation facilities in the National Recreation Area.

Scholz, A. T., et al. "Feasibility Report on Restoration of Lake Roosevelt Fisheries." Cheney, Wash.: Eastern Washington University, ca. 1986. Available in file Marmot Control Program, drawer 2, LARO.HQ.RMO.

This report provides an excellent overview of Lake Roosevelt fisheries and discusses a proposed program to mitigate for fish losses resulting from Grand Coulee Dam by restoring and enhancing the sport fishery of Lake Roosevelt and its tributaries The recommendations include size regulations and bag limits for walleye and other regulations, constructing two kokanee hatcheries, improving habitat in selected tributaries, and conducting a monitoring program.

Shipman, George A. "Final Report and Recommendations Regarding the Town of Coulee Dam." Ephrata, Wash.: Bureau of Reclamation, 1954.

Synthesizes local attitudes and makes recommendations concerning the government-owned and -administered town of Coulee Dam.

_______. "The Grand Coulee Dam Area: A Preliminary Report." Ephrata, Wash.: Bureau of Reclamation, 1953.

Survey of the question of the status of Coulee Dam as a government town. Discusses the economy of the area, including tourism.

Turek, Michael F. "American Indian Tribes and the U.S. National Park Service." n.p., [ca. early 1990s]. Available at LARO research library.

Author discusses National Park Service policies concerning Native Americans and cites the LARO Multi-Party Agreement as "the progressive approach."

Underwood, Keith, and John Shields. "Lake Roosevelt Fisheries Monitoring Program, 1993 Annual Report." Wellpinit, Wash.: Spokane Tribe of Indians, prepared for Bonneville Power Administration, 1996. Available at BPA library, Portland, Oregon.

Reports on efforts to collect data on the Lake Roosevelt fishery before and after the Spokane Tribal Hatchery and the Sherman Creek Hatchery began stocking in 1991 and 1992.

U.S. Department of Energy. Bonneville Power Administration. "Environmental Assessment, Colville Resident Trout Hatchery." 1986. Available at BPA Library, Portland, Oregon.

Describes the impact of Chief Joseph and Grand Coulee dams on the Colville and Spokane tribes, and the plans for a hatchery as mitigation.

U.S. Department of the Interior. Bureau of Reclamation. Annual Project Histories, Columbia Basin Project. [beginning in 1970, these were published by the Grand Coulee Dam Operations Office.] Available at Grand Coulee Project Office, Grand Coulee, Washington.

Excellent resource on the clearing of the reservoir for Lake Roosevelt and on subsequent management activities. Compiled for the years 1933-1985. Useful for the early years when Reclamation paid for Park Service operations at the reservoir.

______. Bureau of Reclamation. Recreational Development of Roosevelt Lake: Columbia Basin Joint Investigations, Problem 26. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1945.

Invaluable discussion of the management issues at LARO as seen in its very early years.

______. Bureau of Reclamation. Rural Recreational Areas: Columbia Basin Joint Investigations: Problem 25. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1945.

Has a chapter summarizing the need for recreation facilities in eastern Washington, with recommendations.

______. Columbia Cascades Support Office. "Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area Museum Management Plan." National Park Service, 1997. Available in LARO.HQ.CIO.

This detailed plan outlines current conditions. Recommendations are made on interpretation at Fort Spokane, Kettle Falls, and Dry Falls, and suggestions are made concerning museum collection management and staffing.

______. Coulee Dam National Recreation Area. "General Management Plan: Coulee Dam National Recreation Area." 1980. Available in notebook GMP, Envir. Assessment, LARO.HQ.CIO.

Delineates park-wide policies and programs.

______. "Interpretive Prospectus: Coulee Dam National Recreation Area, Washington." 1975. Available in K1817 Interpretive Prospectus Coulee Dam Dec. 1975, LARO.HQ.CIO.

This interpretive plan covers personal and non-personal services and includes a plan for wayside exhibits.

______. "Master Plan of Coulee Dam National Recreation Area." 1964. Available in D18 Master Planning 1965-67, LARO.HQ.ADM

Provides guidance for managing the national recreation area.

______. "Resource Management Plan and Environmental Assessment: Coulee Dam National Recreation Area." 1988. Available in file Coulee Dam NRA, Nat. Resource Mgmt. Plan 1988, LARO.HQ.CIO.

Management plan for the following resources: air, water, plant, geological, wildlife, and hazardous wastes, with discussion of specific projects.

______. "Resources Management Plan and Environmental Assessment: Coulee Dam National Recreation Area." 1982. Available in file D18 General Management Plan, box 1 of 3, LARO.HQ.PAO.

