National Park Service
Friars, Soldiers and Reformers


Jesuit Foundations

Gray Robes for Black

The Archreformer Backs Down

Tumacácori or Troy?

The Course of Empire

The Promise and Default of the Provincias Internas

The Challenge of a Reforming Bishop

A Quarrel Among Friars

"Corruption Has Come Among Us"

A Trampled Guarantee

Hanging On




Chapter 1

1The story of the Jesuits' northwest missionary empire has been thoroughly chronicled, mostly by Jesuits. While the following studies deal mainly with the Pima missions, they include in their bibliographies the full run of chronicles: Herbert E. Bolton, Rim of Christendom; John Augustine Donohue, S.J., After Kino; John L. Kessell, Mission of Sorrows; and the recent works of Ernest J. Burrus, S.J., and Charles W. Polzer, S.J.

2A fine description of the face of the land, nature's changes, and man's influence is James Rodney Hastings and Raymond M. Turner, The Changing Mile. See also Roger Dunbier, The Sonoran Desert.

3In English the name Pima has long been restricted to the Gila River Pimas, since the 1820s better known to Americans than their relatives to the south. Pápago now applies to both the desert people of the reservation centered at Sells, Arizona, and to the remnant river Pimas mixed with Pápagos at San Xavier del Bac near Tucson. The literature on the Piman peoples is extensive. See particularly the basic works of Ruth M. Underhill, Social Organization of the Pápago Indians and Pápago Indian Religion. Edward H. Spicer has synthesized the Pimans' relations with successive "conquerors" in his Cycles of Conquest, pp. 118-51, 590-91.

4A new edition and translation of Kino's tract is Poizer and Burrus, eds., Kino's Biography of Francisco Javier Saeta, S.J.

5A 1765 census showed the eight cabeceras and fourteen visitas with a total of 3,764 mission Indians, plus an inflated estimate of 2,000 Sobáipuri immigrants. Few received communion because in the opinion of their missionaries they had not shown the proper reverence since the uprising of 1751. Noticia de las misiones que administran los padres de la Compañía de Jesús en esta Nueva España, 1765, University of Texas Library, Austin, W. B. Stephens Collection, no. 68.

6Kessell, Mission of Sorrows.

7See Richard Herr, The Eighteenth-Century Revolution in Spain, and N. M. Farriss, Crown and Clergy in Colonial Mexico, 1759-1821. Also Kessell, "Friars versus Bureaucrats," The Western Historical Quarterly, vol. 5 (1974), pp. 151-62.

8Robert Ricard, The Spiritual Conquest of Mexico, trans. Lesley Byrd Simpson.

9Lino Gómez Canedo, O.F.M., convincingly argues this point in his introduction to Sonora hacia fines del siglo XVIII, pp. 19-32.

10Spicer concludes that "succeeding Franciscan efforts were relatively weak," and that "the vigorous mission communities of the early 1700s were a thing of the past." Analyzing the Hispanic conquest of the Upper Pimas, he devotes thirteen pages to Jesuit endeavor and one extremely inaccurate paragraph to Franciscan. Cycles of Conquest, pp. 118-32. Henry F. Dobyns in "Military Transculturation of Northern Piman Indians, 1782-1821," Ethnohistory, vol. 19 (1972), pp. 323-43, evades the question of "whether the Franciscan missionary effort among the Northern Pimans was in fact less intense than that of the Jesuits" but labors instead to show how much "cross-cultural contact" took place in the Piman garrison at Tubac.

11The notion that the Jesuits knew the language and the Franciscans did not has no basis in fact. For a documented refutation, see Kieran R. McCarty, O.F.M., "Franciscan Beginnings on the Arizona-Sonora Desert, 1767-1770," Ph.D. dissertation, Catholic University of America, pp. 107-13.

Chapter 2

1Theodore E. Treutlein, ed., Missionary in Sonora, pp. 49-52. The text of Charles III's decree of expulsion, Feb. 27, 1767, is printed in Alberto Francisco Pradeau, La expulsión de los Jesuitas de las Provincias de Sonora, Ostimuri y Sinaloa en 1767, pp. 28-29. For the full scope of the Gálvez visita, see Herbert I. Priestley, José de Gálvez, and Luis Navarro Garcia, "El Marqués de Croix (1766-1771)," in Los virreyes de Nueva España en el reinado de Carlos III, ed. José Antonio Calderón Quijano, vol. 1, pp. 161-381.

2Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, pp. 181-84.

3Juan Bautista de Anza to Gov. Juan Claudio de Pineda, Arizpe, Aug. 15, 1767, Biblioteca Nacional, México, Archivo Franciscan (AF), 39/886. Many of the documents in the Archivo Franciscano, formerly the Franciscans' provincial archive at the Convento Grande in Mexico City, were copied—not always accurately—late in the eighteenth century and included in the collection "Memorias de Nueva España." Sets of these copies are preserved in Spain and in the Sección de Historia of the Mexican Archivo General de la Nación. Considerable portions were printed in Documentos para la historia de Méjico, 21 vols.

4Marqués de Croix to Fr. Manuel de Nájera, México, July 7, 1767, AF, 16/302. Nájera to Marqués de Croix, México, July 8, 1767, ibid. McCarty, "Franciscan Beginnings," pp. 5-12. Father McCarty's important study, of which the dissertation is only the beginning, will detail the Franciscan effort in all of Sonora and place it in the larger perspective of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Spain and Mexico.

5See McCarty, "Apostolic Colleges of the Propagation of the Faith—Old and New World Background," The Americas, vol. 19 (1962), pp. 50-58; Michael B. McCloskey, O.F.M., The Formative Years of the Missionary College of Santa Cruz of Querétaro, 1683-1733; Isidro Félix de Espinosa, O.F.M., Crónica de los colegios de propaganda fide de la Nueva España, ed. Lino Gómez Canedo, O.F.M.; Maynard J. Geiger, O.F.M., The Life and Times of Fray Junípero Serra, O.F.M., vol. 1, pp. 90-95.

6Marqués de Croix to Fr. Sebastián Flores, México, July 8, 1767, Archivo del Colegio de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro, Convento Franciscano, Celaya, Guanajuato (ACQ), K, leg. 14. This archive has been badly scattered; only a part is preserved at Celaya. Photocopies or transcripts of many documents are among the Bolton Research Papers (BRP), Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley (BL).

7Nájera to Father Guardian, México, July 11, 1767, ACQ, K, 14. Fr. José Ignacio Alegre y Capetillo, México, April 9, 1769, Huntington Library, San Marino, California, Gálvez Papers, box 8.

8Instrucciones del Venerable Discretorio a los Padres de Sonora para govierno suyo y de las misiones, Colegio de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro (CSCQ), Aug. 4, 1767, ACQ, K, 14. Juan Domingo Arricivita, O.F.M., Crónica serafica y apostólica del Colegio de Propaganda Fide de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro de la Nueva España, segunda parte, pp. 394-95. McCloskey, Formative Years, pp. 47-48. McCarty, "Franciscan Beginnings," pp. 13-15, 26-27.

9A few details of the Queretarans' trip from Guadalajara to Tepic can be gleaned from the expense accounts in the Archivo General de la Nación, México (AGN), Historia, vol. 287. For background and details of the Sonora Expedition and of Gálvez grand design for the northwest, see Navarro Garcia, Don José de Gálvez y la Comandancia General de las Provincias Internas del Norte de Nueva España, pp. 148-85.

10Geiger Junípero Serra, vol. 1, pp. 184-85. McCarty, "Franciscan Beginnings," pp. 27-32.

11Pineda, Horcasitas, Aug. 10, 1767, in Pradeau, La expulsión, pp. 59-60.

12Fr. Antonio María de los Reyes to Pineda, Tuape, July 26, 1768, AF, 40/917. Reyes, Manifiesto estado de Sonora, México, April 20, 1772, AGN, Misiones, 14; ed. Vargas Rea, Copia del manifiesto estado de las provincias de Sonora.

13Guevavi, Tubaca y Otros, fragmentary baptismal, marriage, and burial records, 1739-1767, Archives of the Diocese of Tucson (ADT). Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, pp. 74, 166-67. Andres Grijalva's name appeared at the head of a list of the 43 able-bodied civilian males resident at Terrenate earlier that year. Francisco Elías González, Padrón individual del vecindario, Terrenate, April 6, 1767, AF, 33/705.

14Anza to Pineda, Sept. 7, and Aug. 22, 1767, AF, 39/886.

15Pedro Corbalán to Gálvez, Arizpe, Oct. 30, 1786, Archivo General de Indias, Sevilla (AGI), Audiencia de Guadalajara (Guad.), leg. 521.

16Anza to Pineda, Sept. 7, 1767, AF, 39/886.

17Joseph Antonio Huandurraga to Pineda, Tubac, Dec. 2, 1767, AF, 40/900. Extracto de las noticias recibidas de Sonora con fecha de 18 de enero de 1768, AGI, Guad., 511. Navarro Garciía, Gálvez, p. 166n.

18Domingo Elizondo to Pineda, Tepic, Dec. 8, 1767, AF, 33/710. Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 1, pp. 185-88. Kieran McCarty explains the political maneuvering behind the scenes and points out that this attempt to shift the missionary assignments was another example of the long-standing jurisdictional rivalry between Guadalajara and Mexico City. "Franciscan Beginnings," pp. 15-21, 32-33, 39-40.

19Fr. Mariano Antonio de Buena y Alcalde to Gálvez, early 1769, Fr. Marcellino da Civezza Collection, Library of the Antonianum, Rome (CC), 201.53.

20Elizondo to Pineda, Rosario, Jan. 26, 1768, AF, 33/710.

21Bolton, ed., Historical Memoirs of New California by Fray Francisco Palóu, O.F.M., vol. 1, pp. 19-20.

22Elizondo to Pineda, Guaymas, May 10, 1768, AF, 33/710.

23Reyes to Guardian and Discretory, Cucurpe, Oct. 10, 1768. CC, 201.55.

24Bishop Pedro Tamarón y Romeral to Pineda, Durango, Sept. 26, 1767, AF, 16/303.

25License of Tamarón, Durango, Oct. 15, 1767, CC, 201.52. Letters of Tamarón to Pineda, Sept. 5, 1767, to Sept. 17, 1768, AF, 16/303. Pineda to Tamarón, Horcasitas, Aug. 16, and June 15, 1768, AF, 40/906-07. McCarty, "Franciscan Beginnings," pp. 33-34, 51-59.

26Fr. Francisco Antonio Barbastro, Compendio de lo más notable que han trabajado en Sonora los hijos del Colegio de la Santa Cruz desde . . . 1768 hasta . . . 1783, Babi$aacute;cora, Sept. 10, 1788, CC, 202.35. Arricivita relied heavily on Barbastro for the history of the Sonora missions.

27Pineda to the Marqués de Croix, Buenavista, March 24, 1768, AGN, Provincias Internas (PI), 47. On May 10, evidently just before he learned of the San Carlos arrival, Colonel Elizondo wrote the governor saying that three more Querétaro friars were on their way to the capital to receive missionary assignments. Elizondo to Pineda, May 10, 1768.

28Buena y Alcalde to Guardian and Discretory, Tubutama, July 9, 1768, CC, 201.49. Buena y Alcalde to [Gálvez, early 1769], CC, 201.53. Barbastro, Compendio. Fr. Esteban de Salazar to Flores, Ures, Aug. 21, 1768, CC, 202.12. Pineda to Buena y Alcalde, Horcasitas [May, 17681, AF, 40/907.

29Buena y Alcalde to Guardian and Discretory, July 9, 1768, CC, 201.49. By carefully sifting the available documentation Father McCarty has come up with a detailed accounting of the Queretarans' whereabouts from the time of their advent in Sonora until they were finally all matched with missions. "Franciscan Beginnings," pp. 32, 64-70.

30Pradeau, La expulsión, pp. 86-91. Herr, Eighteenth-Century Revolution, pp. 16-17.

Chapter 3

1Fr. Pedro Pérez de Mezquía to Conde de Regla, México, Jan. 5, 1764; extract at the Academy of American Franciscan History. Marqués de Cruillas to Julián de Arriaga, México, Nov. 11, 1763, AGI, Audiencia de México (Mex.), 1507.

2Barbastro, Compendio. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 516-17.

3Ibid., p. 516.

4Despacho de embarcación, Cádiz, July 18, 1763, et al., AGI, Contratación, 5545A.

5Not even Arricivita could find out anything about Gil's parents, observing only that they must have been good Christians to have raised such a son. The parish records of Alfambra were destroyed in the 1930s during the Spanish Civil War.

6A possible relative, Fray Basilio Gil de Bernabé y Sebastián (1717-1773), well-known Mercedarian who became general of his order and theologian to the king, apparently resided in Zaragoza at the time.

7Despacho de embarcación, July 18, 1763, AGI, Contratación, 5545A. For a brief description of the convent, see Pascual Madoz, Diccionario geográfico-estadistico-histórico de España y sus posesiones de ultramar, vol. 16, p. 582. Nothing remains of it today.

8Barbastro, Compendio.

9During Gil's stay on Monlora a proper church for the Virgin was built to replace the centuries-old hermitage. Monastery and church survive. Cinco Libros de la iglesia parroquial, 1761-1783, Parish archive, Luna (Zaragoza). Coronación canónica de Nuestra Señora de Monlora.

10Fr. Joseph Antonio Bernad to Guardian of the Colegio-seminario de Herbón, Madrid, Nov. 17, 1762, and Fr. Miguel Ramón Pinilla to Fr. Antonio Estévez, Madrid, Feb. 15, 1763, printed in Archivo Ibero-Americano (ALA), vol. 3, pp. 68-73.

11Patente, Bernad, Madrid, Dec. 15, 1768, AGI, Contratación, 5545A.

12Kessell, "The Making of A Martyr," New Mexico Historical Review (NMHR), vol. 45 (1970), pp. 181-96.

13Details of the mission of 1763 are in AGI, Contratación, 5545A, and ACQ, N, 2.

14Joseph Álvarez and Diego de Lanz to Arriaga, Campeche, Nov. 8, 1763, AGI, Mex., 3117. Razón de la carga de la fragata de S.M. el Mercurio, ibid., 3118. Diego de Ayala and Lanz to Cruillas, Campeche, Dec. 15, 1763, ibid., 1507.

15Ayala and Lanz to Cruillas, Dec. 15, 1763, ibid.

16Pedro de Urriola [to Arriaga], Campeche, Dec. 23, 1764, AGI, Mex., 3152. Diligencias, Campeche, Nov. 30, 1764, ibid. Sumario, Consejo de Indias, Dec. 23, 1765, AGI, Mex., 3002.

17Ayala and Lanz to Cruillas, Dec. 15, 1763, AGI, Mex., 1507. Don Julián Vicente Gonzál;ez de Andia was the inquisitor.

18Barbastro, Compendio. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, p. 517.

19Cruillas to Arriaga, México, Jan. 2, 1764, AGI, Mex., 1507. Gov. and oficiales reales of Veracruz to Arriaga, Veracruz, March 10, 1764, ibid., 2916.

20For the preaching of home missions, see Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 1, pp. 67-70, 150-75.

21Barbastro, Compendio. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 517, 541-42.

22Michael E. Thurman, The Naval Department of San Blas, pp. 60, 96.

23Barbastro, Compendio.


25Gi1 was in Horcasitas on May 1, 1768, where he recorded a baptism he had performed April 11 at San José de Gracia, a small Spanish settlement some twenty-five miles below Ures on the Río Sonora. Fragmentary baptismal, marriage, and burial records, Parish archive, Horcasitas, Sonora. Pineda to Marqués de Croix, Horcasitas, June 17, 1768, AGN, PI, 47.

26Fr. Antonio María de los Reyes, Noticia y estado actual de las misiones que en la provincia de Sonora administran los padres del colegio de propaganda fide de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro, México, July 6, 1772, AGN, Misiones, 14. Even though Reyes claimed to have before him reports from the various missions, his secondhand descriptions are not always accurate. Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, pp. 100-02, 167.

27Nicolás de LaFora, Relación del viaje que hizo a los presidios internas situados en la frontera de la América Septentrional perteneciente al Rey de España, ed. Vito Alessio Robles, pp. 126-27; translated by Lawrence Kinnaird as The Frontiers of New Spain.

28Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, pp. 143-44, 201. De Calabazas Bautismos, fragmentary baptismal, marriage, and burial records for Franciscan Guevavi-Tumacácori, 1768-1825 (DCB), ADT. Reyes, Noticia y estado.

29Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, pp. 127, 144, 160-61, 168-69.

30[Fr. Narciso Gutiérrez], Padrón de los gentiles bautizados en esta misión de San Joseph de Tumacácori, 1768-1795, CC, 201.82. This may have been the only time at his first mission that Gil baptized heathens, although Gutiérrez did include the statement that "more were baptized, some at Calabazas, the ones who fled, and others who died at the hands of the Apaches, but such entries are not in the book." Unfortunately none of Gil's baptismal entries survive.

31AF, 32/666. Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 20-21. Father Gil's initial census is missing. An undated report, probably compiled about 1770, placed the mission's total population at 62 to 71 families: Guevavi, 18 to 20; Calabazas, 9 to 10; Tumacácori, 15 to 16; and Sonoita, 20 to 25. Noticia individual de las misiones y pueblos, CC, 201.57. See also Dobyns, "Indian Extinction in the Middle Santa Cruz River Valley, Arizona," NMHR, vol. 38 (1963), pp. 163-81.

32Padrón del vecindario, Anza, Tubac, April 2, 1767, AF, 33/705.

33Teodoro de Islas to Subdelgado y juez territorial, Arizpe, July 18, 1810, Pima County Recorder's Office, Tucson (PCRO), Old Record Book "A."

34Extracto de la revista, Tubac, Dec. 21, 1766, signed by the Marqués de Rubí, Horcasitas, Feb. 21, 1767, AGI, Guad., 511. Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, pp. 155, 174-75, and ed., "Anza, Indian Fighter," The Journal of Arizona History (JAH), vol. 9 (1968), pp. 155-63.

35LaFora, Frontiers, pp. 23-24. Joseph de Urrutia, whose map of Tubac appears opposite on page 41, was a member of the Rubí party.

36Navarro García, Gálvez, p. 170.

37Pineda to Marqués de Croix, June 17, 1768, AGN, PI, 47.

38Gi1 recorded the deaths at the presidio of Pitic sometime in 1769 of an Indian of Guevavi and one from Sonoita. DCB.

39Pineda to Marqués de Croix, Horcasitas, May 16, 1768, AGN, PI, 47. Cuenta formada por el comisario de la misión de Guevavi, n.d., Archivo Histórico de Hacienda, México (AHH), Temporalidades (Temp.), leg. 2010. Grijalva amassed a total of 56 receipts from Anza for payments to Guevavi auxiliaries. Inventario, Grijalva and Garcés, San Xavier del Bac, June 29, 1768, ACQ, K, 14. Presumably there was nothing to inventory at Tucson, San Xavier's one visita. The Guevavi inventory has not come to light.

