Lava Beds
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Map 6

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Map. 6. Second Battle for Stronghold, April 15-17, 1873. Colonel Gillem's Plan: Major Mason (from east) and Major Green (from west) to attack Stronghold on April 15. Mason's left to join Green's right, thus surrounding Stronghold. (Essentially, the same plan devised by Colonel Wheaton, January 17.)

Gillem's Camp: Green in command of troops, Gillem present but in charge of whole operation. Troops: Batteries A, E, K, and M, 4th Artillery; Companies E and G, 12th Infantry; Troops F and K, 1st Cavalry, and mortars.

Hospital Rock: Mason in command of troops: Companies B, C, and I, 21st Infantry; Troops B and G, 1st Cavalry; Warm Spring Indians; and howitzers.

April 15

1. Two a.m. Troops F and K, dismounted, marched from Gillem's Camp to holding position on Hovey Point.

2. Eight a.m. Green's command marched from Gillem's Camp. Battery E led the column. 1/2 mile from camp, Battery E changed to skirmishers. One mile from camp, Battery E came under fire. Rest of column then deployed as skirmishers.

3. Battery A, 4th Artillery, a detachment from Troop H, and the mortars remained for the time being at Gillem's Camp.

4. April 14-15, midnight, Major Mason's command left Hospital Rock and took an assault position about 700 yards east of the Stronghold by dawn April 15. Howitzers kept to rear—too far back to fire effectively.

5. One-thirty p.m., Green's infantry and artillery charged, gaining several hundred yards. During afternoon, infantry and artillery units moved slightly to right (south) creating space at north that allowed the cavalry to move into line by 4 p.m. Mortars moved forward by late afternoon.

6. Attempt to cut off Stronghold at south failed.

7. The cavalry, under Green, gained high ground at northwest corner of Stronghold by nightfall. Western line generally 1/2 mile from Stronghold.

April 16

8. Mortars (to rear of Green's cavalry) and howitzers (now moved up) fired throughout night of 15-16. Ten a.m., general advance began on west side—steady but slow progress. Another attempt to join forces around south of Stronghold failed.

9. By afternoon, Green's and Mason's forces joined at north, cutting Modocs off from water. This united force pushed south, penetrating outer defenses of Modocs by nightfall.

April 17

10. Mortars and howitzers continued firing through night of April 16-17, and at a reduced rate on morning of 17th. Despite a flurry of Modoc firing at 11 a.m., the troops realized by noon that the Modocs had evacuated the Stronghold. Troops entered the Stronghold. Modocs successfully escaped south into Lava Beds.


Modoc War
©1971, Argus Books
thompson/modocwarm6.htm — 11-Nov-2002