This is LARO's first management plan for natural and cultural resources.

______. Special Park Use Management Plan: Coulee Dam National Recreation Area. 30 Aug. 1990.

This plan provided the guidelines for LARO to implement NPS-53 on a local level. It deals with all special uses of federal lands at the NRA.

U.S. Department of the Interior. Coulee Dam National Recreation Area (and Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area). "Superintendent's Annual Reports." Available in various files, LARO.HQ.ADM.

The annual reports written by the LARO superintendent are an excellent resource. They often provide detailed information and justification for particular management decisions.

U.S. Department of the Interior. Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area. Draft General Management Plan/Environmental Impact Statement: Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area. September 1998.

This recent GMP provides guidelines for managing LARO. It offers community access points as a way to resolve the problem of limited docking facilities at Lake Roosevelt.

______. "Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area: 5 Year Strategic Plan, 1998-2002." 1997. Available in Cultural Resource Mgmt. box, LARO.HQ.SUP.

Discusses existing conditions and management goals for LARO for the period 1998 to 2002.

______. "Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area: Resources Management Plan, Natural Resources Program." Jan. 1997.

Detailed management plan for natural resources in LARO.

U.S. Department of the Interior. National Park Service. "Coulee Dam National Recreation Area: Environmental Assessment for the General Management Plan." August 1979. Available in GMP, Envir. Assessment, etc., notebook, LARO.HQ.CIO.

Detailed evaluation of four alternatives for the management of LARO.

______. "Draft Long-Range Interpretive Plan, Lake Roosevelt National Recreational Area." 1999. Available in LARO.HQ.CIO.

This draft document provides guidance for LARO's interpretive program and also discusses visitor characteristics and trends.

______. Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area: Museum Management Plan. 1997. Available in LARO.HQ.CIO.

Detailed plan for museum management at LARO.

______. "Museum Prospectus: Coulee Dam National Recreation Area." 1958. Available in file H20 Collection Management, LARO.HQ.CIO.

This is essentially an interpretive plan for LARO. It discusses visitor services, self-guided trails, personal services, waysides, and other aspects of interpretation.

______. National Parks for the 21st Century: The Vail Agenda: Report and Recommendations to the Director of the National Park Service from the Steering Committee of the 75th Anniversary Symposium. Washington, D.C.: 1992.

Detailed critique of the National Park Service.

______. A Study of the Park and Recreation Problem of the United States. Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1941.

This volume reports on a study undertaken by the National Park Service to establish a basis for coordinated recreation land planning among all agencies having responsibility for park and recreational developments. Includes information on recreation trends of the period, planning, and various agencies that dealt with recreation issues.

Walker, Deward E., Jr., and Sylvester L. Lahren. Anthropological Guide for the Coulee Dam National Recreation Area. University of Idaho Anthropological Research Manuscript Series, No. 33. Moscow: Laboratory of Anthropology, University of Idaho, 1977.

Authors provide a very useful overview of the native cultures in the Lake Roosevelt area. Appendices include names and locations of camps.

Washington Historical Records Survey. Inventory of the County Archives of Washington. No. 33. Stevens County (Colville). Seattle: Washington Historical Records Survey, 1942.

Contains a good general history of Stevens County.

Washington State Planning Council. A Study of Parks, Parkways and Recreational Areas, State of Washington. Olympia, Wash., 1941.

Comprehensive study includes the organization and operations of state parks, recreation areas around the state, and recreational travel. While Fort Colvile is mentioned as an area of potential interest, no mention is made of the soon-to-be Lake Roosevelt.

Williams, Gary D., and Alan S. Newell. Historic Resource Study: Coulee Dam National Recreation Area, Washington. Prepared by Historical Research Associates for the National Park Service, 1980.

Provides an overview of the history of the Lake Roosevelt area from the time prior to Euroamericans arriving in the area to the inundation of Lake Roosevelt. Emphasis is on Fort Colvile and Fort Spokane. Also identifies and briefly describes significant historic sites, a number of them now flooded by the reservoir.

Archival Material

Attorney-General, Fish & Game Working Files. Washington State Archives, Olympia.

These files contain correspondence related to tribal fishing rights and tribal jurisdiction questions on Lake Roosevelt. The papers as a whole cover the years 1969-1993.

Clipping file. Northwest Room, Spokane Public Library.

The library maintains extensive newspaper clipping files, most post-1920, on a wide variety of subjects that pertain to Lake Roosevelt and the surrounding area. In addition, all Spokesman-Review newspapers through 1920 are indexed, with these available in the same research room.