40Buena y Alcalde to Guardian and Discretory, Tubutama, July 9, 1768, CC, 201.49.

41Letters of the friars to Guardian and Discretory, Sonora, Aug. 8, through Sept. 1,1768, CC.

42Fr. Antonio Canals to Guardian and Discretory, Opodepe, Aug. 13, 1768, CC, 201.13.

43Fr. Francisco Roche to Guardian and Discretory, Cocóspera Aug. 12, 1768, CC, 201.68. Reyes to Guardian and Discretory, Cucurpe, Oct. 10, 1768, CC, 201.55.

44Fr. Esteban de Salazar to Fr. Sebastián Flores, Ures, Aug. 21, 1768, CC, 202.11.

45Garcés to Pineda, San Xavier del Bac, July 29, 1768, Newberry Library, Ayer Collection (AC), no. 1094. Garcés to Flores, San Xavier del Bac, Aug. 13, 1768, CC, 201.24.

46Roche to Guardian and Discretory, Aug. 12, 1768, CC, 201.68.

47Buena y Alcalde to Pineda, Tubutama, July 26, 1768, AF, 40/914. Roche to Pineda, Soamca, Aug. 6, 1768, AF, 40/913. Garcés to Pineda, July 29, 1768, AC, no. 1094. Reyes to Pineda, Tuape, July 26, 1768, AF, 40/917.

48Salazar to Flores, Aug. 21, 1768, CC, 202.11.

49Fr. Diego Martín García to Guardian and Discretory, San Ignacio, Aug. 9, 1768, CC, 201.48 et al. Fr. Diego Ximénez to Viceroy Bucareli, México, March 30, 1773, CC, 202.36, and AGN, Californias, 39.

50Father Phelipe Segesser, 1737, quoted in Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, p. 92.

51Buena y Alcalde to Flores, Tubutama, Nov. 10, 1768, CC, 201.50.

52Barbastro, Compendio. Kessell, "Making of a Martyr," p. 190.

53Esteban Carlos Ramírez de Arellano, Horcasitas, Oct. 31, 1782, Testimony in the cause of Gil de Bernabé, June-Oct. 1782, Franciscan General Archive, Rome (FGA), vol. XI/34, no. 36.

54Garcés, Compendio de los cuatro diarios, San Xavier del Bac, May 21, 1775, ACQ, H.

55Buena y Alcalde to Flores, Nov. 10, 1768, CC, 201.50.

56Contemporary observers did not often distinguish between Apache raiding parties, whose major object was livestock and other spoils, and war parties bent mainly on revenge. As a rule I have used the term war party only for larger groups evidently committed to more than hit-and-run raids. Bands of both Chiricahua Apaches and Western Apaches—wholly different tribal groups speaking mutually intelligible Athapascan dialects—warred with and raided Spaniards and Pimas. For informative discussions of war and the raid from the Apache side, see Morris Edward Opler, An Apache Life-Way: The Economic, Social, and Religious Institutions of the Chiricahua Indians, pp. 134-39, 332-54, and Keith H. Basso, ed., Western Apache Raiding and Warfare, from the notes of Grenville Goodwin. See also Daniel S. Matson and Albert H. Schroeder, eds., "Cordero's Description of the Apache—1796," NMHR, vol. 32 (1957), pp. 335-56.

57Surviving burial entries for Franciscan Guevavi-Tumacácori, 1769-1825, record the burial of persons killed by Apaches during every season of the year. Although some of the friars acknowledged the fall-to-spring "raiding season," more persons died at Guevavi Tumacácori a manos de los Apaches in July. DCB. Fr. Francisco Moyano, Noticia de las misiones que ocupan los Religiosos del Colegio de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro, Oquitoa, Feb. 5, 1805, AGI, Mex., 2736.

58Pineda to Marqués de Croix, Horcasitas, Sept. 17, and Oct. 17, 1768, AGN, PI, 47. Croix to Pineda, México, Dec. 31, 1768, ibid. Father Buena gave a somewhat different account of the attack on San Xavier. He said the Apaches assaulted the village reaching the houses and even the church. Because Garcés was at Guevavi most of the people were out gathering wild fruits; otherwise, all might have been killed. Buena y Alcalde to Flores, Nov. 10, 1768, CC, 201.50. Two weeks before the Oct. 3 raid on Soamca, Comisario Grijalva had sold on account 54 head of the mission's cattle, at five pesos each, to Terrenate Captain Francisco Elías González. Razón de los efectos, Pedro Corbalán, Pitic, May 11, 1771, AHH, Temp., 2010. At that rate, the 180 head stolen represented a loss of 900 pesos, or nearly three times the friar's annual stipend. The Tubac ensign was probably thirty-year-old Joseph de Huandurraga, a harsh and bitterly disliked protégé of Captain Anza. Marqués de Rubí, Puntos, Tubac, Dec. 29, 1766, AGI, Guad., 511.

59Roche to Pineda, Aug. 6,1768, AF, 40/913. Buena y Alcalde to Guardian and Discretory, July 9, 1768, CC, 201.49.

60Pineda to Marqués de Croix, Pitic, Dec. 19, 1768, AGN, PI, 47. Croix to Pineda, México, Feb. 18, 1769, AGN, Historia, 18.

61Roche to Pineda, Terrenate, Nov. 21, 1768, AF, 40/913. Early in 1769 Governor Pineda approved the removal of the Pimas of Soamca to Cocóspera. Roche to Pineda, Cucurpe, Feb. 9, 1769, ibid.

62Marqués de Croix to Pineda, México, March 18, 1769, AGN, Historia, 18.

63Marqués de Croix to Pineda, México, April 15, 1769, ibid.

64Garcés to Pineda, San Xavier del Bac, Feb. 21, and July 23, 1769, AC, no. 1094. Pineda to Marqués de Croix, Pitic, April 18, 1769, AF, 38/858. Marqués de Croix to Pineda, México, June 17, 1769, AGN, Historia, 18.

65Pineda, Horcasitas, Sept. 10, 1768, AGN, PI, 47.

66Garcés to Pineda, July 23, 1769, AC, no. 1094. As Garcés wrote this letter someone from Tumacácori arrived to tell him that the Apaches had stolen the rest of the cattle from Arivaca. That morning they had driven them by La Canoa, part way between San Xavier and Tubac.

67Barbastro, Compendio. Buena y Alcalde to Pineda, Ónavas, May 24, 1769, AF, 40/914. Navarro Garcia, Gálvez, pp. 168-75.

68Buena y Alcalde to Gálvez, Tubutama, early 1769, CC, 201.53.

69Gálvez Álamos, June 3, 1769, cert. copy, March 19, 1783, CC, 202.21. Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 1, pp. 192, 201-2. Previously the visitor had ordered all Padres at former Jesuit missions to submit censuses and suggestions for improving the Indians' lot. Gálvez, Alamos, May 17, 1769, AGN, Historia, 18.

70Gálvez to Pineda, Álamos, June 16, 1769, ibid.

71Grijalva, Cuenta individual, Guevavi, Oct. 28, 1768, AHH, Temp., 2010. Grijalva prepared statements for San Xavier del Bac, Oct. 22, 1768, and Soamca, Oct. 30, 1768, ibid. Before the devastating November attack, Soamca was on a par with Guevavi in material wealth, San Xavier notably poorer.

72At San Xavier del Bac the transfer took place July 3. Garcés to Pineda, July 23, 1769, AC, no. 1094.

73Fr. Joseph Soler to Gil de Bernabé, Ati, May 26, 1772, CC, 202.10. On mission economics, see McCarty, "Franciscan Beginnings," pp. 87-106. Gómez Canedo, Sonora, p. 27. The friars failed in their bid to get back the gold and silver taken from the missions at the time of the Jesuit expulsion. Gálvez ordered it forwarded to the newly established treasury at Álamos where the amount in cash would be used to pay the debts of the missions with any surplus credited to them. Gálvez to Pineda, Álamos, Aug. 3, 1769, AGN, Historia, 18.

74Gálvez to Marqués de Croix, Álamos, July 13, 1769, quoted by Barbastro, Defensa de la Custodia de San Carlos de Sonora, Banámichi, 1786, CC, misc.

75Fr. Joseph del Río, Copia de las órdenes comunicadas a los padres misioncros . . . por el Señor Visitador General, Ures, Sept. 30, 1769, AF, 40/912. Barbastro, Defensa. Cf. below, Chap. 4, 15.

76Buena y Alcalde to Pineda, Ures, Oct. 26, 1769, AF, 40/914. Navarro García, "Marqués de Croix," pp. 322-27. The viceroy, who despaired of the visitor's recovery, urged that he be returned to Mexico City. Marqués de Croix to Arriaga, México, Dec. 31, 1769, AGI, Guad., 416. Barbastro, Defensa. Priestley, José de Gálvez, pp. 278-83.

77Barbastro, Compendio.

78Gálvez to Buena y Alcalde, México, July 18, 1770, CC, 201.86.

79DCB. Gil buried the seven from Calabazas in the cemetery at Guevavi on May 4, 1770.

80Extracto historial de este expediente, n.d., AGI, Guad., 416.

81Anza to Pineda, Tubac, May 10, 1770, AF, 40/903. During an Apache attack the following February, the fortifications at Tucson, "built with a thousand difficulties," served the people well. Garcés to Buena y Alcalde, San Xavier del Bac, Feb. 20,1771, Copia de varios papeles, ACQ, H.

82Extracto, México, July 26, 1770, AGI, Guad., 416.

83DCB. Fr. Bartolomé Ximeno to Guardian, Tumacácori, March 5, 1773, AGN, PI, 81; Kessell, ed., "San José de Tumacácori—1773," Arizona and the West (AW), vol. 6 (1964), pp. 307-08.

84Archaeological excavations carried out in the mid-1960s indicate that the withdrawal from Guevavi was an orderly one. Father Barbastro exaggerated in 1788 when he wrote that the Apaches "burned and destroyed the cabecera of Guevavi and the village of Sonoita, imperiling the minister Fray [Juan] Crisostómo Gil de Bernabé." Barbastro, Compendio. Ximeno to Guardian, March 5, 1773, AGN, PI, 81.

85Garcés to Fr. Joseph de Araujo, Tumacácori, Nov. 23, 1770, CC, 201.77, and FGA, vol. XI/34, no. 1 (both copies). His diary of the trip is in AGN, Historia, 396. A third account of this second entrada is in his Compendio de los cuatro diarios, May 21, 1775, ACQ, H. For the Gila River peoples, see Paul H. Ezell, The Hispanic Acculturation of the Gila River Pimas, American Anthropological Association, Memoir No. 90 (1961); Frank Russell, "The Pima Indians," Annual Report, Bureau of American Ethnology, no. 26 (1908); and Leslie Spier, Yuman Tribes of the Gila River. Opposite page 95 Spier includes a photograph of one of the willow-bark skirts described by Garcés.

86Father Segesser quoted in Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, p. 56. Barbastro, Compendio. After an interval of five months Gil wrote a single burial entry March 12, 1771; not long after that, he was carried south. DCB.

87Born in Hervás, bishopric of Plasencia, Sánchez Zúñiga had entered the Franciscan Order in 1761 at the recollect convent of Santa María de Gracia. Fr. Juan Domingo Arricivita, Lista de los cuarenta religiosos, Madrid, June 21, 1769, AGI, Guad., 369.

88Sánchez Zúñiga's first burial entry recorded the death of Governor Juan of Calabazas at night on San Juan's Day eve, June 23, 1771; the body was buried in the Guevavi church. He also wrote the earliest marriage entry surviving from the Franciscan period, for five Indian couples wed at Tumacácori, June 29, 1771. All the men were Pimas, three of the women Pápagos. From his entries in the mission books it appears almost certain that Sánchez Zúñiga lived at Tumacácori. DCB.

89Noticia breve, México, June 17, 1771, AGI, Guad., 416. Navarro García, Gálvez, pp. 187, 200-05. On July 1, 1771, Zúñiga buried two men from Tumacácori killed by Apaches in one assault, and an ox herder and two women killed at Sonoita in another. DCB.

90Corbalán to Viceroy Antonio María Bucareli, Álamos, Dec. 24, 1771, AGI, Guad., 512. Anza to Gabriel Antonio de Vildósola, Tubac, Sept. 17, 1771, ibid.

91Bucareli to Arriaga, México, Oct. 28, 1771, ibid., 511. Hugo O'Conor, Extracto de revista de inspección, Tubac, Aug. 1775, ibid., 515. DCB.

92Both Gil and Sánchez Zúñiga recorded September 16 deaths. DCB. For the next eight years, until the spring of 1780, Sánchez served at San Ignacio where he supervised a major reconstruction of the church, "the only one in those provinces of rough masonry with vault." Broken in health, he returned to the college and from there to Spain. Early in 1782 he petitioned the king to grant him the privileges of a predicador general. His bid was denied; he had not served the required fourteen years in the missions. Sánchez Zúñiga to the king, Madrid, Jan. 4, 1782, et al., AGI, Guad., 372.

93Salazar to Buena y Alcalde, Tubutama, Nov. 13, 1771, ibid., 512. On October 22, 1771, Agorreta married three Indian couples por enfermedad del Padre Ministro. DCB.

94DCB. Bernardo de Gálvez to captains of Fronteras, Terrenate, and Tubac, Chihuahua, July 25, 1771, et al., AGN, PI, 93. Corbalán to Bucareli, Álamos, Dec. 24, 1771, et al., AGI, Guad., 512. Garcés to Buena y Alcalde, Nov. 1771, Copia de varios papeles, ACQ, H. Barbastro, Compendio.

95See Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 2, pp. 120—32.


97Recounting depredation after depredation, Canals and Reyes told how Apaches had made off with the horse herds of both Tubac and Fronteras killing soldiers and settlers in the process. Canals and Reyes to Joseph de Faini, Durango, Sept. 4, 1771, AGI, Guad., 512. In February Anza had received permission to chase the Apaches who had stolen the Tubac herd. [Marqués de Croix] to Elizondo, México, Feb. 23, 1771, AGN, PI, 81. Navarro Garcia, Gálvez, pp. 203-08.

98According to Gálvez' propaganda, the college, on Croix's orders, had named ten friars for the new missions. Noticia breve, June 17, 1771. Garcés, Compendio de los cuatro diarios, May 21, 1775, ACQ, H.

Chapter 4

1Expediente sobre que al colegio de Santa Cruz de Querétaro . . . se le conceda una misión de 40 religiosos, AGI, Guad., 369.

2Misión de religiosos de la Observancia de San Francisco para el colegio de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro . . . 1769, AGI, Contratación, 5545A. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, p. 538.

3Fr. Romualdo Cartagena to Viceroy Antonio María Bucareli, CSCQ, July 2, 1772, ACQ, M, 2.

4Cartagena to Bucareli, CSCQ, Sept. 25, 1772, ibid.

5Francisco Sánchez Zúñiga, Bartolomé Ximeno, Gaspar de Clemente, Joseph Matías Moreno, Tomás Eixarch, Juan Bautista de Velderrain, Joaquín Antonio Belarde, and Baltazar Carrillo.

6Arricivita, Lista, 1769. The register is not complete for Ximeno's administration: his earliest entry records the burial at Guevavi of an Indian widow from Calabazas on July 6, 1772; his last, a baptism on Aug. 15, 1773. DCB.

7Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 14, p. 768.

8Kessell, "Making of a Martyr," pp. 182-85. Barbastro, Compendio.

9Reyes, Noticia y estado.

10Cartagena to Bucareli, CSCQ, Sept. 30, 1772, AGN, PI, 152. Gómez Canedo, Sonora,pp. 87-90, 118-19.

11Reyes, Noticia y estado. Cartagena to Bucareli, Sept. 30, 1772.


13Reyes, Manifiesto estado. Cartagena to Bucareli, Sept. 30, 1772. DCB.

14Reyes, Noticia y estado.

15DCB. Despite the urging of Gálvez in 1769, only rarely before the late 1770s, when a more detailed format for recording baptisms, marriages, and burials was implemented, did the missionary show a Spanish surname for a mission Indian. Perhaps Becerra was an acculturated Yaqui or Ópata. The first names of the various justicias, as well as those of the persons who performed some of the specialized duties around the mission, appear frequently in the baptismal, marriage, and burial records.

16Cartagena to Bucareli, Sept. 25, 1772. Clemente's first and last entries in the extant Tumacácori register, both marriages, are dated Nov. 16, 1772, and Jan. 23, 1775. DCB.

17Arricivita, Lista, 1769.

18Barbastro, Compendio. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, p. 448. Except for the roofing of the Calabazas church, which seems to have been done after the fall harvest of 1772, it is impossible to fix the precise dates of these physical improvements. On Sept. 22, 1772, Ximeno recorded the last burial at Guevavi of a body from Calabazas. Clemente on March 4, 1773, entered the details of a burial at Calabazas "in the church." Four months earlier, on Nov. 16, 1772, he had celebrated a marriage at Calabazas, which may mean that the church was already in service by then. DCB.

19Garcés to Fr. Diego Ximénez, San Ignacio, Dec. 25, 1776, CC, 201.18.

20Gil de Bernabé to Bucareli, Ures, June 30, 1772. AGN, PI, 247. Vildósola to Gil de Bernabé, Terrenate, Aug. 9,1772, ibid., 81. Cartagena to Bucareli, CSCQ, Oct. 16, 1772, ibid., 247. Bucareli to the captain at Terrenate, México, Nov. 17, 1772, ibid. Gov. Mateo Sastre to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Jan. 20, 1773, ibid., 81. For a brief biographical sketch of the "fearless, valiant, and insubordinate" Vildósola, which incorrectly credits him with founding the presidio of Tubac, see Francisco R. Almada, Diccionario de historia, geografía y biograf&iacuxte;a sonorenses, p. 827.

21Ramírez de Arellano, Horcasitas, Oct. 31, 1782, and Monteagudo, Horcasitas, Oct. 27, 1782, Testimony in the cause of Gil de Bernabé.

22Almada, Diccionario, pp. 732-33.

23Sastre to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Oct. 19, 1772, AGN, PI, 81; translated in Bolton, Anza's California Expeditions (ACE), vol. 5, pp. 33-40.

24For Gil, Sastre, and the Seris, see Kessell, "Friars, Bureaucrats, and the Seris of Sonora," NMHR, vol. 50 (1975), pp. 73-95.

25Bucareli to Bernardo de Urrea, México, April 21, 1773, AGI, Guad., 513.

26Reyes, Manifiesto estado. For a brief commentary on this report, see Sanford A. Mosk, "Economic Problems in Sonora in the Late Eighteenth Century," Pacific Historical Review, vol. 8 (1939), pp. 341-45.