Columbia Basin Commission. Papers. Washington State Archives, Olympia.

These papers cover the years 1933-1964 and contain some valuable information on the administration of Lake Roosevelt, particularly in the "Recreation" folder of box 34.

Foley, Thomas. Papers. Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University.

Rich source of materials concerning recreation and property rights on Lake Roosevelt and tribal issues in the 1970s and 1980s. Selected highlights include:

Box 1 contains discussion of the proposed termination of the Colville Indian Reservation.

Box 80, "Wilderness - Lake Roosevelt Management Plan" folder, contains correspondence related to the concessions management plan of the late 1980s, aquaculture on Lake Roosevelt, and the tribes' role in concessions.

Box 159 contains correspondence and newspaper articles concerning the 1974 Solicitor's Opinion and the Colvilles' management of recreation within the Indian Zone.

Box 238 contains correspondence relating to drawdowns on Lake Roosevelt and the increase in special use permit fees.

Box 269 contains correspondence from the Colville Confederated Tribes and from constituents on a variety of issues.

Box 276 contains correspondence related to the Five-Party Agreement.

Box 288 contains constituent correspondence related to the Special Park Use Management Plan and the Kettle Falls Marina.

Grant County, Washington. County Commissioners' Records. Office of the County Clerk, Ephrata, Washington.

This collection consists of one folder of material related to the Lake Roosevelt Forum, including newsletters and correspondence.

Horan, Walt. Papers. Washington State University.

Valuable correspondence and other material relating to Lake Roosevelt, particularly responses from the public and agencies to the proposed National Park Service regulations for Lake Roosevelt. Covers the years 1943-1964. Highlights include:

Box 216 contains much correspondence on a variety of topics related to LARO.

Box 353 includes 1947 correspondence about issues of concern to the Colville Confederated Tribes.

Box 361 contains a discussion of Indian fishing rights.

Jackson, Henry M., Papers. University of Washington Libraries, Manuscripts and University Archives Division.

Accession 3560-3, Box 32, Folder 12 contains a four-page synopsis of the Mission 66 plans for Coulee Dam NRA, along with 1956-1957 correspondence from area residents complaining about lack of funds for developing the NRA. Letters from Harold Maysent suggest private citizens use their own equipment to develop the national recreation area.

Accession 3560-5, Box 159, Folder 14 contains letters concerning plans to purchase Canadian water to maintain level in Lake Roosevelt.

LaBret, Frances. Untitled manuscript. n.d. Available in "History" section of Fort Spokane box, LARO research library.

The writer, a former student at the Indian boarding school at Fort Spokane, provides an excellent first-hand account of life at the school. She tells about the reality of the school, from daily routines to humorous incidents typical of children to accounts of students running away from the school.

Lake Roosevelt National Recreation Area. Central files and files held by individual employees. Coulee Dam, Fort Spokane, and Kettle Falls, Washington.

Files maintained by park staff over the decades are the backbone of this report. All decades except the 1960s and 1970s are well documented.

Langlie, Gov. Arthur B. Papers. Washington State Archives, Olympia.

Box 10 contains correspondence about the 1951 regulations of Lake Roosevelt.

Magnuson, Warren G. Papers. University of Washington Libraries, Manuscripts and University Archives Division.

Large collection contains materials about Coulee Dam National Recreation Area. Of particular interest are the following:

Accession 3181-3, Box 85, Folder 21: Includes the 1951 Rules and Regulations along with considerable correspondence protesting these rules and earlier attempts to control development around the lake.

Accession 3181-3, Box 85, Folder 22: Considerable correspondence from 1949-1950 concerning early attempts to regulate industry and development around Lake Roosevelt.

Accession 3181-4, Box 208, Folder 5: Letter of 17 June 1949 outlining proposed developments in the new recreation area.

May, Catherine. Papers. Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University.

May's papers are a good source of information on National Park Service management of Lake Roosevelt for the years 1959-1970. Of particular interest are the following:

Box 67, "Banks Lake" folder contains correspondence relating to recreation and lake levels on Lake Roosevelt and Banks Lake.

Box 160, "Bills - H.R. 10228" and "Bills - H.R. 7652" folders contain more discussion of Banks Lake and recreation.

Box 252, "Interior Dept. - National Park Serve" folder contains several 1960s press releases about Coulee Dam NRA.

McDonald, Angus. "A Few Items of the West." Typed manuscript, n.d. Angus McDonald Papers, SC 427, file 3/3, Montana Historical Society Archives, Helena, Montana.

Manuscript contains description of Fort Colvile, as well as discussion of discovery of gold near the fort in 1854. Much of the document covers McDonald's life elsewhere in the Northwest.

Morrison, Sid. Papers. Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University.

Morrison's papers contain some correspondence related to the administration of Lake Roosevelt in recent years.

National Archives and Records Administration, Pacific Alaska Region. Seattle, Washington.

This repository contains two groups of records that have information pertinent to this project. They are:

Record Group 75, Records of the Bureau of Indian Affairs. Box 185, folder Colville Project 1934-35: Contains correspondence about a project to resettle Indians on lands purchased within reservation boundaries. Some of the letters contain useful information about the status of the tribes at that time.

Record Group 187, Records of the National Resources Planning Board. Box 49, folder Recreation - Regional, Recreation Comm. 1936: Includes correspondence from staff members looking for other examples of recreation developments on other reservoirs, especially along the Mississippi River.

Box 88, folder Columbia Basin Area I, 1939: Includes correspondence concerning problems to be discussed in relation to the development of the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project. It also contains letters about the potential for recreation development on the reservoir behind Grand Coulee Dam.

Box 107, folder Columbia Basin Area I, 1940: Contains various digests of minutes for the Problem No. 26 Committee, as well as correspondence concerning Problem No. 26.

Box 125, folder: Columbia Basin Area — General I, 1941: Includes a monthly progress report for August 1941 that concerns the drafting of the first interbureau agreement.

Box 126, folder Columbia Basin Area — Problem No. 26 1941: Most of the folder's contents deal with various interpretations of the Act of June 29, 1940, that set aside approximately one-quarter of the reservoir area for the paramount use of Indians from the Spokane and Colville reservations. Materials include resolutions from both tribes, minutes of tribal council meetings, and reports from the Problem No. 26 Committee.

National Archives and Records Administration, Pacific Sierra Region. San Bruno, California.

The LARO records held at this branch of the National Archives contain voluminous correspondence between National Park Service Regional Office and LARO staff and others concerning a wide variety of topics, primarily dating from the 1940s and 1950s. These boxes of records are mostly to be found in RG 079-89-001 and RG 079-89-004. Monthly and annual superintendent's reports dating from the 1950s and 1960s are located in RG 079-95-05 and RG 079-95-06.

Pitzer, Paul. Collection. Washington State Archives, Central Regional Branch, Ellensburg.

This collection contains the source materials for Pitzer's book, Grand Coulee: Harnessing a Dream.

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. Regional Office, Boise, Idaho.

Folder 715, Columbia Basin Project, Administration of Recreational Areas, Franklin D. Roosevelt Lake: This folder contains many important documents pertaining to early LARO history, most from the period of 1941-ca. 1951. They include:

--memos and correspondence concerning the establishment of the recreation area

--first interbureau agreement between the Park Service and Reclamation, 22 July 1942

--correspondence about special use permits, a special use permit form, and lists of early special use permits

--correspondence about the log dump controversy at San Poil Bay

--list of FY1943 expenditures

--correspondence concerning interpretations of the Act of June 29, 1940

--Solicitor's Opinion of December 29, 1945

--correspondence about negotiations for the 1946 Tri-Party Agreement

--correspondence about the concrete plant controversy at South Marina

--correspondence illustrating mounting tensions between the Park Service and Reclamation

--correspondence about the Grand Coulee Dam Yacht Club interests

--correspondence and meeting minutes about the proposed regulations

Folder 715, Columbia Basin Project, Administration of Recreational Areas, National Park Service: This folder contains correspondence from the late 1980s defining the responsibilities of the Park Service and Reclamation.

U.S. Department of the Interior, Bureau of Reclamation. Technical library, Coulee Dam, Washington.

The technical library contains the complete run of annual project histories for the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project, 1933-1985. The photograph department contains some 72,000 negatives of photographs related to the construction of Grand Coulee Dam and operation of the Columbia Basin Irrigation Project.

______. National Park Service. Photograph Archives. Harper's Ferry Center, West Virginia.

Collection for LARO includes several dozen photographs, most dating from the 1950s and 1960s. Some documents related to interpretation at the NRA are also included.

Washington State Department of Conservation. Papers. Washington State Archives, Olympia.

Box 6 contains valuable information on Lake Roosevelt, including correspondence related to the 1951 proposed National Park Service regulations of the reservoir.

Works Progress Administration. Papers. Vertical File 343, Manuscripts, Archives, and Special Collections, Washington State University, Pullman, Washington.

Includes a lengthy 1940 press release on the clearing of the Grand Coulee reservoir.