27Petition of Fr. Joseph Pinilla to Bucareli, n.d.; Opinion of Fiscal José Antonio de Areche, México, May 13, 1772; Decree of Bucareli, México, May 15, 1772, AGN, PI, 152. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 437-38. Barbastro, Defensa.

28Reyes to Bucareli, México, July 6, 1772, transmitting Estado y noticia, AGN, Misiones, 14.

29Guardian and Discretory to Bucareli, CSCQ, July 31, 1772, ibid. Bucareli to Guardian and Discretory, México, Sept. 2, 1772, ibid.

30Opinion of Areche, México, July 13, 1772, AGN, PI, 152. From a similarity in wording it would appear that Areche had Reyes' April 20 report at hand as well. Bucareli, México, Sept. 2, 1772, ibid. Most of the replies are here too.

31Ximeno to Guardian, Tumacácori, March 5, 1773, ibid., 81. I edited a copy of Ximeno's report in the Civezza Collection as "San José de Tumacácori—1773: A Franciscan Reports from Arizona," AW, vol. 6 (1964), pp. 303-12. I mistook the abbreviation nros. (nuestros), our side or our men, for mros. (ministros or misioneros), ministers or missionaries, and thereby thrust upon Father Ximeno the unlikely and misleading statement, "I have never heard it said that the missionaries have killed even one Apache." Ximeno had been preoccupied with the Apache menace from the beginning. The second burial he performed was for three women killed in a July 14, 1772, attack on Guevavi. DCB.

32Sastre to Bucareli Horcasitas, Jan. 21, 1773, AGI, Guad., 513. Extractos, México, Feb. 24, and April 26, 1773, ibid. Bucareli to Arriaga, México, April 26, 1773, no. 891, ibid., 512.

33Bucareli to Arriaga and Extracto, México, Jan. 27, 1773, ibid., 513. One of Opler's informants told him that the Chiricahua Apaches were afraid of parrots. Apache Life-Way, p. 239.

34Ximeno to Guardian, March 5, 1773.

35Bucareli to Guardian, México, April 21, 1773, AGI, Guad., 513. Kessell, "Friars, Bureaucrats, and Seris."

36Barbastro, Compendio. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 426—31.

37The collection has not turned up. Correspondence with Franciscans in Rome, a search of the Archivo de la Embajada de España cerca de la Santa Sede in Madrid and the AGI in Sevilla, and visits to Alfambra, Teruel, and Zaragoza in Spain and the ACQ in Celaya, México, have provided no leads to the missing Gil de Bernabé material.

38Barbastro, Compendio. Testimony in the cause of Gil de Bernabé.

39Fr. Ángel Antonio Núñez, Horcasitas, Sept. 22, 1782, ibid.

40Even had the initial stages of Gil's cause gone well, the time was wrong. In 1779 Charles III had complained about all the Spanish causes pending in Rome. He demanded a full accounting and an assessment of each candidate's chances. Charles III to the Duque de Grimaldi, El Pardo, March 12, 1779, AGI, Indiferente General, 3032.

41Fr. Pedro Font to Ximénez, Tubutama, Jan. 20, 1777, CC, 201.80. Mission San Antonio de Padua (Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe) de Pitic, baptismal, marriage, burial register, Archivo de la Mitra de Sonora, Hermosillo (AMS). Ximeno's first and last entries at Pitic were for baptisms, July 3, 1774, and Sept. 1, 1776.

42Lists of personnel, ACQ, M, 2.

43The baptismal and marriage records, complete for Moreno's tenure at Tumacácori, show his first entry Oct. 17, 1773, and his last Dec. 22, 1774. DCB. Arricivita, Lista, 1769. Moreno to his sister, Madrid, March 26, 1769, CC, 202.14; quoted in large part by Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 536-40.

44Fr. Joseph Soler to Cartagena, Pitiquito, Aug. 12, 1773, CC, 201.28.

45The governor of New Mexico reported briefly on the state of the missions in his province, mildly rebuked the friars for their ignorance of the Indian languages and their poor record teaching Spanish, and pointed out the need for more missionaries. Pedro Fermín de Mendinueta to Bucareli, Santa Fe, Jan. 8, 1773, AGN, PI, 152; translated by Marc Simmons as Indian and Mission Affairs in New México, 1773.

46Urrea to Bucareli, Altar, Dec. 9, 1772, AGN, PI, 152.

47Anza to Bucareli, Tubac, Dec. 15, 1772, ibid.; Kessell, ed., "Anza Damns the Missions: A Spanish Soldier's Criticism of Indian Policy, 1772," JAH, vol. 13 (1972), pp. 53-63.

48Areche to Bucareli, México, Oct. 12, 1772, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 12-24.

49He meant 1732. See Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, pp. 45-50.

50Three years earlier Anza had been sent to investigate bitter complaints by the Indians of San Ignacio. Not only, they alleged, did their missionary, Fray Diego Martín García, abuse them, calling them "dirty dogs and bad Christians," but he also forced them "to work for the mission from Monday through Saturday, leaving them no time to provide for their own support." Anza to Pineda, Santa Ana, Jan. 18, 1770, AF, 40/903. Anza's brother-in-law believed that the Indians' work load was greater under the Franciscans than it had been under the Jesuits. Gabriel Antonio de Vildósola to Bucareli, Fronteras, Dec. 7, 1772, AGN, PI, 152.

51Anza to Bucareli, Dec. 15, 1772.

52Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 447-49, 456-59, 437-43. Certification of sailing, Jacobo Sánchez Samaniego, Cádiz, April 3, 1743, AGI, Contratación, 5545A.

53Ximénez to Bucareli, Colegio de San Fernando, March 30, 1773, AGN, Californias, 39.

54Areche, México, Aug. 10, 1773, and Bucareli, México, Aug. 14, 1773, ibid.

55Ximénez to Bucareli. Colegio de San Fernando, Sept. 18, 1773, ibid.

56Areche, México, Oct. 25, 1773, and Bucareli, México, Oct. 27, 1773, ibid.

57Ximénez to Bucareli, Colegio de San Fernando, Oct. 31, 1773; Areche, México, Nov. 10, 1773, and Bucareli, México, Nov. 11, 1773; Cartagena to Bucareli, CSCQ, Nov. 26, 1773, and Jan. 14, 1774; Cartagena to Fr. Antonio Ramos, Querétaro, Jan. 14, 1774, ibid. [Bucareli] to Gov. Francisco Antonio Crespo, México, Oct. 29, 1773, AGN, PI, 81.

58Ramos, Tubutama, April 13, 1774; visita of Pimería Alta, April 28-June 8, 1774, AGN, Californias, 39. Luis Baldonado, O.F.M., translated portions of another copy as "Missions San José de Tumacácori and San Xavier del Bac in 1774," The Kiva, vol. 24 (1959), no. 4, pp. 21-24.

59"Spaniards," or vecinos de razón, positively identified as residents of Tumacácori in the mission register during 1774 were: Interpreter Juan Joseph Ramírez, his wife Francisca Manuela Sosa, their daughter Bibiana Jacoba (born Dec. 12); Juan Antonio Durán and María Guadalupe Ramírez and their newborn son Joseph Jesús Sebastián; María Soledad Ramírez; Joseph Antonio Pérez and Bárbara Pacha; and widow María Esmerencia Romero. DCB.

60Estado de la población de las misiones de la Sonora, 1774, CC, 201.83. Totals for all eight Pimería Alta missions were 2,018 Indians and 168 Spaniards.

61From entries in the Tumacácori register it would appear that Father Moreno had been living at least part of the time at Calabazas. DCB. Father Roche of Cocóspera had told the Father Visitor how fervently the people of Soamca wanted to go back to their gutted pueblo even after six years' absence.

62Fr. Juan Díaz to Bucareli, Tubac, June 12, 1774, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 153-54. Ramos to Díaz, Tumacácori, June 13, 1774; visita of Pimería Baja, June 25-Aug. 10, 1774; Crespo to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Aug. 18, 1774, AGN, Californias, 39.

63Soler to Cartagena, Aug. 12, 1773.

Chapter 5

1Bolton, Rim of Christendom, pp. 470-73. Donald Rowland, ed., "A Project for Exploration Presented by Juan Bautista de Anza," Arizona Historical Review (AzHR), vol. 7 (1936), no. 2, pp. 10-18. Peter M. Dunne, S.J., Jacobo Sedelmayr: Missionary, Frontiersman, Explorer in Arizona and Sonora. Navarro Garcia, Gálvez, pp. 168-70, 264-66.

2Elizondo, Relación, Pitic, Sept. 21, 1769, AGI, Guad., 512. Anza to Pineda, Tubac, Aug. 20, 1769, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 1-2. Garcés, Diario, Oct.-Nov. 1770, AGN, Historia, 396.

3Garcés to Bucareli, San Xavier del Bac, Dec. 1, 1772, AGN, PI, 81. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, p. 450. Garcés to Buena y Alcalde, San Xavier del Bac, Feb. 20, 1771, Copia de varios papeles, ACQ, H. Anza to Pineda, Tubac, May 10, 1770, AF, 40/903. Anza to Bucareli, Tubac, Dec. 15, 1772, AGN, PI, 152.

4Barbastro, Compendio.

5For details and documents, see ACE, vol. 1, pp. 43-62, and vol. 5, pp. 1-108. Bolton exaggerated the spirit of comradeship and cooperation between Anza and Garcés.

6Anza to Bucareli, Tubac, Jan. 3, 1774, AGN, PI, 237. Crespo to Viceroy Martín de Mayorga, México, March 29, 1780, ibid., 258.

7Anza to Bucareli, Tubac, Jan. 3, 1774, two letters, ibid., 237. Bolton, ACE, vol. 1, pp. 63-64, gives the date of the raid as Dec. 2, 1773. Father Díaz confirmed the Jan. 2 date. Father Junípero Serra reported that two raids took place and that a sergeant and some muleteers were killed. Ibid., vol. 5, p. 123. Serra was right. Apaches had indeed hit Tubac early in Dec. for a hundred head of cattle. An unnamed sergeant and seventeen men overtook the thieves "in the ruggedest part" of the Sierra de Santa Catalina. Over the soldiers' protests the sergeant ordered the column to dismount and attack. He paid straight away with his life, and the enemy carried off three wounded, presumably alive. In Feb., while Anza was gone, ten men on the way from Terrenate to Tubac to relieve the substitute detachment rode into an Apache ambush. Two died, the rest were wounded, but not before they had killed the enemy leader, a much-scarred war chief, along with two of his braves. Crespo to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Jan. 23 and Feb. 25, 1774, AGN, PI, 96. Extractos, México, April 26 and June 26, 1774, AGI, Guad., 513.

8For the diaries of Anza, Garcés, and Díaz, see ACE, vol. 2. A list of 17 of the Tubac soldiers is in ibid., vol. 5, p. 203. Gorgoll made entries in the Tumacácori register Jan. 4 and 22, and March 19 (the patronal feast), 1774. DCB.

9Bucareli to Arriaga, México, June 26, 1774, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 175-82.

10Navarro Garcia, Gálvez, pp. 264-66.

11See Mary Lu Moore and Delmar L. Beene, eds., "The Interior Provinces of New Spain," AW, vol. 13 (1971), pp. 265-82; and Enrique González Flores and Almada, eds., Informe de Hugo O'Conor sobre el estado de las Provincias Internas del Norte, 1771-76.

12Antonio Bonilla to O'Conor, Informe sobre la Provincia de Sonora, Chihuahua, Aug. 14, 1774, AGN, P1, 88. Bonilla called the present-day San Pedro River the Terrenate and the valley at Santa Cruz the Valle de los Santos Ángeles Custodios. He used the name San Pedro only for a section of the river's headwaters to which he ordered Terrenate moved. O'Conor would countermand the order and place Terrenate, not Tubac, at Santa Cruz. Crespo to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Jan. 16, 1775, ibid. O'Conor to Bucareli, Carrizal, Nov. 6, 1774, ibid.

13Anza to Bucareli, Terrenate, June 8,1774, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 150-52. Crespo to Bucareli,Horcasitas, June 18, 1774, AGN, PI, 96.

14Bucareli to Arriaga, México, Aug. 27, 1774, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 183-85. [Bucareli] to Anza, México, Aug. 17, 1774, AGN, PI, 237.

15Garcés diary, May 21-July 10, 1774, ACE, vol. 2, pp. 375-92. The page reproduced on p. 385 is in Clemente's hand. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 455-56. Garcés officiated at a baptism at Tumacácori, Aug. 20. DCB.

16Garcés to Cartagena, Jan. 12, 1775, CC, 201.16. Garcés to Bucareli, Tumacácori, Aug. 17, 1774, AGN, PI, 23. Anza was miffed because Garcés did not report directly to him. Anza to Bucareli, Terrenate, Aug. 6 and 7, 1774, ibid., 237.

17Crespo to Bucareli, Cieneguilla, Dec. 19, 1774, ibid., 96.

18Crespo to O'Conor, Tubac, Nov. 25, 1774, ibid., 88. Fr. Juan Díaz to Bucareli, Ures, March 21, 1775, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 276-90.

19Crespo to Bucareli, Altar, Dec. 15, 1774, ibid., pp. 238-48. Bucareli shelved the proposal for the time being: he wanted more information. [Bucareli] to O'Conor, México, Feb. 21, 1775, AGN, PI, 88. Anza also offered to lead such an expedition. Anza to Bucareli, México, Dec. 8, 1774, ibid., 237.

20DCB. On the native captives known in Sonora as Nijoras—roughly equivalent to the genízaros of New Mexico—see Dobyns, et al., "What Were Nixoras?" Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, vol. 16 (1960), pp. 230-58.

21Clemente's final extant entry in the Tumacácori register, a marriage, is dated Jan. 23, 1775; Moreno's, a baptism, Dec. 22, 1774. DCB. Lists of personnel, ACQ, M.

22Fr. Francisco Moyano, Noticias de las misiones que ocupan los religiosos del colegio de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro, Oquitoa, May 18, 1803, AGI, Mex., 2736.

23Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 6, p. 277.

24Lista de los cuarenta y nueve religiosos . . . a el colegio de propaganda fide de San Fernando de México, 1769, AGI, Guad., 369. Victor R. Stoner, "Fray Pedro Antonio de Arriquibar, Chaplain of the Royal Fort at Tucson," ed. Dobyns, AW, vol. 1 (1959), pp. 71-73. Arriquibar made his earliest extant entry at Tumacácori, a baptism, Feb. 26, 1775, and his last entry, a marriage, March 27, 1780. DCB.

25Arricivita, Lista, 1769. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 10, pp. 308-12. Lists of personnel, ACQ, M. Eixarch, who also wrote his name Eyxarch, made his first and last entries in the surviving Tumacácori books March 14 and Oct. 1, 1775: both were for baptisms. DCB.

26Visita of Tumacácori, May 12, 1775, Libro de patentes, ACQ; Kessell, ed., "Father Eixarch and the Visitation at Tumacácori, May 12, 1775," The Kiva, vol. 30 (1965), pp. 77-81. Six weeks earlier a statement of the Sonora missions' monies for annual expenses showed Tumacácori, still listed as Guevavi, with 580 pesos 5 reales. Ati, San Xavier, and Cocóspera were poorer, San Ignacio more than three times as rich. Razón del estado, March 30, 1775, CC, 201.81.

27Manuel Barragán, et al., Tucson, Nov. 24, 1777; translated as Appendix C to Lt. John G. Parke, Report of Explorations for Railroad Routes . . . 1854-5 in Reports of Explorations and Surveys . . . 1853-6, vol. 7, 33d Cong., 2d sess., Sen. Ex. Doc. 78 (Washington, D.C., 1857). DCB.

28Sidney B. Brinckerhoff and Odie B. Faulk, Lancers for the King, pp. 42-45. On May 9 Eixarch had baptized eight-day-old María Rita Gregoria of Tubac, daughter of Leonor Domínguez and an unknown father. DCB. The previous month Arriquibar may have accompanied Lieutenant Oliva on campaign. Crespo to Bucareli, Horcasitas, May 21, 1775, AGN, PI, 96.

29Crespo to Bucareli, Horcasitas, June 22, 1775, and [Bucareli] to Crespo, México, Aug. 23, 1775, ibid.

30Rubí had inspected Tubac between Dec. 20, 1766, and Jan. 5, 1767. See Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, pp. 173-80.

31O'Conor, Extracto de revista, Tubac, Aug. 9-18, 1775, AGI, Guad., 515.

32O'Conor to Bucareli, Janos, Aug. 29, 1775, AGN, PI, 88.

33Garcés cosigned the site inspection certification at San Xavier del Bac, Aug. 20, 1775, ibid. Dobyns translated it in Lance, Ho! Containment of the Western Apaches by the Royal Spanish Garrison at Tucson, p. 5. See also Moore and Beene, "Report of O'Conor," pp. 270-71.

34Díaz to Bucareli, March 21, 1775. [Bucareli] to O'Conor, México, May 10, 1775, AGN, PI, 88.

35O'Conor to Bucareli, Altar, Aug. 3, 1775, ibid.

36Garcés to Bucareli, San Xavier del Bac, Aug. 20, 1775, ibid., 237.

37Anza to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Sept. 23, 1775, ibid. Bernardo de Urrea to Bucareli, Altar, Sept. 11, 13, and Oct. 4, 1775, and Feb. 3, 1776, ibid. Vicente Gaspar was suspected of being in league with rebel Pimas. Expediente formado a consecuencia de consulta del Gobernador don Francisco Crespo, con que acompañó la causa principiada contra el indio Yuma Vicente Gaspar, ibid., 246.

38ACE, vol. 1, pp. 227-41. Font's complete diary, Sept. 29, 1775-June 2, 1776, ibid., vol. 4. I have changed a few words in quoting Bolton's translations from vols. 2-5.

39Ibid., vol. 4, pp. 137-38. Anza's diary, Oct. 23, 1775-June 1, 1776, ibid., vol. 3, p. 3.

40Anza to Bucareli, México, Jan. 7, 1775, AGN, PI, 237.

41Documents concerning the mission of 1763, AGI, Contratación, 5545A. Arricivita,Crónica seráfica, pp. 560-61.

42Crespo to Bucareli, Dec. 15, 1774. Garcés to Cartagena, Jan. 12, 1775. Garcés to Crespo, Tucson, Jan. 29, 1775, AGN, PI, 96. Crespo to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Feb. 21, 1775, ibid.

43Díaz to Bucareli, March 21, 1775. ACE, vol. 1, pp. 216-18.

44[Bucareli] to Díaz, México, May 24, 1775, AGN, PI, 88.

45Garcés to Bucareli, Aug. 20, 1775. In July, Garcés had announced that Fray Juan Gorgoll would be his compañero. Garcés to Anza, Tucson, July 7, 1775, AGN, PI, 237. Anza to Bucareli, Tubac, Oct. 20, 1775, ibid.

46Anza to Bucareli, Jan. 7, 1775. [Bucareli] to Anza, México, Jan. 9, 1775, AGN, PI, 237.

47Anza to Bucareli, Tubac, Oct. 20, 1775, ibid.

48ACE, vol. 4, p. 523. Anza assured the viceroy that he had already handed over the instrument to Font. Anza to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Sept. 23, 1775, AGN, PI, 237.

49ACE, vol. 4, pp. 20-21.

50For the march from Tubac to the Colorado, see ibid., vol. 1, pp. 242-91, and the diaries in vols. 3 and 4. The diary of Father Garcés is published in English in Elliot Coues, ed., On the Trail of a Spanish Pioneer, 2 vols. (New York, 1900), and again in John Galvin, ed., A Record of Travels in Arizona and California, 1775-1776 (San Francisco, 1967) and Diario de exploraciones en Arizona y California en los años de 1775 y 1776 (México, 1968).

51See C. Daryll Forde, "Ethnography of the Yuma Indians," University of California Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnography, vol. 28, no. 4 (1931), pp. 152-54.

52Eixarch's diary, Dec. 4, 1774-May 11, 1775, ACE, vol. 3, pp. 311-81. Bolton called it "one of the best of all diaries of a missionary at his daily talk." Ibid., vol. 1, p. ix. See also Jack D. Forbes, Warriors of the Colorado.

53Extractos, México, Feb. 24 and April 26, 1773, AGI, Guad., 513. The correspondence and monthly reports of Captain Urrea, 1774-1775, contain frequent mention of the Piatos' disloyalty and their trafficking with Apaches. AGN, PI, 237.

54Ramos to Urrea, Sáric, Jan. 6, 1776, ibid., 246.

55Crespo to Mayorga, March 29, 1780.

56Alfred Barnaby Thomas, Forgotten Frontiers, pp. 10-13, and Navarro Garcia, Gálvez, pp. 238-40.

57Eixarch's diary.

58Font's complete diary, ACE, vol. 4, p. 485.

59Coues, On the Trail, and Galvin, Record of Travels.

60Font's complete diary, ACE, vol. 4, pp. 510-15. Contemporary correspondence, including a late-1776 rundown by Font himself of pueblos destroyed by Apaches, fails to substantiate the story. Font to Ximénez, Imuris, Nov. 30, 1776, CC, 201.79.

61Eixarch's first and last baptisms at Oquitoa are dated Sept. 11, 1776, and Feb. 1, 1781. ACE, vol. 3, p. 381n. Lists of personnel, ACQ, M. Records of the Jalisco Province, Biblioteca Pública del Estado, Guadalajara, Asuntos Eclesiásticos, 98/26. Notaría Parroquial, Acaponeta, Nayarit, Libros de bautismos, tomo 1.

62Garcés to Ximénez, Tumacácori, Sept. 24, 1776, CC, 201.17. ACE, vol. 1, p. 493.

Chapter 6

1Crespo to Bucareli, Horcasitas, July 18, 1776, AGN, PI, 96.

2Real orden, San Ildefonso, Sept. 24, 1776, AGI, Guad., 559.

3For the establishment of the Comandancia General, see Navarro García, Gálvez, pp. 275-81. Alfred Barnaby Thomas, Teodoro de Croix and the Northern Frontier of New Spain, 1776-1783, pp. 16-68, takes the part of Croix while Bernard E. Bobb, The Vice-regency of Antonio María Bucareli in New Spain, 1771-1779, pp. 128-55, sees the conflict from the vantage point of his man.

4Navarro García, Gálvez, pp. 264, 280, 241-43. O'Conor died in Mérida de Yucatán, March 8, 1779.

5Croix to Guardian, México, Feb. 19, 1777, ACQ, M.

6The missions turned over were: Tecoripa (Aug. 16); Ónavas (Sept. 3); Cumuripa (Sept. 9); San José de Pimas (Sept. 10); Ures (Sept. 26); Opodepe (Oct. 6); Cucurpe (Oct. 10); Pitic de Seris (n.d.). Fernando Mesía and Francisco de Salas Carrillo, México, July 3, 1780, AGN, PI, 258. [Bucareli] to Crespo, México, May 25, 1775, and Crespo, Índice de los asuntos, Horcasitas, Oct. 24, 1776, ibid., 96. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 460-61.

7Font to Ximénez, Imuris, Nov. 30, 1776, CC, 201.79. Font opposed the surrender of the Pimería Baja missions. For the college to leave those missions in such a sad state and push on to the Gila and Colorado he thought was sheer folly.

8Ibid. Arricivita, Lista, 1769. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 6, p. 437.

9Building contract for the church at Suaqui, Real de San Marcial, April 11, 1774, AGN, PI, 247. Velderrain to Pedro Corbalán, Suaqui, May 25, 1774, and Corbalán to Velderrain Álamos, May 30, 1774, ibid. Velderrain to Juan Joseph Lumbreras, Tecoripa, July 2, 1775, ibid., 96.

10Garcés to Ximénez, Tucson, Feb. 19, 1778, CC, 201.20. Fr. Francisco Iturralde, Visita de las misiones de la Pimería, Sept. 5 to Oct. 30, 1797, ACQ. CSCQ, Libro de difuntos, 1776-ca. 1850, ACQ. Velderrain entered only a single baptism in the Tumacácori book, on Dec. 5, 1776. DCB. Early in 1777 he and Fray Joaquin Belarde were looking after San Xavier for Garcés. Garcés to Ximénez, Tubutama, Feb. 3, 1777, CC, 201.19.

11[Bucareli] to O'Conor, México, Oct. 18, 1775, and O'Conor to Bucareli, Carrizal, Dec. 2, 1775, AGN, PI, 88.

12Allande y Saavedra to Croix, Tucson, June 15, 1777, AGI, Guad., 515.

13Font to Ximénez, Nov. 30, 1776. Barbastro, Compendio. Father Barbastro, also one of the group from Pimería Baja, had gone on to Tubutama. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 486-88, 561.

14Moreno to Roche, Ímuris, Nov. 16, 1776; Roche to Trespalacios, Cocóspera, Nov. 16, 1776; Trespalacios to Crespo, Ímuris, Nov. 17, 1776; Crespo to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Nov. 22, 1776, AGN, PI, 96. Font to Ximénez, Ures, July 18, 1776, CC, 201.78. Navarro García, Gálvez, p. 242. Ximénez to Bucareli, CSCQ, Feb. 7, 1777, AGN, PI, 237. Bucareli to Ximénez, México, Feb. 12, 1777, ACQ, M.

15Font to Ximénez, Tubutama, Jan. 20, 1777, CC, 201.80. Font to Ximénez, Nov. 30, 1776.

16Croix to Gálvez, Querétaro, Aug. 23, 1777, AGI, Guad., 515. The Tumacácori burial entries for most of 1777 are missing.

17For Anza's tenure as comandante de armas, see Thomas, "Juan Bautista de Anza in Sonora 1777-1778," in A. Curtis Wilgus, ed., Hispanic Essays, pp. 115-34.

18ACE, vol. 1, pp. 496-505. Anza to Bucareli, Durango, April 3, 1777, and Horcasitas, May 22, 1777, AGN, PI, 237. Thomas, "Anza in Sonora."

19Anza to Croix, Horcasitas, June 30, 1777, AGI, Guad., 515. Anza had changed his tune. While in Mexico City he had agreed with O'Conor's positioning of the Sonora garrisons. ACE, vol.5, p. 383.

20Croix to Anza, Querétaro, Aug. 15, 1777, and Croix to Gálvez, Querétaro, Aug. 23, 1777, AGI, Guad., 515.

21Barragán, et al., Tucson, Nov. 24, 1777. The other two members of the delegation were Francisco Castro and Antonio Romero. Both the Yuma Sentinel (April 13, 1878) and the Mining and Scientific Press, XL (May 15,1880), p. 312, picked up the story a century later.

22Allande y Saavedra to Garcés, Tucson, Nov. 21, 1777, FGA, vol. XI/34, no. 29.

23Garcés to Ximénez, Feb. 19, 1778.

24Navarro García, Gálvez, pp. 324-27. Roque de Medina, Extracto de la revista de inspección, Real Presidio de San Agustín de Tucson, May 3, 1779, AGI, Guad., 271.

25Barbastro, Compendio. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 488, 524-29. Juan Agustín de Morfi, O.F.M., Diario y derrotero (1777-1781), eds. Eugenio del Hoyo and Malcolm D. McLean, p. 148.

26Croix to Gálvez, Chihuahua, June 29, 1778, AGI, Guad., 276.

27Arricivita, Lista, 1769. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 16, p. 345. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, p. 560. Lists of personnel, ACQ, M. Font to Ximénez, Nov. 30, 1776, and Jan. 20, 1777. Belarde seemed to take over burials at Tumacácori. A hiatus in the record, where several pages were removed, ends with Belarde's entry on Sept. 24, 1777. His last entry as Arriquibar's compañero at Tumacácori, also a burial, was dated May 30, 1779. DCB.

28DCB. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, p. 560. CSCQ, Difuntos.

29Arriquibar baptized Gabriela Ramírez, March 20, 1776, and José Loreto, Dec. 10, 1778; he buried Juan Cris&ocaute;stomo, Nov. 17, 1777. DCB. Stoner, "Arriquibar," p. 77.

30Extracto de novedades, Croix, Arizpe, March 26, 1780, AGI, Guad., 271. Reyes complained frequently of the spying vagabonds in Sonora and Sinaloa, e.g., to Felipe de Neve, Álamos, March 31, 1784, ibid., 347

31Extracto, Croix, Arizpe, July 23, 1780, ibid., 271. Papel de puntos, Roque de Medina, Tucson, May 3, 1779, ibid. For a blow-by-blow account, see Morfi, Diario, pp. 299-302. Francisco Perdigón had a Pima namesake at Tumacácori. About thirty years old, he too died in 1780, on Dec. 28. DCB.

32DCB. In a letter to Croix, Captain Allande reported repulsing Apaches who charged the stockade at Tucson on June 26 in an effort to restore two girls held captive by the Spaniards. News of scattered deaths, including the one at Tumacácori, reached Croix throughout the summer. Extracto, Croix, Arizpe. Aug. 23, 1780, AGI, Guad., 271.

33Arricivita, Lista, 1769. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 8, pp. 104-08. Padrón, estado Espíritual y temporal . . . de Cucurpe, Carrillo, Nov. 13, 1772, AGN, PI, 81. Carrillo's first entry at Tumacácori is for a burial dated April 21, 1780. DCB.

34In 1772 Bucareli had been reminded of the king's constant conviction that only by gentle means could the Apaches and other Indians be won over. Arriaga to Bucareli, El Pardo, March 6, 1772, AGI, Guad., 512.

35Max L. Moorhead, The Apache Frontier, pp. 115-23. For Croix in Sonora, see ibid., pp. 45-60; Navarro García, Gálvez, pp. 322-23, 351-425 passim; and Thomas, Croix, pp. 43-68 passim (the Sonora section of Croix's general report from Arizpe, Oct. 30, 1781, AGI, Guad., 253, is translated on pp. 132-230).

36Croix, Oct. 30, 1781.

37Rocha's report as quoted by Croix, ibid.

38For the 1779-1782 Spanish experiment among the Yumas, see Scott Jarvis Maughan, "Francisco Garcés and New Spain's Northwestern Frontier, 1768-1781," Ph.D. dissertation, University of Utah, 1968, pp. 199-257; Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 489-514 (based heavily on Barbastro's Compendio); Navarro García, Gálvez, pp. 332, 393-96; Forbes, Warriors of the Colorado, pp. 175-220; Edwin A. Beilharz, Felipe de Neve, pp. 121-29; and Charles E. Chapman, The Founding of Spanish California, pp. 389-413. Tueros, who succeeded Bernardo de Urrea as captain of Altar, served as interim military governor between Anza and Ugarte, 1777 to 1779.

39ACE, vol. 5, pp. 400, 406-07.

40Tueros to Barbastro, Horcasitas, March 15, 1779, ACQ.

41Garcés to Bucareli, Ati, March 11, 1779, AGN, PI, 246.

42Arricivita quoted sections of Croix's instructions, signed at Arizpe in March, 1780, and commented on them. Crónica seráfica, pp. 497-504. The entire text was quoted by Fr. Diego Miguel Bringas de Manzaneda y Encinas, Informe al Rey sobre las misiones de la Pimería Alta, sobre nuevas fundaciones, sobre las malas providencias de la Comandancia, la paz mal establecida con los Apaches, y otros muchos asuntos importantes, 1796, par. 64, CC, 202.42. Daniel S. Matson and Bernard L. Fontana of the Arizona State Museum are translating and preparing the Bringas report for publication.

43Islas, Hoja de servicios, Dec. 31, 1780, AGI, Guad., 281 bis.

44Bringas, Informe al Rey. DCB. Pedro Fages, Noticia de los captivos y captivas, et at., Pitiquito, Jan. 22, 1782, AF, New Mexico documents (NM), leg. 10, no. 62. Croix, Relación particular de cada una de las jurisdicciones de las provincias de Sinaloa, Ostimuri y Sonora, Arizpe, June 2, 1783, AGI, Guad., 284. Islas, Diario, Dec. 9 to 27, 1780, Concepción, Jan. 1, 1781, ibid., 517.

45Díaz to Croix, Concepción, Nov. 8, 1780, et al., ibid.

46Manuel R. Pazos, O.F.M., ed., "El V. P. Fr. Juan Antonio Joaquín de Barreneche, martirizado por los Indios Yumas del Río Colorado el 19 de julio de 1781," AlA, vol. 1 (1941), pp. 455-73.

47Islas to Croix, Concepción, Jan. 17, 1781, et at., AGI, Guad., 517.

48The next twenty-two burials by Carrillo spanned six years. DCB. In September, Father Barbastro wrote of "the epidemic of smallpox that is now spreading." Barbastro to Morfi, Tubutama, Sept. 25, 1781, AF, NM, 10:63; published in Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 123-26. Donald B. Cooper, Epidemic Disease in Mexico City, 1761-1813, pp. 56-69. Simmons, "New Mexico's Smallpox Epidemic of 1780-1781," NMHR, vol. 41 (1966), pp. 319-26.

49Croix, Oct. 30, 1781. Ernest J. Burrus, S.J., ed., Diario del Capitán Camandante Fernando de Rivera y Moncada, vol. 2, pp. 494-511.

50Velderrain to Bonilla, Tucson, Aug. 6, 1781, et al., AGI, Guad., 517. Croix to Ugarte, Arizpe, Aug. 12, 1781, ibid.

51Croix to Ugarte, Arizpe, Sept. 16, 1781, AGN, Historia, 24. Croix to Gálvez, Arizpe, Feb. 28, 1782, AGI, Guad., 517.

52Fages, Noticia de los captivos y captivas. Ronald L. Ives, ed., "Retracing the Route of the Fages Expedition of 1781," AW, vol. 8 (1966), pp. 49-70, 157-170.

53Clarence Cullimore, "A California Martyr's Bones," California Historical Society Quarterly, vol. 33 (1954), pp. 13-21. Bringas, Sermón . . . et 19 de julio de 1794; reprinted in Burrus, Rivera y Moncada, vol. 2, pp. 539-675.

54Barbastro to Fages, Santa Teresa, Feb. 4, 1782, and Fages to Barbastro, Pitiquito, Feb. 16, 1782; quoted in full by Bringas, Informe al Rey, par. 68. Kessell, "Making of a Martyr," p. 181.

55Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, p. 540. Serra to Fr. Fermín Francisco de Lasuén, San Carlos, Dec. 8, 1781, Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 2, p. 310.

56Croix to Gálvez, Feb. 28, 1782.

57Croix to Gálvez, Arizpe, Jan. 23, 1783, AGI, Guad., 518. Navarro García, Gálvez, pp. 395-96.

58Extracto, Croix, Arizpe, Jan. 23, 1781, AGI, Guad., 271. Thomas, Forgotten Frontiers, pp. 30-41.

59Father Lino Gómez Canedo, O.F.M., assesses Croix as "a diligent man with a reputation for energy, a great producer of reports: the results of his administration were in reality inferior to appearances. I do not share the admiration for him of his principal biographer, Alfred B. Thomas. . . . Rudeness is not equivalent to energy, nor does a great bureaucratic shuffling of papers always indicate valid results." Sonora, p. 51n.

60Bringas, Informe al Rey. Chapman's assertion, Spanish California, pp. 407-409 that the "mongrel" settlements were the idea of Garcés and Díaz appears unfounded. Certainly Croix took all the credit as long as things seemed to be going well. Bringas claimed that it was Asesor Pedro Galindo Navarro who actually worked out the details of the Yuma establishments. Informe al Rey, par. 59.

Chapter 7

1Barbastro, Defensa.

2San Ildefonso, Sept. 16, 1776, AGI, Guad., 559, and AGN, Misiones, 14.

3Donohue, After Kino, p. 23. Navarro García, Gálvez, pp. 159, 187, 205.

4Reyes to Guardian, Madrid, May 26, 1778; quoted by Barbastro, Defensa.

5Garcés to Fr. Diego Ximénez, Tucson, Feb. 19, 1778, CC, 201.20.

6Terna submitted by the Council of the Indies, May 29, 1780, et al., AGI, Guad., 559. Barbastro, Defensa.

7Pius VI approved the custodies on Nov. 17, 1779, and Commissary General Vega signed the statutes Dec. 14, 1780. Apostolic brief and statutes were published together in Madrid in 1781; a copy, along with other related material, is in AGI, Guad., 559.

8Reyes to Gálvez, Madrid, Aug. 25, 1780, and Gálvez to Reyes, San Ildefonso, Aug. 24, 1780, ibid. The irrepressible Antonio de los Reyes deserves a full-length scholarly biography. In the meantime, details—some conflicting—of his stay in Spain and of his subsequent tenure as first bishop of Sonora can be found in Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 2, pp. 343-74; Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 33-41; Fidel de Lejarza, O.F.M., "Las misiones de Sonora en un momento de su historia," Missionalia Hispanica, vol. 6 (1949), pp. 170-77; Almada, Diccionario, pp. 686-88; Vicente de P. Andrade, Noticias biográficas sobre los ilustrísimos prelados de Sonora, de Sinaloa y de Durango, pp. 1-8; and Antonio Nakayama, Historia del Obispado de Sonora.

9Reyes to Gálvez, Cádiz, Oct. 30, 1781, and Puerto de Santa María, Jan. 15, 1782, AGI, Guad., 559. The cédula, printed and widely distributed in New Spain, was dated at Aranjuez, May 20, 1782. AGN, Misiones, 14.

10Reyes to Croix, México, Sept. 16, 1782, AGI, Guad., 348.

11Reyes to Guardian and Discretory, CSCQ, Nov. 11, and 15, 1782, CC, 201.56-60.