Theses and Dissertations

Iverson, Thomas M. "Lake Roosevelt Burials: A Computer Analysis." Master's thesis, University of Idaho, 1984.

Analysis of 283 burials from 33 sites around Lake Roosevelt. Includes a useful history of burial removal from the 1930s through 1978.

Olson, Gordon Cooper. "A History of Natural Resources Management Within the National Park Service." M. A. thesis, Slippery Rock University, 1986. Available at LARO research library.

Detailed history of this aspect of National Park Service resource management.

Smith, Elizabeth R. "Effects of User Characteristics, Visitor Characteristics and Concerns on Management Preference: Lake Roosevelt, Washington." M.S. thesis, Washington State University, 1997.

Smith surveyed LARO visitors in 1996 on topics such as education vs. regulation on various issues. She found that the interest in interpretive evening programs was low.

Ulrich, Roberta. "Justice Delayed: A Sixty Year Battle for Indian Fishing Sites." M. A. thesis, Portland State University, 1996.

Author provides a well-researched, readable account of the battle over Indian fishing rights on the Columbia River, concentrating on the lower portion of the river.


Baker, Vaughn (LARO Superintendent). Interview with Nancy F. Renk, 9 Dec. 1999. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Brougher, Lynne (LARO Education Specialist). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 1 March 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Brown, Dan (former CODA Chief of Interpretation). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 3 March 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Dashiell, Ray (LARO maintenance worker). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 2 March 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

DePuydt, Ray (LARO archaeologist). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 1 March 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

DePuydt, Ray (LARO archaeologist). Phone interview with Nancy F. Renk, 7 July 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Everts, Don (retired LARA maintenance worker). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 3 March 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Everts, Don (retired LARO maintenance worker) and Connie Everts. Interview with Nancy F. Renk, 7 Dec. 1999. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Hebner, Scott (LARO Natural Resources Specialist). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 3 March 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Huseman, Marty (LARO Concessions Manager). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 29 Feb. 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Kuiper, Gary (former LARA superintendent). Interview with Nancy F. Renk, 10 Dec. 1999. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

MacDonald, Lynne (USBR Regional Archaeologist). Interview with Nancy F. Renk, 13 Jan. 1999. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Mason, Dan (LARO Chief Ranger). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 2 March 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

McCue, Sam (lived in Coulee Dam since 1935, early member of Grand Coulee Dam Yacht Club). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 11 March 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Miller, Roberta (LARO Program Assistant). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 29 Feb. 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Robinson, Mrs. Homer (Sis) (widow of former LARO Superintendent) and Don Everts (retired LARO maintenance worker). Interview with Nancy F. Renk, 6 Dec. 1999. Tape and index on file, LARO.HQ.

Schieber, Bill (retired LARO maintenance worker) and Doris. Interview with Nancy F. Renk, 7 Dec. 1999. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Schmidt, Merv (Grand Coulee Dam Yacht Club member). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 3 March 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Sprankle, Craig (Bureau of Reclamation Public Information Officer, Coulee Dam). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 8 March 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Taylor-Goodrich, Karen (former LARO Chief of Resource Management). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 3 August 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.

Tays, Gerald W. (former LARO Superintendent). Interview with Nancy F. Renk, 20 July 2000. Tape and index on file, LARO.HQ.

Teaford, Tom (former Supv. Ranger, Fort Spokane). Phone interview with Kathryn L. McKay, 3 August 2000. Notes on file, LARO.HQ.


76th Congress. Public Law No. 690. An act for the acquisition of Indian lands for the Grand Coulee Dam and Reservoir, and for other purposes. 29 June 1940.

Act set aside "approximately one-quarter of the entire reservoir area for the paramount use of the Indians of the Spokane and Colville Reservations for hunting, fishing, and boating purposes . . . ."


Young, Ray, and Robert E. Pace. "The Price We Paid." 20 mins. Produced by Media Services, Yakima Indian Nation for the Confederated Colville Tribes Business Council, 1977. Available for viewing at Colville Tribal Museum, Coulee Dam, Washington.

Video interviews several tribal elders and others, including anthropologist Verne Ray, about the impacts of the creation of Lake Roosevelt on the lives of the tribal people in the area.

Newspapers (selected issues)

[Colville] Statesman-Examiner
Davenport Times
Electrical West
Omak-Okanogan County Chronicle
Republic News-Mine
Seattle Post-Intelligencer
Spokane Chronicle
[Grand Coulee] Star
Tribal Tribune [Colville]
Wenatchee World
Wilbur Register

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Last Updated: 22-Apr-2003