12Guardian and Discretory to Reyes, CSCQ, Nov. 19, and 20, 1782, ibid.

13Barbastro, Defensa. Reyes to Guardian and Discretory, CSCQ, Nov. 20, 1782, CC, 201.64.

14Reyes to Mayorga, CSCQ, Dec. 13, 1782, AGN, PI, 258.

15Reyes to Croix, Culiacan, April 24, 1783, AGI, Guad., 348.

16Fr. Francisco Pangua, et al., to Mayorga, San Fernando de México, Feb. 3, 1783, AGN, Misiones, 14. Pangua told Father Serra that they were trying to kill the Reyes projects before they could be instituted and do real harm. Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 2, p. 349.

17Reyes to Mayorga, Álamos, June 20, 1783, AGN, Misiones, 14.

18The friars usually put the distance from Tumacácori to Calabazas at four leagues. A report by Croix, dated in Arizpe, June 2, 1783, but evidently based on earlier figures, placed the population of Tumacácori at 42 Indian and 7 Spanish families, for a total of 125 persons. At Calabazas there were 40 families and a total of 84. Tubac was reported abandoned, its 158 persons having left for the Colorado River settlements or the presidio of Tucson because of water shortage and Apaches. Relación particular de cada una de las jurisdicciones.

19AGI, Guad., 348.

20Reyes to the king, Álamos, Feb. 17, 1784, ibid. Reyes to Gálvez, Ures, Oct. 7, 1783, ibid., 426.

21Providencias acordadas, Arizpe, Sept. 27, 1783, ibid.

22Instrucciones y mandatos del Venerable Definitorio a los Padres Vicarios y Misioneros, Ures, Oct. 28, 1783, Ernesto López Collection, Santa Teresita Parish, Ciudad Obregón, Son. Summary for the Council of the Indies, March 29, 1784, including letters of Neve, Oct. 20, and Nov. 17, 1783, AGI, Guad., 559.

23Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 35-36.

24Barbastro to Ximénez, Santa Teresa, May 4, 1777, ibid., pp. 114-23. His meticulous instructions to the friars, Tubutama, May 6, 1780, are preserved in the Genaro García Collection, University of Texas Library, Austin.

25Barbastro, Defensa.

26Barbastro to Neve, Tubutama, Dec. 24, 1783; quoted in Gómez Canedo, Sonora, p. 43n.

27Barbastro to the king, Aconchi, July 9, 1788, AGN, Misiones, 14. In his prolix, polemical Defensa, Barbastro quoted considerable correspondence to document his arguments. Reyes continued to put the pressure on the reluctant Queretarans. E.g., Reyes to Neve, Bacum, July 24, 1784, and Reyes to Viceroy Matías de Gálvez, Sonora, Oct. 1, 1784, AGN, Misiones, 14.

28Barbastro, Estado abreviado de las misiones, Banámichi, Jan. 8, 1791, AGI, Guad., 559. Barbastro, Defensa. Fr. Juan José Sáenz de Gumiel to Viceroy Bernardo de Gálvez, CSCQ, July 15, 1785, AGN, Misiones, 14. Since the superiors of the college no longer "took care of those missions," they told the viceroy that they could not possibly report on their condition or progress. He would have to apply to the custody. Fr. Juan Alias, et al., to the viceroy, CSCQ, Sept. 15, 1787, AGN, Californias, 40.

29Records of the Pagaduría de Arizpe, AGI, Guad., 450. During the late 1770s in the confusion of instituting the General Command of the Provincias Internas, the government had fallen behind on payment of sínodos. Croix brought them up to date. Croix to Mayorga, Arizpe, April 10, 1780, et al., AGN, PI, 258.

30Fr. Francisco Iturralde to Fr. Diego Bringas, Tubutama, Dec. 19, 1795, CC, 203.39.

31Reyes, Informe general, Sonora, Sept. 15, 1784, AGN, Misiones, 14; published by Roberto Ramos in the series Documentos para la historia de Sinaloa, vol. 1.

32Reyes to José de Gálvez, Sonora, Sept. 20, 1784, AGN, Misiones, 14.

33Méritos de Allande, Tucson, n.d., probably May 1, 1785, AGI, Guad., 520.

34Allande, Memorial to the king, Tucson, n.d., ibid. Neve to Gálvez, and Extracto de novedades, Arizpe, Jan. 26, 1784, ibid., 519. Dobyns used these documents in Lance Ho!

35Carrillo buried two of his Indians killed by Apaches in the monte Nov. 1, 1784. DCB. On March 24, 1786, Apaches tried to steal Tumacácori's oxen. Troops from the presidio of Tucson and Pima auxiliaries gave chase but were unable to overtake the hostiles. Extracto de novedades, Jacobo Ugarte y Loyola, Chihuahua, June 1, 1786, AGI, Guad., 521.

36Authorized several years earlier, the Ópata company of Bavispe was organized on Aug. 1, 1781. A second company of Ópatas was created at Bacoachi, April 1, 1784. Roque de Medina, Revistas de inspección, 1785-1786, AGI, Guad., 521.

37Alférez Nicholás de Errán, paymaster of the new company, picked up the payroll in Arizpe. Records of the Pagaduría de Arizpe, AGI, Guad., 450.

38Extracto de novedades, Croix, June 2, 1783, ibid., 284. Extracto de novedades, Joseph Antonio Rengel, Chihuahua, Feb. 26, 1785, ibid., 520. Navarro García, Gálvez, p. 445.

39Cuartillas de servicios, Presidio de Pimas de San Rafael de Buenavista, AGI, Guad., 286. It is probable that all or most of these recruits were from Calabazas and Tumacácori; Captain Allande would not have looked favorably on recruiting Pima warriors from Tucson or San Xavier, since he frequently called on them himself. The names of Bohórquez, Legarra, and others appeared earlier in the Tumacácori register of baptisms, marriages, and burials. DCB.

40Medina, Revista de inspección, Real Presidio de San Rafael de Buenavista, San Ignacio, Nov. 30, 1783, AGI, Guad., 285. The Pimas were supposed to get some carbines, but the shipment Croix expected had not arrived by June 2. Extracto de novedades, June 2, 1783.

41Extracto de novedades, Neve, Arizpe, May 31, 1784, AGI, Guad., 520. Carl Sauer, ed., "A Spanish Entrada into the Arizona Apacheria," Arizona Historical Review, vol. 6 (1935), no. 1, pp. 3-13. This is the partial diary of the Santa Cruz (Las Nutrias) contingent in the Allande campaign. The year was 1784, not 1793. In a compilation of his record, Allande listed the Sept., 1784, campaign "to the lofty and rugged Sierra de la Arivaipa," during which his force killed three women and one shaman (un sagal). Allande, Memorial to the king. The troops from Santa Cruz rode through Tumacácori, where the diarist noted the presence of the missionaries of San Ignacio and Cocóspera. Mission Indian auxiliaries from Tumacácori and San Xavier also served in this campaign.

42Medina, Revista de inspección, Compañía de San Rafael de Buenavista, San Carlos de Buenavista, Nov. 26, 1785, AGI, Guad., 521.

43Ugarte, Estado mayor de 1787; Moorhead, Apache Frontier, p. 90n. Bancroft and others evidently confused Mission San Ignacio with the presidio of San Ignacio de Tubac and placed the Pima company at the old presidio several years earlier. Arizona and New México, p. 383. 5ee also Dobyns, "Military Transculturation."

44See Moorhead, Apache Frontier, for a summary and interpretation of the Instrucción, and Gálvez, Instructions for Governing the Interior Provinces of New Spain, 1786, ed. Donald E. Worcester, for a translation.

45The Gálvez Instrucción of 1786 had sixteenth-century precedents. 5ee Philip Wayne Powell, Soldiers, Indians, and Silver: The Northward Advance of New Spain, 1550-1600.

46Moorhead, Apache Frontier, pp. 182-83.

47Extracto de novedades, Ugarte y Loyola, Chihuahua, Nov. 30, 1786, AGI, Guad., 521. Strangely, these deaths do not show up in the Tumacácori book of burials. Later, on Feb. 25, 1788, and July 24, 1789, Carrillo recorded burials of two other mission Indians killed by Apaches. DCB.

48Reyes to Rengel, Tesia, June 10, 1785, et al., AGI, Guad., 349. Reyes to Matías de Gálvez, Sonora, Oct. 19, 1784, ibid., 347.

49Real orden, El Pardo, Jan. 14, 1784, opinions of the fiscal, México, Aug. 15, 1784, and Feb. 25, 1785, and viceroy's decree, May 21, 1785, AGN, Misiones, 14. Reyes to Matías de Gálvez, Sonora, Oct. 1, 1784. ibid.

50Reyes to Conde de Gálvez, Álamos, Sept. 2, and Oct. 28, 1785, ibid.

51Barbastro to José de Gálvez, Banámichi, Oct. 14, 1785; printed in Lejarza, "Las Misiones, pp. 177-85. Barbastro, Defensa. Guardian of CSCQ to Bishop Francisco Rouset, CSCQ, March 6, 1805, ACQ. M, 3.

52Barbastro to Gálvez, Oct. 14, 1785.

53Miguel Antonio Cuevas to Ugarte, Álamos, March 16, 1787, AGI, Guad., 521.

54Fr. Manuel María Trujillo to Barbastro, Madrid, Jan. 24, 1788, AGN, Misiones, 14.

55Barbastro to the king, July 9, 1788. Ugarte to Viceroy Manuel Antonio Flores, Chihuahua, Aug. 7, 1789; Bishop Granados to Flores, Arizpe, Aug. 27, 1789; Sáenz de Gumiel to Viceroy Conde de Revillagigedo, Querétaro, Feb. 24, 1792; Cedula, Madrid, Aug. 17, 1791; et al., ibid. Lejarza, "Las Misiones," pp. 185-87.

56Navarro García, Gálvez, p. 506. Thomas, Forgotten Frontiers, pp. 364-68. Documents concerning a pension for Anza's widow, AGI, Guad., 289. Some of these documents have been translated in J. N. Bowman and Robert F. Heizer's jumbled Anza and the Northwest Frontier of New Spain, pp. 87-98.

57Kessell, "The Puzzling Presidio: San Phelipe de Guevavi, alias Terrenate," NMHR, vol. 41 (1966), pp. 38-39. Juan María Boh6rquez and Santiesteban, Noticias que manifiestan las existencias de los bienes de comunidad, Cocóspera, Nov. 15, 1788, AF, 35/762.

58Moorhead, Apache Frontier, pp. 192-96. George P. Hammond, ed., "The Zúñiga Journal, Tucson to Santa Fe: The Opening of a Spanish Trade Route, 1788-1795," NMHR, vol. 6 (1931), pp. 1-8.

59A big fuss was made when Anza's remains were rediscovered and identified at Arizpe in 1963. See Bowman and Heizer, Anza.

60DCB. Barbastro, Estado abreviado, Jan. 8, 1791, confirmed the abandonment of Calabazas: Tumacácori, without visitas, had a population of 15 boys and girls, 63 men and women, and 30 married couples (who may or may not have been included in the 63). Gutierrez, Padrón de los gentiles.

61DCB. Although the San Rafael company had its own books of baptisms, marriages, and burials, on Nov. 14, 1787, Carrillo entered a Tubac baptism in the Tumacácori register where it is the earliest mention of "soldados de la compañía de Pimas." On Jan. 21, 1788, Rosa, the wife of soldado Juan Legarra, stood as godmother to a Pápago boy, Sebastián Pamplona. Later the same year Carrillo identified Miguel Castro and María Dolores as "vecinos de Tubac." Ugarte, Estado que manifiesta el numero de tropas, Chihuahua, Feb. 1, 1787, AGI, Guad., 521. Manuel Merino, Plan general de las tropas, México, Nov. 21, 1789, AGN, PI, 46.

62Villaescusa seems to have stayed in the south where he became commander of the presidio of San Carlos de Buenavista. His son, Juan Joseph, had been baptized by Arriquibar on July 21, 1783, at San Ignacio. Certificate of baptism, Tumacácori, June 9, 1788, Parish archive, Banámichi, Sonora. Errán's nombramiento, Madrid, Feb. 22, 1789, AGI, Guad., 506.

63Apparently Otero came with Errán. Pedro Villaescusa's wife was Ignacia Otero, perhaps a relative. The 1789 grant seems to be the earliest recorded in the General Land Office documents in Phoenix. Ray H. Mattison, "Early Spanish and Mexican Settlements in Arizona," NMHR, vol. 21 (1946), p. 282.

64Testimony, Tumacácori, April 5, 1792, Parish archive, Ures, Sonora.

65Garrido y Durán to the viceroy, Arizpe, Nov. 23, 1789, AGN, Misiones, 13.

66Grimarest to Revillagigedo. Arizpe, Aug. 16, 1790, ibid.; published in Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 95-105.

67It was in response to this order that Reyes had submitted his report of Sept. 15, 1784.

68Granados to Revillagigedo, Arizpe, April 16,1791; Nava to Revillagigedo, Chihuahua, Jan. 27, 1792, AGN, Misiones, 13; Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 106-12.

69Revillagigedo to the king, México, Dec. 27, 1793, AGI, Mex., 2735; published in Informe sobre las misiones, 1793, e Instrucción reservada al Marqués de Branciforte, 1794, introducción y notas de José Bravo Ugarte, pp. 15-116. Calabazas was shown as a visita of Tumacácori, even though it had been abandoned for some five or six years.

70Barbastro to Revillagigedo, Aconchi, Dec. 1, 1793, AGN, PI, 33; Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 49-91. In 1791, just before the demise of the custody, Barbastro had reluctantly turned over to Bishop Granados the five Pimería Baja missions of Aconchi, Banámichi, Ures, Mátape, and Ónavas, with the proviso that he and the other friars might stay on until other missions fell vacant. Although at this time no one seemed to be seriously considering secularization of the Pimería Alta establishments, Barbastro vigorously defended their mission status. See Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 64-69, 106n, 109, 110.

71Barbastro, May 28, 1792; quoted by Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 61-62n, 75. Earl Jackson, Tumacácori's Yesterdays, p. 36. A year after Carrillo's death Tumacácori's old church was described as "split in two." Alfred F. Whiting, "The Tumacácori Census of 1796," The Kiva, vol. 19 (1953), p. 10.

72Barbastro to Revillagigedo, Dec. 1, 1793.

73Carrillo is the first Franciscan whose record is complete in the fragmentary Tumacácori books. On March 3, 1793, he married his namesake to Teresa Errán, a Pápago girl of heathen parents. DCB.

74Gutiérrez, Padrón de los gentiles. Father Gutiérrez included several heathens evidently baptized by Carrillo at Tubac and entered in the presidio's lost book.

75DCB. Whiting, "Tumacácori Census," pp. 7-9. Although the names of Cristóbal Medina and Juana Peciña did not appear on the 1796 Tumacácori census, a surviving son, Juan Luis, identified as a Pima, was listed. He died in Nov. 1798, at age seven years nine months; his parents were already deceased. The other two Medina children shown in 1796 were from another family.


Chapter 8

1Certification of sailing, Marqués del Surco, Cádiz, Dec. 17, 1789, AGI, Mex., 2735.

2Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 1, pp. 109-10.

3Barbastro, Compendio. For María de Ágreda, see The Memorial of Fray Alonso de Benavides, 1630, trans. Mrs. Edward E. Ayer, pp. 189-90, 275-78, and T. D. Kendrick, Mary of Ágreda.

4Sherburne F. Cook quoted in Cooper, Epidemic Disease, p. 84.

5Relación de los religiosos, CSCQ, Dec. 10, 1786, AGI, Mex., 2735.

6Three expedientes of documents concerning the two-wave Sarobe mission of 1789 are in ibid. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 5, pp. 304-10.

7CSCQ, Libro de difuntos.

8Bringas, Informe al rey.

9Fr. Ángel Collazo to Fr. Juan Francisco Rivera, Búsanic, Sept. 28, 1794, CC, misc. Fr. Florencio Ibáñez to Rivera, Sáric, July 5, 1795, ibid. Fr. Francisco Iturralde to Rivera, Tubutama, March 7, 1795, CC, 203.33.

10Fr. Antonio Bertrán to Rivera and the Discretory, n.d., CC, 203.34.

11Bringas, Informe al rey. Lista de los religiosos sacerdotes que existen en el colegio, Rivera, CSCQ, Sept. 22, 1795, AGI, Mex., 2737. Burrus, Diario de Rivera, vol. 2, pp. 533-34. Henry R. Wagner, The Spanish Southwest, 1542-1794, pp. 489-92.

12Bringas to Rivera, Valle de San Bartolomé, May 28, 1795, CC, 202.46. Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, pp. 169-70.

13Barbastro to Bringas, Aconchi, April 31[?], 1795, CC, 202.63.

14Rivera to Bringas, CSCQ, June 17, 1795, CC, misc. Bringas to Iturralde, Aconchi, Sept. 13, 1795, CC, 202.52.

15Llorens and Fr. Antonio Díez to Bringas, San Xavier del Bac, Jan. 2, 1796, CC, misc. Certification of sailing, Leandro Navarro, Cádiz, March 8, 1782, AGI, Juzgado de Arribadas, 533.

16Jack Holterman, "José de Zúñiga, Commandant at Tucson," The Kiva, vol. 22, (1956), pp. 1-4. Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 2, p. 263.

17Hammond, "Zuñiga Journal." Navarro García, Gálvez, p. 507. According to his service record, Ensign Antonio Narbona, second-in-command, was assigned to the Compañía de Tubac at this time. Service record of Narbona, Fronteras, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 233. Six years later Sergeant Juan Manuel Martínez of Altar, another member of the Zúñiga expedition, was named ensign of the Pima company. Nombramiento, Aranjuez, Feb. 11, 1801, AGI, Guad., 506.

18Bringas to Nava, Chihuahua, March 13, 1796, quoted in full in his Informe al rey, par. 61. The map of Pimería Alta showing the Bringas party's route to and from the Gila was published by Ezell, "Fray Diego Bringas, a Forgotten Cartographer of Sonora," Imago Mundi, vol. 13 (1956), p. 156. Bringas to [Zúñiga], Cocóspera, Sept. 29, 1795, CC, 203.35.

19Iturralde to Bringas, Tubutama, Sept. 24, 1795, and Santa Teresa, Dec. 8, 1795, CC, 203.35-36. Born Oct. 26, 1740, in the city of Tarazona, Ibáñez at age sixteen had entered the order at the convento of Nuestra Señora de Jesús in Zaragoza, the same house where Juan Crisóstomo Gil de Bernabé had been invested a decade earlier. Lista de los cuarenta y nueve, 1769, AGI, Guad., 369. Geiger, Franciscan Missionaries in Hispanic California, 1769-1848, pp. 124-25.

20Ibáñez made only two entries in the Tumacácori books, both baptisms, Dec. 18 and 24. Gutiérrez made the entries before and after. DCB.

21Ibáñez to Rivera, July 5, 1795.

22Iturralde to Father Guardian, Tubutama, Dec. 4, 1797, CC, 203.21.

23Ibáñez to Rivera, Caborca, April 4, 1796, CC, misc.

24Iturralde to Rivera, Tubutama, April 5, 1796, CC, 203.34. Iturralde to Bringas, Tubutama, Feb. 4 and March 4, 1796, CC, 203.41-42.

25Iturralde to Father Guardian, Dec. 4, 1797. Iturralde to Bringas, Tubutama, May 5, 1796, CC, 203.43.

26Certification of sailing, Dec. 17, 1789, et al., AGI, Mex., 2735. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 8, pp. 28-29. Fr, Joseph Cardoso, Lista de los religiosos, CSCQ, Feb. 7, 1824, ACQ. Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 1, pp. 23-29. Evidently Fray Mariano had relatives in the order. One Francisco Bordoy was serving in 1814 as official chronicler of the Franciscan province of Mallorca. Ibid., p. 18. A Joseph Bordoy of Palma, twenty-three, sailed for the college of San Fernando in 1810. Certification of sailing, Joaquin de Abaurrea, Cádiz, May 26, 1810, AGI, Mex., 2736.

27Certification of sailing, Dec. 17, 1789, et al. López was described as a native of "La Villa y Corte de Madrid," which is to say, the capital. Since his brethren frequently attributed his delicate stomach to his upbringing "en la corte" he may indeed have grown up at the royal court.

28Whiting, "Tumacacori Census." Burials place the census in September or October. DCB. See also Dobyns, "The 1797 Population of the Presidio of Tucson," JAH, vol. 13 (1972), pp. 205-09. In compiling the required data, Bishop Rouset made a few modifications in the Revillagigedo format. For one thing, he counted deserted Guevavi, Calabazas, and Sonoita as a mission (no. 34) separate from Tumacácori (no. 35). The three pueblos abandoned because of the Apaches, he said, "are situated in the San Luis Valley, the most fertile region known in the provinces of Sonora, according to the word I have, abundantly watered, and so suited to raising stock that in times not long passed a cow was valued at less than three pesos." He mentioned that he had given the friars of Tumacácori the faculties to administer the presidio of Tubac. They did not collect the customary 100-peso stipend, rather it went for the needs of the presidial chapel. Rouset, Misiones de la Provincia de Sonora, Hacienda de San Nicolás Tolentino de Pánuco, July 24, 1797, AGI, Guad., 578.

29Socies to Fr. Sebastián Ramis, San Xavier del Bac, March 20, 1797, CC, misc.

30Iturralde to Fr. Francisco Miralles, Tubutama, Oct. 2,1798, CC, 203.29.

31Certification of sailing, Dec. 17, 1789, et al. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 4, p. 231. Cardoso, Lista.

32Prado to Ramis, Tumacácori, May 30, 1797, CC, misc. Salazar to Gil de Bernabé, Tubutama, May 31, 1772, CC, 202.12.

33Iturralde to Rouset, Tubutama, May 31, 1797, AMS.

34Prado to Ramis, May 30, 1797. Five weeks later Prado, concerned by the possibility of finding himself at times alone at the mission, requested that the bishop modify the faculty to celebrate two Masses every day of obligation for the benefit of the people of Tubac. The bishop granted his request. For a period of three years Prado or his successor, bound to say one Mass at Tubac and one at Tumacácori on feasts of obligation, might dispense with Mass at the mission on those days the Indians were not obligated, unless twelve or more obligated persons showed up. Prado to Rouset, Tumacácori, July 4, 1797, and Rouset to Prado, Hacienda de Pánuco, Aug. 26, 1797, AMS.

35Iturralde, Visita.

36Iturralde to Father Guardian, Dec. 4, 1797.

37Gutiérrez to Ramis, Tubutama, Nov. 28, 1797, CC, misc.

38Iturralde to Father Guardian, Dec. 4, 1797. The enclosures referred to in the letter are not with it.

39Ibáñez to Father Guardian, Sáric, March 28 and July 3, 1798, CC, misc. Iturralde to Ibáñez, Tubutama, March 19, 1798, CC, 203.25. Iturralde to Miralles, Tubutama, May 4 and Oct. 2, 1798, CC, 203.26 and 29. Geiger, Franciscan Missionaries, p. 125. See also Ibáñez, Los Pastores (The Shepherds), trans. María López de Lowther.

40Just when Prado left is not clear. He last signed the Tumacácori books on Oct. 21, 1797, when he struck the notice of an unauthorized Jan. 15 visita by Licenciado Manuel María Moreno. DCB. In his letter of Oct. 2, 1798, Iturralde lamented Prado's return to the college but he did not say when or if he had departed. The president did not notify the bishop of Prado's exit until the following January, when he requested the faculties of chaplain at Tubac for Gutiérrez. Iturralde to Rouset, Tubutama, Jan. 28, 1799, AMS. Prado served as guardian at the college, 1809-1812, 1815-1818, 1824.

41Iturralde to Rivera, April 5, 1796.

42Bringas to Nava, Chihuahua, March 15, 1796, and Opinion of Galindo Navarro, Chihuahua, Dec. 9, 1796, quoted in full in his Informe al rey, pars. 36-37. Urrea to Francisco Iriarte, Arizpe, Feb. 9, 1825, BL, M-M 495.

43Iturralde to Fr. Sebastián Ramis, Tubutama, Dec. 4, 1796, CC, 203.23. Bringas to Nava, March 13, 1796.

44Barbastro to Bringas, Aconchi, July 19, 1796, CC, 202.65.

45Bringas, Informe al rey.

46Cedula Aranjuez, June 16, 1797, and Nava to President of Pimería Alta missions, Chihuahua, Nov. 18, 1797, CC, 202.41.

47Iturralde to Fr. Francisco Miralles, Tubutama, March 3, 1798, CC, 203.24. Bringas, Informe al rey, pars. 10-35.

48Iturralde to Miralles, Tubutama, June 4 and Sept. 4, 1798, and Aconchi, Jan. 12, 1799,CC, 203.27-28 and 31.

49Iturralde to Miralles, Tubutama, Oct. 2, 1798, CC, 203.29.

50Iturralde to Miralles, Tubutama, Nov. 3, 1798, CC, 203.30.

51Bordoy dated his last entry in the Tumacácori books, a baptism, June 26, 1799. He confessed a woman whom Gutiérrez buried on Sept. 23, but when, Gutiérrez did not say. DCB. Libros de Aconchi, Parish archive, Banámichi, Son. Libros de Tubutama, Parish archive, Altar, Son. CSCQ, Libro de difuntos.

52Bringas, Informe al rey.

53Moyano, Noticia, 1803. DCB. Whiting, Tumacácori Census." Gutiérrez, Padrón, Tumacácori, Dec. 9, 1801, AMS.

54Iturralde, Padrón, Tubutama, Dec. 26, 1801, AMS. Certification of sailing, March 8, 1782. CSCQ, Libro de difuntos. Gómez Canedo, Sonora, p. 60n.

55Gutiérrez, Padrón, 1801.

56Moyano, Noticia, 1803.

57Navarro García, Las Provincias Internas en el siglo XIX, p. 11.

58Moyano, Noticia, 1803. In total population Tumacácori, even with the increase, ranked only fifth among the eight missions.

59Navarro García, Provincias Internas, pp. 1-11.

60Brinckerhoff, "The Last Years of Spanish Arizona, 1786-1821," AW, vol. 9 (1967), pp. 15-16.

61Moyano, Noticia de las misiones, Oquitoa, Feb. 5, 1805, AGI, Mex., 2736.

62In his report of May 18, 1803, Father President Moyano showed two missionaries for Tumacácori, yet between 1799 and 1804 Gutiérrez alone performed all the mission baptisms, marriages, and burials. DCB.

63Certification of sailing, Marqués del Surco, Cádiz, Nov. 14, 1789, AGI, Mex., 2735. Lista de los religiosos, Rivera, CSCQ, Sept. 22, 1795, ibid., 2737. It would appear that Fernández Saravia, Joseph Ignacio Ramírez, and Gregorio Ruiz were three of the four who rode north from the college in early 1802 "with the Father President." Geiger, "A Voice from San Xavier del Bac (1802-1805)," Provincial Annals, vol. 16 (1953), p. 7. For some reason Gutiérrez entered the three baptisms celebrated by Fernández Saravia (Feb. 19, March 31, and June 11, 1804); the latter only signed them. DCB. CSCQ, Libro de difuntos.

64Geiger, "Voice from San Xavier," pp. 5-11, and Miguel Marín H., "Un misionero poblano en la Pimería Alta," Abside, vol. 32 (1968), pp. 404-25. Ramírez' parents were Joseph Ramírez de Arellano and Joséfina Espino Barrios. He had been ordained at Valladolid (Morelia) on March 19, 1800, the feast of Saint Joseph.

65Between Dec., 1804, and May, 1805, Ramírez buried sixteen bodies. DCB. Geiger, "Voice from San Xavier," pp. 10-11. Moyano to Father Guardian, Nov. 4, 1805, as quoted in CSCQ, Libro de difuntos.

66Two folios of Tumacácori baptisms, including Ramírez' last and Ruiz' first entries, are missing. Ruiz entered a burial Jan. 4, 1806, and his last baptism on Oct. 20, 1807. DCB. CSCQ, Libro de difuntos.

67See Richard E. Greenleaf, "Land and Water in Mexico and New Mexico 1700-1821," NMHR, vol. 47 (1972), pp. 88-89.

68Revillagigedo, Informe sobre las misiones, pp. 31, 22.

69DCB. Gutiérrez, Padrón, 1801.

70Ignacio Díaz del Carpio, Petition in behalf of the Indians of Tumacácori, Arizpe, 1806, and Decree of García Conde, Arizpe, Dec. 17, 1806, U.S., 46th Congress, 2d sess., Sen. Exec. Doc. 207 (SED), pp. 3-4. Neither the government transcription nor the translation is accurate. A somewhat better translation by Henry O. Flipper, Special Agent for the Justice Department with the Court of Private Land Claims, Oct., 1893, is in the Thomas Benton Catron Collection, Special Collections, University of New Mexico Library (Catron), PC 29, 302, box 3. Mattison's account of the "Tumacácori and Calabasas Grants" is some what confused. "Spanish and Mexican Settlements," pp. 291-94, and "The Tangled Web: The Controversy Over the Tumacácori and Baca Land Grants," JAH, vol. 8 (1967), pp. 72-73.

71Gutiérrez, Petition in behalf of the Indians, Tumacácori, Dec. 23, 1806, SED, p. 8.

72If this was the same Manuel Fernández de la Carrera who served as the friars' attorney at Arizpe during the 1780s and 1790s he must have been elderly when he died. A gentleman of that name lived in Arizpe at least as late as 1796. Ignacio Bustamante and Pedro de Mata Biñolas to Viceroy Marqués de Branciforte, Arizpe, Oct. 24, 1796, AGN, PI, 204.

73Testimony of Apodaca, Romero, and Baes, Tubac, Dec. 24, 1806, Jan. 7, and 9, 1807, SED, pp. 8-9.

74Proceedings of the survey, Jan. 13-17, 1807, SED, pp. 4-8.

75SED, pp. 10-12. See also Greenleaf, "Land and Water."

76Arivaca grant, Catron, PC, 302, box 3.

77Map of the Private Land Claim of San José de Tumacácori, surveyed by Y. Bonillas, July 1894, ibid. In the slightly revised 1973 edition of his folksy Tumacácori's Yesterdays, Earl Jackson, following Mattison, still asserts incorrectly (pp. 41, 54) that the 1807 grant contained "over 52,000 acres."

Chapter 9

1Iturralde to Rivera, Tubutama, March 7, 1795, CC, 203.33.

2Baldonado, "The Dedication of Caborca," The Kiva, vol. 24 (1959), no. 4, inside back cover. Navarro García, Provincias Internas, pp. 45-47. Almada, Diccionario, pp. 701-02.

3Navarro García, Provincias Internas, pp. 53-57. Because Moreno had from the bishop authority to inspect only the presidios, his visitation of the missions was later declared void. Socies to Bringas, San Xavier del Bac, April 28, 1797, CC, misc. See herein, Chapter 8, note 40.

4Prado to Fr. Pablo de Moya, CSCQ, Oct. 23, 1811, ACQ, photocopy, BL, BRP, no. 375.

5García Conde to Bernardo Bonavia, Arizpe, Aug. 14, 1813; published as "El gobernador intendente de Sonora informa...," Memorias de la Academia Mexicana de la Historia, vol. 10 (1951), folletines, pp. 143-78. Burrus, Diario de Rivera, vol. 2, p. 534.

6Service record of Vicente [sic] Sambrano, Tubac, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 233. Certification of enlistment (Dec. 16, 1785), Tubac, Dec. 31, 1817, ibid., 243.

7Navarro García, Provincias Internas, pp. 10, 12, 59-62.

8Salcedo to Cevallos, Chihuahua, May 23, 1813, AGI, Mex., 2737. Moyano to García Conde, Oquitoa, Feb. 4, 1812, ibid. Cevallos to Salcedo, CSCQ, Oct. 16, 1809, ibid.

9Cevallos to Salcedo, México, Dec. 6, 1809, Feb. 10 and April 27, 1810, ibid. Salcedo to Cevallos, Chihuahua, Jan. 15 and March 27, 1810, and to Rouset, Chihuahua, April 15, 1810, ibid.

10Salcedo to Cevallos, Chihuahua, Oct. 22, 1811, and Oct. 11, 1810, ibid. Cevallos to Salcedo, México, July 28, and CSCQ, Sept. 17, 1810, ibid. Rouset to Salcedo, Culiacan, Sept. 19, 1810, ibid.

11Llorens to Moyano, San Agustín de Tucson, Dec. 27, 1811, ibid.

12Cevallos to Salcedo, Colegio de Guadalupe de Zacatecas, Dec. 12, 1812, and Chihuahua, Feb. 25, and March 3, 1813, ibid. Salcedo to Cevallos, Chihuahua, Jan. 4, and May 23, 1813, ibid. Copies of Cevallos' file on the case as well as his undated letter of summary and transmittal are in ACQ, D, leg. 4, photocopies, BL, BRP, no. 369.

13Cevallos to Bringas, Durángo, Dec. 31, 1812, AGN, Misiones, 18. Certifications of sailing, Joaquín de Abaurrea, Cádiz, Dec. 15, 1803, and April 4, 1805, AGI, Mex., 2737.

Prado to Viceroy Félix Calleja, CSCQ, Jan. 1816, AGN, Misiones, 18.

15Cevallos to Bringas, Dec. 31, 1812. Moyano to Iturralde, Oquitoa, June 4, 1813, ACQ, Cartas de Sonora (CS). Typescripts of the so-called Cartas de Sonora, hundreds of documents from the ACQ for the period 1813-1842, variously labeled, are filed at the Bancroft Library in the Bolton Research Papers, nos. 359 and 378. Carbon copies are in BL, M-A 25. BL, BRP, no. 373, contains photocopies of some of the documents.

16Ruiz to Viceroy Francisco Javier Venegas, México, Aug. 24, 1811, et al., AGN, Misiones, 18.

17Cardoso, Lista. Cevallos to Bringas, Durango, Dec. 31, 1812, and Chihuahua, Jan. 27, 1813, AGN, Misiones, 18.

18Moyano to Iturralde, Oquitoa, Sept. 4, 1813, ACQ, CS. Pérez signed no marriage or burial entries at Tumacácori. The baptisms from late 1810 to late 1814, four folios, are missing. DCB.

19Bonavia to Alonso Tresierra, Durango, July 5, 1814, AGI, Mex., 2737. Bonavia to Esteban Varea, Durango, Aug. 12, 1816, ibid.

20Bonavia to Tresierra, Durango, Jan. 27, 1814, ibid.

21Llorens to Bringas, San Xavier del Bac, April 4, 1814, ACQ, CS. Tumacácori's Francisco Pérez had spent some time with the despondent Llorens at Bac that spring of 1814.

22Ibid. Ignacio Bustamante to Bonavia, Arizpe, Feb. 10, 1814, and Bonavia to Bustamante, Durango, March 1, 1814, et al., AGI, Mex., 2737.

23Narbona to Bustamante, Presidio of Tucson, April 18, 1814, ibid. Service record of Narbona, Fronteras, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 233. DCB. At this time the Tubac company consisted of a lieutenant, an ensign, two sergeants, and 76 soldiers, whose total annual salary came to 12,350 pesos, 4 reales. [Simón Elías González], Resumen de la tropa veterana, May 20, 1814, BL, M-M 379, no. 44.

24Cevallos to Bringas, Oquitoa, June 4, 1814, AGN, Misiones, 18. Cevallos to Viceroy Juan Ruiz de Apodaca, Ures, April 17, 1818, ibid. Fontbona to Ruiz de Apodaca, Cocóspera, Jan. 24, 1817, ibid.

25Cevallos to Bringas, Durango, Feb. 2, 1815, and Ures, June 14, 1815, ACQ, CS.

26Cevallos to Ruiz de Apodaca, April 17, 1818. José Francisco Velasco, Noticias estadisticas del Estado de Sonora, p. 143, makes this intriguing statement: "The ministers were very industrious, especially Fray Narciso Gutiérrez, during whose time the said mission loaned 22,000 pesos to the royal treasury at Arizpe." He was referring to Cocóspera, where Gutiérrez never served.

27Cevallos to Bringas, San Xavier del Bac, July 7, 1814, ACQ, CS.

28Cevallos to Bringas, Feb. 2 and June 14, 1815.

29Royal order of the Regency, Cádiz, Oct. 12, 1813, AGN, Misiones, 18.

30Cevallos to Ruiz de Apodaca, April 17, 1818. Commandant General Bonavia strongly supported Cevallos against Father President Moyano et al., particularly in the Father Prefect's effort to better the lot of the poor neophytes and impose on the missionaries more efficient management of mission produce and stricter accountability. Bonavia to Bringas, Durango, March 29, 1815, ACQ, D, leg. 4, photocopy, BL, BRP, no. 369.

31Llorens to Bringas, Tucson, Jan. 4, 1815, ACQ, CS. Gutiérrez to Fr. Diego Gil, May 28, and April 26, 1815, ibid.

32Gutiérrez to Gil, May 28, and April 26, 1815.

33Prado to Calicia, Jan. 1816.

34Sumarias, et al., 1815-1816, AGN, Misiones, 18.

35Fontbona to Ruiz de Apodaca, Cocóspera, Jan. 24, 1817, with enclosures, ibid.

36Prado to Ruiz de Apodaca, CSCQ, Aug. 6, 1817, ibid.

37Antonio Cordero to Bonavia, Arizpe, Aug. 19, 1817, et al., ibid. Ruiz de Apodaca to Guardian of CSCQ, México, Jan. 21, 1818, ibid. Nearly two years later the guardian of the Querétaro college assured the bishop of Sonora that the Fontbona-Creó-Ruiz scandal was a thing of the past, that all the calumny they had heaped upon the other friars had been shown to be false. Moreover, he had reliable information that Fontbona had died in Campeche. Fr. Buenaventura Tuny to Bishop Bernardo del Espíritu Santo, CSCQ, Nov. 28, 1819, AMS.

38Cevallos to Ruiz de Apodaca, April 17, 1818. Cedula, Palacio, Nov. 7, 1815, AGI, Mex., 2737. Fr. Joseph Pérez to Fr. Juan Buenaventura Bestard, San Ignacio, Feb. 5, 1817, AGN, Misiones, 18. Gutiérrez to Gil, May 28, 1815.

39"Notes on the State of Sonora and Cinaloa" by Colonel Bourne in H. G. Ward, Mexico in 1827, vol. 1, pp. 569-70. Cevallos died at Ures on Nov. 23, 1826, at the actual age of seventy-seven. CSCQ, Libro de muertos.

40Compañía de Pimas de Tubac, Pie de lista y extracto de la revista, Juan Bautista Romero, Jan. 1, 1817, AGN, PI, 206. Certifications of time served against the insurgents for the following Tubac troops: Ambrosio Sambrano, Inocencio Soto, José Manuel Camargo, Juan Maldonado, and Simón Castro, Tubac, Dec. 31, 1817, ibid., 243.

41Service records of Romero and Elías González, Tubac, Dec. 31, 1817, ibid., 233. Tubaca y Otros, Mission Guevavi, fragmentary baptismal, marriage, and burial records, 1739-1767, ADT.

42Certification of Soto's enlistment (July 16, 1793), Tubac, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 243. Libros de Tubac. fragmentary marriage and burial records, 1814-1824, BL, M-M 411.

43Compañía de Tubac, Pie de lista y extracto, Romero, Feb. 1, 1817, AGN, PI, 206. These filiaciones offer the anthropologist a prime source.

44Presidio de Tucson, Pie de lista y extracto, Manuel Ignacio de Arvizu, Tucson, June 1, 1818, ibid., 233. DCB.

45Pérez to Bestard, Feb. 5, 1817.


47Pérez to Bestard, Feb. 5, 1817.

48Pérez, Estado Espíritual y temporal de las misiones de la Pimería Alta, Oquitoa, Dec. 31,1818, AGN, Misiones, 3. Navarro García, Provincias Internas, pp. 86-91.

49Ibid., pp. 91-108. DCB.

50There are missing folios in the baptismal book, for all or part of the years 1805-1806, 1808, 1810-1814, and 1817-1821. Despite Gutiérrez' incredibly sloppy numbering, a reasonably accurate estimate can be arrived at by multiplying the average number of entries per extant folio by the number of missing folios. DCB.

51Fr. Faustino González, Estado de las misiones de la Pimería Alta, Caborca, Jan. 4, 1821, AMS.

52Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, p. 106. Dobyns, Hepah, California! The Journal of Cave Johnson Couts . . . 1848-1849, pp. 58-59.

53Cevallos to Bringas, Sept. 1814, ACQ, CS.

54DCB. CSCQ, Libro de difontos.

55Almada, Diccionario, pp. 368-69.

56Ibid., p. 454. Gutiérrez' acknowledgment of episcopal circular, Tumacácori, Oct. 1, 1820, AMS.

Chapter 10

1Almada, Diccionario, pp. 453-54. Andrade, Noticias biográficos, p. 25, claims the bishop traveled over 3,600 miles and confirmed more than 93,000.

2DCB. The error in year was compounded in marble in the mortuary chapel of mission San Xavier del Bac, the final resting place of Narciso Gutiérrez. There the friar's death date reads Dec. 21, 1821.

3Certification of sailing, Felipe José Benítez, Cádiz, April 24, 1813, et al., AGI, Mex., 2736. Cardoso, Lista. Prado to Calleja, CSCQ, Jan., 1816, AGN, Misiones, 18. Bringas to Calleja, CSCQ, Feb. 15, 1815, ibid. In Spain the friar signed himself Estelrich, the conventional mallorquin spelling. By the time he reached Tumacácori he had dropped the final 'h.'

4González, Estado, 1821. Estelric, who often let someone else write the entries for his signature, signed the Tumacácori and Tubac books from early Jan. 1821, through May 1, 1822. DCB. Libros de Tubac. The friar had entered his last baptism at Magdalena on Dec. 26, 1820. Parish archive, Magdalena, Son.

5Almada, Diccionario, pp. 562-63. Mattison, "Spanish and Mexican Settlements," pp. 310-13. Service record of Pérez, Primera compañia volante de Nueva Viscaya, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 233.

6Fr. Ramón Liberós to Pérez, Tumacácori, Sept. 6, 1822, BL, M-M 379, no. 75. For a more complete treatment of the big beef sale and its aftermath, see Kessell, "Father Ramón and the Big Debt, Tumacácori, 1821-1823," NMHR, vol. 44 (1969), pp. 53-72. Almada, Diccionario, pp. 239, 241-42. Rafael Elías González was a great-grandfather of Plutarco Elías Calles, president of Mexico, 1924-1928. Simón, according to Almada, had commanded the Tubac company of Pimas, evidently in absentia from 1805 to at least 1807 while Ensign Manuel de León acted for him.

7Estado de la población, 1774, CC, 201.83. Moyano, Noticia, 1803, AGI, Mex., 2736. Moyano, Noticia, 1805, ibid. Pérez, Estado, 1818, AGN, Misiones, 3. González, Estado, 1819, AMS. González, Estado, 1820, AMS.

8Pérez to Bestard, San Ignacio, Feb. 5, 1817, AGN, Misiones, 18.

9Bringas, Informe al rey.

10Nearly forty years later Samuel Woodworth Cozzens set down a delightful, singularly inaccurate version of how the Salero—Spanish for saltcellar—came by its name. The Bishop of Sonora, it seemed, was visiting the Jesuits at Tumacácori. Every detail to insure the prelate's pleasure had been seen to, save one. Where, he demanded, was the saltcellar? Chagrined at their oversight, the Jesuits rushed out, dug the ore, smelted it, and wrought forthwith a massive silver saltcellar. It was still to be seen, Cozzens assured his readers, in the bishop's palace at Hermosillo. The Marvellous Country, pp. 173-75.

11Libros de Tubac. Stoner, "Arriquibar," pp. 76-77. Fray Narciso Gutiérrez had buried don Agustín Ortiz, the Arivaca grantee, in the Tubac church "near the chancel" on Jan. 9, 1817.

12Santo to González, Culiacán, July 6, 1821, and González to Espíritu Santo,Caborca, June 4, 1821, AMS.

13Almada, Diccionario, pp. 84, 295, 368-70, 454. For a discussion of the effect of Spanish anti-clerical legislation in lining up the Mexican hierarchy behind independence, see Farriss, Crown and Clergy, pp. 237-53. Provincia de Sonora, Noticia de los puntos de dicha provincia donde se ha jurado la independencia, Chihuahua, Sept. 18, 1821, et al., Archivo Histórico Militar Mexicano, México, Secretaría de Guerra y Marina (AHMM).

14Estelric to Pérez, Tumacácori, Sept. 10, 1821, and draft, BL, M-M 379, no. 62. Pérez to Liberós, Chihuahua, Sept. 24, 1822, ibid., no. 77.

15Espíritu Santo to González, Culiacán, Dec. 7, 1821, acknowledged by Elías González, Tumacácori, Jan. 29, 1822, AMS.

16González to Espíritu Santo, Caborca, Oct. 4, 1822, AMS. DCB.

17González to Espíritu Santo, Caborca, Dec. 4, 1822, AMS.

18Espíritu Santo to Estelric, Culiacan, Feb. 14, 1823, AMS.

19Br. Francisco Javier Vázquez to Espíritu Santo, Pitic, Nov. 4, 1823, AMS.

20Fr. Ignacio Dávalos to Espíritu Santo, Tecoripa, April 12, 1824, AMS. Tabula II, 1827, ACQ. List of contributors, Guásavas, July 30, 1832, Archivo Histórico del Estado de Sonora, Hermosillo (AES). Fragment of Guásavas Libro de Entierros, Parish archive, Granados, Son.

21Certification of sailing, José Sentesvillano, Cádiz, July 19, 1813, et al., AGI, Mex., 2736.

22On May 30, Father García baptized con licencia del ministro a five-year-old Yuma boy giving him the name Ramón Liberós. DCB.

23For details of the contest between Liberós and Pérez, see Kessell, "Father Ramón," pp. 58-68.

24On the basis of present documentary evidence, it is impossible to determine the contribution of each friar—Gutiérrez, Estelric, and Liberós—to the church project or the chronology of construction. Apparently by the time Liberós arrived, enough had been built to warrant his hope that the structure might soon be put to use.

25DCB. It has been suggested, on the basis of an analysis of the interior decorations, that the new church "must have been in use for some time before the 1822 date." Charlie R. Steen and Rutherford J. Gettens, "Tumacácori Interior Decorations," Arizoniana, vol. 3, no. 3 (1962), p. 8. The documentary evidence, meager though it is, does not support this assumption. The dedication of a new mission church at Santa Bárbara in California a couple of years earlier included a similar transfer of two friars' coffins into vaults under the sanctuary. Geiger, Santa Barbara, p. 47.

26DCB. Libros de Tubac. Liberós later baptized and buried several more children of Ramón and María Leocadia. On Jan. 20, 1824, he married Ignacio Pamplona, son of Ramón and his first wife, to María Piedad Barrios.

27González, Inventario que manifiesta las alajas de plata . . . de las ocho misiones, Caborca, Oct. 26, 1822. AMS.

28La Canoa grant, Catron, PC 29, 302, box 2. Mattison, "Spanish and Mexican Settlements," pp. 294-97.

29Agreement between Herreros and the mission of Tumacácori, Tubac, Jan. 4, 1823, ACQ, CS. Transfer by Herreros to Gov. Ramón Pamplona for the pueblo of Tumacácori, Tubac, Dec. 4, 1826, ibid. Mattison, "Spanish and Mexican Settlements," pp. 298-300. Nicolás Herreros signed for his illiterate father the transfer to Elías, Tubac, Dec. 26, 1831. Sonoita grant, Catron, PC 29, 302, box 4. On June 20, 1822, Liberós had married widower Herreros and María Pelegrina Valencia of Santa Fe, New Mexico. Libros de Tubac.

30Liberós to Espíritu Santo, Tumacácori, May 8, 1823, AMS.

31Espíritu Santo to Liberós, Culiacán, June 6, 1823, AMS.

32DCB. Libros de Tubac. Cardoso, Lista.

33Francisco Iriarte to alcaldes constitucionales, Fuerte, Feb. 28, 1825, BL, M-M 380, no. 9. Fr. José María Pérez Llera, Apuntes sobre los acontecimientos acaecidos en este colegio de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro desde el año de 1821 y sus misiones hasta el mes de diciembre de 1844, ACQ.

34Noticia de las cantidades que se les deben en esta tesorería a las misiones de la Pimería Alta, Arizpe, Jan. 1, 1825, ACQ. CS. It was admitted in 1828 that mission sínodos had been in arrears "for a long time." Only the bishop, his secretary, and his notary got paid punctually, which seemed inconsistent to some, since the state also collected the tithe for the diocese. Juan M. Riesgo and Antonio J. Valdés, Memoria estadística del Estado de Occidente, p. 18.

35Pérez Llera, Apuntes. Some of the documentation on the ill-fated Prado mission is in AGI, Mex., 2737.

36Liberós, Tumacácori, Nov. 20, 1825, AMS. When I edited this letter in 1965, I assumed the recipient to have been Fray Joseph Gómez, twenty-year veteran of the Altar River missions. Montes, a catalán who had come over in the second contingent of the 1811-1813 mission, much closer to Liberós in age and experience, now seems a better bet. Kessell, "A Personal Note from Tumacácori, 1825," JAH, vol. 6 (1965), pp. 147-51.

37Aros to Urrea, Nov. 1, 1824, et al., AHMM. Seven years earlier Aros had been a corporal serving under Captain Simón Elías González at Santa Cruz. Pie de lista y extracto, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 206.

38Alcalde José Leon, Semanario de los acontecimientos, Tucson, Feb. 1, 1825, AES. Alcalde Ignacio Pacheco, Tranquilidad publica, Tucson, June 4, 1826, AES.

39Liberós, Nov. 20, 1825.

40See Lowell John Bean and William Marvin Mason, Diaries and Accounts of the Romero Expeditions in Arizona and California, 1823-1826, and Forbes, Warriors of the Colorado, pp. 242-44. José Romero, a native of the Valle de Oposura, was forty-one at the end of 1817 and the lieutenant in command of the Ópata company at Bacoachi. He had served previously at Horcasitas, Tucson, and Altar, where in interim command he had "made peace" with the Yuma nation. Service record of Romero, Bacoachi, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 233.

41Ríos to Urrea, [Tucson,] n.d., BL, M-M 495.

42Relación que manifiesta la demarcación de las rancherías de los Pimas gentiles Gileños, Arizpe, March 21, 1825, ibid. Urrea to Iriarte, Arizpe, Feb. 9 and March 21, 1825, ibid.

43Almada, Diccionario, pp. 811-12, 278.

44Figueroa to Simón Elías González, Arizpe, Aug. 23, 1825, BL, M-M 495.

45Elías González to secretario de estado, Arizpe, Aug. 5, 1825, ibid.

46Bean and Mason, Diaries, pp. 73-80. Forbes, Warriors of the Colorado, pp. 245-49.

47Liberós, Nov. 20, 1825. In view of the assertion that Yaquis brought the matachines to Arizona, this reference to the dance at Tumacácori in 1825, a dozen years or so after a colony of Yaqui miners moved in at Guevavi, is of some interest. See Spicer, Cycles of Conquest, pp. 509-10, 515; and Gertrude P. Kurath, "The Origin of the Pueblo Indian Matachines," El Palacio, vol. 64 (1957), p. 260.

48Statements by Manuel de León, Ramírez, and José León, Tucson, Nov. 20 and 26, 1825, AMS.

49Fernando Grande, Informe sobre las misiones de Pimería Alta, San Ignacio, Oct. 8, 1828, ACQ, SC. Just how many persons died at Tumacácori in the epidemic of 1826 is impossible to say. All the pages of burial, baptismal, and marriage entries after April, 1825, have been torn from the Tumacácori books. DCB.

50Pacheco to the governor, Tucson, Nov. 4, 1826, et al., AES, typescripts, BL, M-A 19. See also David J. Weber, The Taos Trappers, pp. 112-33.

51Alcalde Juan Romero to the governor, Tucson, Jan. 4, 1827, AES.

52Romero to the governor, Tucson, March 4, 1827, AES. Almada, Diccionario, p. 334.

53Bringas to Fr. Francisco Mogrovejo, CSCQ, Feb. 1, 1828, Archive of the Franciscan Province of Michoacán, photocopies, BL, BRP, no. 373. Pérez Llera, Apuntes. Eugenio de Aviraneta e Ibargoyen, Mis memorias íntimas, 1825-1829. For background on the expulsion, see Romeo Flores Caballero, La Contrarrevolución en la independencia.

54Eduardo W. Villa, Historia del Estado de Sonora, pp. 173-82.

55Thirty-six and a native of Cucurpe, Villaescusa had begun his career in 1804 and by 1817 had served at Buenavista, Fronteras, Santa Cruz, and Horcasitas. Alejo García Conde had classified him as a "very regular officer." Service record of Villaescusa, Pitic, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 233.

56Pérez Llera, Apuntes. Juan José Tovar to ayuntamiento of Altar, Altar, April 8, 1828, BL, M-M 380, no. 38. Santiago Redondo to Villaescusa, Altar, April 9, 1828, ibid., no. 39. Grande, Informe, Oct. 8, 1828.

57San Ignacio, Libro de casamientos, Parish archive, Magdalena, Son.

58Villa, Historia, pp. 179-81. Almada, Diccionario, p. 306. Tovar to ayuntamiento of Altar, April 8, 1828. González to ayuntamiento of Altar, Caborca, April 9, 1828, BL, M-M 380, no. 40. Redondo to Villaescusa, April 9, 1828.

59Villaescusa to Redondo, Tubutama, April 22, 1828, BL, M-M 380, no. 41.

60Villa, Historia, pp. 179-81.

61Pérez Liera's eulogy of González in CSCQ, Libro de difuntos. Pérez Llera, Apuntes.

62Ibid. García to Nicolás Martínez, Ures, May 11, 1828, ACQ.

63Pérez Llera, Apuntes.

Chapter 11

1Pérez Llera, Apuntes.

2Ibid. Cardoso, Lista. Díaz to governador de la mitra, Presidio of Santa Cruz, Oct. 7, 1828, AMS. He was at Cocóspera on Sept. 25, 1828, where he signed a peculiar baptismal entry recalling two of his expelled brethren, Francisco Solano García and Ramón Liberós: "I Fray Rafael (Liberós) Díaz solemnly baptized a boy to whom I gave the name Francisco Solano." Evidently Díaz moved up to Tucson late in 1828. During 1829 Pérez Llera signed the Cocóspera books more often than Díaz. From 1830 to 1836 Díaz lived at Cocóspera. Cocóspera, Libro de bautismos, Libro de entierros, BL, M-M 412.

3Manuel Escalante y Arvizu to José María Almada, Arizpe, Oct. 13, 1828, AES. [Almada] to Escalante y Arvizu, Sept. 13, 1828, AES. Índice de documentos, Sept. 27, 1828, AES.

4Grande, Informe, San Ignacio, Oct. 8, 1828, and Observaciones, Magdalena, Nov. 1, 1828, ACQ, CS. Velasco, Noticias, pp. 148-49, quotes a glowing 1829 assessment of the job done by Redondo and Grande in inventorying and setting right the finances of the seven Pimería Alta missions, which still, according to them, possessed significant resources. The combined debt owed these missions stood at: 4,456 pesos 2 reales by presidial companies; 27,097 pesos 5 reales 11 granos by private parties; and "a considerable sum which may exceed 30,000 pesos" by the federal government.

5Pérez Llera, Apuntes. In the spring of 1829 Grande instructed the Tumacácori administrator not to hand over the mission's kitchen garden to the friars until the governor resolved the matter. Grande to Sr. Admor., San Ignacio, April 28, 1829, ACQ, CS.

6Escalante y Arvizu to governor, Arizpe, Jan. 13, 1830, and Dec. 19, 1828, AES.

7Grande to Gov. Francisco Escobosa, Cucurpe, May 25, 1830, AES. Villa, Historia, p. 166.

8Pérez Llera to excelentísmo señor, n.d., ACQ, CS.

9Pérez Llera to governor, 1830, incomplete, ibid.

10Pérez Llera, Apuntes. Pérez Llera to governor, 1830.

11Escalante to minister of justice, Hermosillo, Aug. 6, 1831, ACQ, CS.

12Pérez Llera, Apuntes.

13Almada, Diccionario, pp. 247-48, 525-29, 648-50. Villa, Historia, pp. 183-88.

14Ignacio Sardina to governor, Tucson, May 4, 1828, AES.

15López to Grande, Tumacácori, Dec. 9, 1829, AES. Escalante y Arvizu to governor, Arizpe, Jan. 13, 1830, AES. Either the Apache killed by Ochoa was not Nagayé or another capitancillo, killed in 1831, had the same name. Índice de las novedades, José Grijalva, Tucson, Oct. 1, 1831, AES. To avenge the death of this second Nagayé, done in through the treachery of Tucson settlers, some fifty mounted Apaches galloped right up to the presidio wall on Oct. 19, 1831, and proceeded to examine the defenses as if planning an attack. Inocencio Buitrón to governor, Arizpe, Oct. 25, 1831, AES. A year later still another Capitancillo Nagayé, of the Pinaleños, accepted a peace treaty. Ramón Morales to vice governor, Arizpe, Sept. 27, 1832, AES.

16At the same time three vaqueros were killed and 1,200 horses and mules driven off from Rafael Elías' San Pedro ranch. Escalante y Arvizu to alcalde of Santa Cruz, Arizpe, Jan. 11, 1830, BL, M-M 380, no. 55. Escalante y Arvizu to governor, Jan. 13, 1830.

17Padrón del vecindario de Tubac, ACQ, CS. Riesgo and Valdes, Memoria estadistica, pp. 63-64. A year's pay for the entire garrison came to 13,372 pesos 6 reales. "In the jurisdiction of Tubac," wrote the same two authors, "excursions into the countryside are attended by continual danger of robbery and murder by the Apaches. There is, nevertheless, a silver mine which was worked a few years ago. San José de Tumacácori is an adjacent mission pueblo. Its population is very small. At a rancho in its district, called Las Calabazas [Guevavi?], a gold mine is worked by poor people. Others apply themselves to collecting dust of the same metal at the placers."

18Ignacio Elías et al., Cocóspera, May 20, 1832, and Joaquín Vicente Elías to Escalante y Arvizu, Cocóspera, May 21, 1832, AES. Comandancia Militar del Estado de Occidente, Instrucción y método . . . para mantener una guerra defensiva contra los Indios Apaches, Manuel Ignacio de Arvizu, Arizpe, Dec. 16, 1829, BL, M-M 380, no. 54. Six months before, Joaquín Vicente Elías had bought the Sonoita grant from León Herreros for 200 fanegas of wheat delivered to Fray Rafael Díaz on Herreros' account. Transfer, Tubac, Dec. 26, 1831, Catron, PC 29, 302, box 4.

19Joaquín Vicente Elías to Escalante y Arvizu, Tucson, May 28, 1832, and Arizpe, two letters, June 19, 1832, AES.

20Eustaquio Martínez to Escalante y Arvizu, San Ignacio, June 17, 1832, AES. "Triunfo sobre los Apaches en el Estado de Sonora," Chihuahua, July 6, 1832, AES.

21Narbona quoted by José María Elías González to Escalante y Arvizu, Arizpe, June 18, 1832, AES.

22Zúñiga, Rápida ojeada al Estado de Sonora, Territorios de California, y Arizona . . . 1835, ed. Vargas Rea, p. 78.

23Irigoyen to Villaescusa, Tubac, June 10, 1832, and José María Elías González to Escalante y Arvizu, Arizpe, June 18, 1832, AES.

24Zubía to Escalante y Arvizu, Tubac, Oct. 4, 1832, and José María Elías González to Escalante y Arvizu, Arizpe, July 23 and Aug. 12, 1832, AES.

25Juan Bautista Elías to Escalante y Arvizu, Tubac, July 4, 1834, and Loreto Ramírez to commanders at Tubac and Santa Cruz, Tucson, July 3, 1834, AES.

26Díaz to vice governor, Cocóspera, Nov. 1, 1832, and Andrés Granillo to Escalante y Arvizu, Cocóspera, Aug. 5, 1832, AES. Only two of the men, Crisanto Higuera and Pedro Hipólito [Pineda], were listed thirty-one years before by Father Gutiérrez. Of the twelve family names shown, six had appeared on the Gutiérrez census. Gutiérrez, Padrón, 1801. Fray Angélico Chávez, Archives of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe, 1678-1900, p. 103.

27Fr. Pedro de Arriquibar to the bishop, Tucson, March 6, 1811, AMS.

28Informaciones seguidas contra la persona del administrador de la misión de Tumacácori José Sosa, Elías, Tubac, Feb. 4, 1834, ACQ, CS. Padrón del vecindario de Tubac.

29Atanasio Otero, Tubac, May 28, 1836, ACQ, CS.

30Péres Llera, Apuntes. Pérez Llera to minister of war, CSCQ, June 29, 1841; printed in José Agustín de Escudero, Noticias estadisticas de Sonora y Sinaloa, pp. 43-46. Almada, Diccionario, pp. 305, 650-58.

31Ibid., pp. 288-94, 806-10.

32Baptismal, marriage, and burial books, Parish archives, Magdalena and Altar, Son. CSCQ, Libro de difuntos. Opodepe, Libro de entierros, Parish archive, Rayón, Son.

33González to Gándara, April 16, 1839, AES.

34Díaz to Fr. Antonio González and Fr. Ángel Arroyo, San Ignacio, May 28, 1841, ACQ, CS.

35CSCQ, Libro de difuntos.

36Díaz to González and Arroyo, May 28, 1841. Flores to Gándara, Opodepe, Aug. 7, 1841, AES. Antonio González signed the inventory for San Ignacio on Sept. 7, 1841. BL, M-M 380, no. 65.

37González was invested on Feb. 22, 1823, and he professed March 25, 1824. CSCQ, Libro de incorporaciones, ACQ. The friar did not date the Tumacácori inventory. Two more undated inventories of Tumacácori's church furnishings, both unsigned, are preserved with the González document in BL, M-M 285.

38José María Martínez et al. to Father Joseph P. Machebeuf, San Xavier del Bac, Dec. 16, 1858, ADT. Jackson, Tumacácori's Yesterdays, pp. 52-53. Mattison, "Spanish and Mexican Settlements," pp. 293, 309-10.

39Bishop Garza to Pérez Llera, Culiacán, Nov. 9, 1841, and Pérez Llera to Garza, CSCQ, Sept. 28, 1841, AMS.

40Pérez Llera to Garza, CSCQ, Dec. 27, 1841, and March 26, 1842, AMS.

41Teodoro López to Flores, Magdalena, Oct. 5, 1842, AMS.

42González to Garza, San Ignacio, May 25, 1843, AMS. Noticia, Roque Ibarra, Tubac, March 1, 1843, BL, M-M 381, no. 45.

43Estado, Errán, Tubac, Nov. 1, 1842, ibid., no. 2, et al. The Tubac establecimiento de paz was smaller than its counterpart at Tucson. In 1835 there had been 106 Apache men, 117 women, and 263 children receiving wheat rations at the Tucson camp. They were presided over by General Antuna and Capitancillos Nichuy and Flaco. Establecimiento de Apaches del Tucson, Comadurán, Arizpe, July 16, 1835, BL, M-M 380, no. 62.

44Joaquín Quiroga to secretario del departamento, Cucurpe, May 31, 1843, AES. The Aug. 4, 1843, issue of El Voto de Sonora printed Santa Anna's decree of June 21 authorizing the Jesuits to refound missions all across the northern frontier from Texas to the Californias. The editors favored the plan.

45Comadurán to José María Elías González, Tucson, Dec. 1, 1842, BL, M-M 381, no. 38, et al.

46Garza to José de Aguilar, Culiacán, April 19, 1850, AMS.

47[Vázquez,] Abreviado informe, Cieneguilla, May, 1844, BL, M-M 381, no. 62. Bishop Garza later wrote that a lone Queretaran friar, doubtless González, had returned to Pimería Alta "and died soon after." Garza to Juan Francisco Escalante and Manuel María Encinas, Culiacán, April 19, 1849, AMS.

48SED, pp. 13-15. Mattison, "Spanish and Mexican Settlements," pp. 293-94, and "Tangled Web." The United States Supreme Court ruled in 1898 that the sale to Aguilar was illegal and void, thus nullifying all subsequent transfers of the grant. Because the rightful owners, the Tumacácori Indians, had in the meantime abandoned the grant, it reverted to the public domain.

49San Ignacio, Libro de bautismos, Parish archives, Magdalena, Son. Most of those who hung on at Tumacácori till the end are named in these entries. García Rojas had taken over Dan Ignacio and the northern Pimería on June 20, 1844.

50Comadurán to José María Elías González, Tucson, Sept. 17, 1844, BL, M-M 381, no. 64.

51Comadurán to Elías González, Tucson, Dec. 7, 1845, two letters, and Diario, Nov. 29-Dec. 7, 1845, ibid., nos. 84-85.

52Comadurán to Elías González, Tucson, Feb. 3, 1846, ibid., no. 86.

53Ignacio Elías Gonález to governor, Arizpe, Nov. 10, 1837, AES.

54Arthur Woodward, "Sidelights on Fifty Years of Apache Warfare, 1836-1886," Arizoniana, vol. 2, no. 3 (1961), pp. 3-14; Ralph A. Smith, "The Scalp Hunter in the Borderlands, 1835-1850," AW, vol. 6 (1964), pp. 5-22; and Weber, Taos Trappers, pp. 220-25.

55Lorenzo Vázquez to Bishop Garza, Altar, Feb. 10, 1849, AMS.

56Cooke quoted by Bancroft, Arizona and New México, p. 478. See also Almada, Diccionario, pp. 382-86.

57Vázquez to Pedro Losa, Cieneguilla, April 23, 1847, AMS.

58Tucson, fragmentary burial record, 1848, BL, M-M 411. Luisa Huerta et al. to commandant general, Tucson, July 6, 1848, AES.

59Dobyns, Journal of Couts, pp. 58-59.

60Petitions to Judge Charles Trumbell Hayden by Jones et al., Guevavi, July 9, 1864, and by Jones, Guevavi, Aug. 1, 1864, PCRO, Old Record Book "B," pp. 75, 77. U.S., 48th Congress, 1st sess., Sen. Exec. Doc. 53, pp. 12-14.

61Dobyns, Journal of Couts, pp. 58-59,61. Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico, pp. 474-79.

62El Sonorense (Feb. 21, 1849), pp. 1-3, BL. Bancroft says nine persons were killed in the attack on Tubac. Arizona and New Mexico, p. 475. Fronteras, Tubac, Cuquiárachi, Chinapa, Ópotu, and Cocóspera were listed as "completely abandoned" in mid-January. Jesús María Encinas to Gándara, Ures, Jan. 15, 1849, typescript, BL, M-A 6. A good many of the displaced persons from Tubac evidently ended up at Santa Cruz, as well as at Tucson. See J. Lucas Biso [José Lucas Picó], "Resumen breve y explicatorio de los pueblos del partido de Arizpe," Ures, March 8, 1850, Boletín de la Sociedad Mexicana de Geografía y Estadistica, primera época, vol. 2 (1864), pp. 62-67.

63José de Aguilar to juez de paz of Santa Cruz, Ures, April 30, 1849, BL, M-M 381, no. 113.

64Encinas to Gándara, Jan. 15, 1849.

65Lorenzo Vázquez to Garza, Feb. 10, 1849. Francisco Javier Vázquez to secretario de la superior curia episcopal, Cieneguilla, May 22, 1849, AMS.

66Aguilar to Garza, Ures, June 8, 1849, et al., AMS. Several months later Francisco Javier Vázquez moved to Caborca where he recalled that he had blessed the cornerstone of the church and its final vault. Vázquez to Garza, Caborca, Sept. 20, 1849, AMS. Robert H. Forbes, Crabb's Filibustering Expedition into Sonora, p. 5, relates a similar attack on "Cieneguita" involving the old priest and his sister, attributing it to Parker H. French, the overland expedition leader-turned-desperado, who does not seem to have reached Sonora until October.

67See Kenneth Hufford, "Travelers on the Gila Trail, 1824-1850," JAH, vol. 7 (1966), pp. 1-8, vol. 8 (1967), pp. 30-44.

68Powell, The Santa Fé Trail to California, 1849-1852, ed. Douglas S. Watson, p. 142. Jackson, Tumacacori's Yesterdays, pp. 57-58.

69Vázquez recorded at Tucson 22 baptisms, 118 confirmations, 120 confessions, and 4 marriages; and at San Xavier del Bac 21 baptisms, 76 confirmations, and 22 confessions. Lorenzo Vázquez, Altar, Jan. 16, 1849, AMS.

70Citizens of Tucson to prefect of San Ignacio, Tucson, Feb. 6, 1850, et al., AMS.

71Garza to Aguilar, April 19, 1850. Br. Lorenzo Vázquez planned to visit Tucson and San Xavier in August, believing that God would protect him from the Apache barbarians. Vázquez to bishop, Altar, Aug. 6, 1850, AMS.

72CSCQ, Libro de difuntos.

73Comisión de arreglo de curatos en Sonora to Garza, Ures, July 19, 1850, AMS.

74Aguilar to ministro de relaciones, Ures, April 30, 1851, AMS.

75For an idea of the intrigue and grand plans generated among foreigners by Mexico's desire to people the northern frontier, see Rufus K. Wyllys, The French in Sonora (1850-1854). Almada, Diccionario, pp. 80-81, 389-405.

76Faulk, ed., "Projected Mexican Military Colonies for the Borderlands, 1848," JAH, vol. 9 (1968), pp. 39-47; "A Colonization Plan for Northern Sonora, 1850," NMHR, vol. 44 (1969), pp. 293-314; and "Projected Mexican Colonies in the Borderlands, 1852," JAH, vol. 10 (1969), pp. 115-28.

77Nombramiento, Ures, May 23, 1851, AMS.

78Lorenzo Vázquez to bishop, Altar, July 27, 1851, AMS. Pimas and Pápagos recorded the horrible contagion on their calendar sticks. See, for example, C. H. Southworth, "A Pima Calendar Stick," AzHR, vol. 4, no. 2 (1931), p. 45.

79A translation of the contract signed Dec. 9, 1852, is quoted in full by Fontana, Calabazas, p. 77. Almada, Diccionario, pp. 112-14, 280.

80Fontana, Calabazas, pp. 77-78. Earlier that year the prefect of San Ignacio had reported to Gándara a great gathering of Apaches bent on the destruction of Tucson and Santa Cruz. Gándara to ministro de relaciones, Ures, Feb. 15, 1853, typescript, BL, M-A 17. A somewhat different version of the action at Calabazas appeared in the Nov. 10, 1855, Sacramento Union: "In March, 1853, the place was besieged and circled closely around by three hundred Apaches, against whom the little garrison fought bravely. Messrs Hundhaused and Hulseman [sic] made a sally during the siege, and shot down three Apaches, for which deed they were complimented in high terms in all the papers of Mexico. The assailants lost twenty four men in the course of the short siege, and since then have not troubled the place seriously."

81Julius Froebel and James A. Bennett quoted in Fontana, Calabazas, p. 79.

82Unsigned draft of order, Ures, Sept. 28, 1853, BL, M-M 381, no. 129.

83Cota to commandant general, Tubac, June 17, 1853, and draft of reply, July 8, 1853, ibid., no. 117. Cota commended First Sergeant José Paredes, Corporals Rodriguez and Cirilio Tanori, and paisano José Ortega. The fortunate Martínez, a soldier and land-owner at Tubac at least as early as 1838, had abandoned the place with the other refugees in 1848. At Tucson he petitioned for a farming grant and grazing rights "in the vacant and uncultivated lands of the missions of San Xavier and Tucson," which he received, allegedly with the consent of the Indians of San Xavier. Mattison, "Spanish and Mexican Settlements," pp. 283-84.

84Zenteno to Gándara, Tubac, July 6, 1853, M-M 381, no. 57. Zenteno to governor and commandant general, Tubac, July 18, 1853, three letters; Relación de los Apaches que forman la ranchería de este establecimiento; and drafts of replies, July 28, 1853, ibid., nos. 118-20.

85Circular, Ures, Sept. 13, 1853, ibid., no. 126. Zenteno to governor and commandant general, Tubac, July 30, and Aug. 11, 1853, et al., ibid., nos. 121-25.

86Instrucciones que se dan al Comandante de la Linea del Tucson a Santa Cruz Capitán Andrés Zenteno, Ures, Nov. 9, 1853, et al., ibid., nos. 131-32, 135-36. The command at Tubac had devolved on First Sergeant José Paredes. Zenteno reassumed it when named chief of the line. The captain dispatched messengers to Culo Azul to arrange a meeting with him at Tucson.

87Zenteno to Ayudante Inspector Bernabé Gómez, Tubac, Jan. 18 and 21, 1854, ibid., nos. 138-39.

88Sacramento Union, Nov. 10, 1855.

89Ramírez de Arellano to Gómez, Guaymas, April 3 and 4, 1855, BL, M-M 381, nos. 141-42. For photos of a young-appearing Antonio Azul, Pima head chief in 1872, see Ezell, Hispanic Acculturation, p. 52.

90Compañía presidial de caballería del Tucson, Lista para la revista, Sept. 1, 1855, BL, M-M 381, nos. 153-54.

91As Poston later remembered it, life at Tubac in 1856 and 1857 was one delightful picnic, with an abundance of charming señoritas, Sunday feasts of wild turkey, mescal, and French wines followed by excursions to the quaint ruins at Tumacácori, and the exhilaration of productive Yankee self-sufficiency in one's own utopian company town. See his Building a State in Apache Land, ed. John Myers Myers, and "Poston's Narrative" in J. Ross Browne, Adventures in the Apache Country.

92Sylvester Mowry, The Geography and Resources of Arizona and Sonora, p. 12.

93Comadurán to Gómez, Tucson, May 15, 1855, and Inventario de los vasos sagrados y ornamentos sacerdotales que existen en la iglesia de este pueblo pertenecientes a la misión de Tumacácori, May 16, 1855, M-M 381, nos. 146-47.

94Sacramento Union, Nov. 10, 1855. Fontana, Calabazas, pp. 80, 83-84. Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico, p. 490n.

95José Zapata to Machebeuf, Tucson, June 13, 1859, ADT. Martínez et al. to Machebeuf, Dec. 16, 1858.

96Bonaventure Oblasser, O.F.M., "Carnacion Tells Her Tale," AzHR, vol. 3, no. 4 (1931), p. 98.

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