Gray Robes for Black
The Archreformer Backs Down
Tumacácori or Troy?
The Course of Empire
The Promise and Default of the Provincias Internas
The Challenge of a Reforming Bishop
A Quarrel Among Friars
"Corruption Has Come Among Us"
A Trampled Guarantee
1The story of the
Jesuits' northwest missionary empire has been thoroughly chronicled,
mostly by Jesuits. While the following studies deal mainly with the Pima
missions, they include in their bibliographies the full run of
chronicles: Herbert E. Bolton, Rim of Christendom; John Augustine
Donohue, S.J., After Kino; John L. Kessell, Mission of
Sorrows; and the recent works of Ernest J. Burrus, S.J., and Charles
W. Polzer, S.J.
2A fine description of
the face of the land, nature's changes, and man's influence is James
Rodney Hastings and Raymond M. Turner, The Changing Mile. See
also Roger Dunbier, The Sonoran Desert.
3In English the name Pima
has long been restricted to the Gila River Pimas, since the 1820s better
known to Americans than their relatives to the south. Pápago now
applies to both the desert people of the reservation centered at Sells,
Arizona, and to the remnant river Pimas mixed with Pápagos at San
Xavier del Bac near Tucson. The literature on the Piman peoples is
extensive. See particularly the basic works of Ruth M. Underhill,
Social Organization of the Pápago Indians and
Pápago Indian Religion. Edward H. Spicer has synthesized
the Pimans' relations with successive "conquerors" in his Cycles of
Conquest, pp. 118-51, 590-91.
4A new edition and
translation of Kino's tract is Poizer and Burrus, eds., Kino's
Biography of Francisco Javier Saeta, S.J.
5A 1765 census showed the
eight cabeceras and fourteen visitas with a total of 3,764 mission
Indians, plus an inflated estimate of 2,000 Sobáipuri immigrants.
Few received communion because in the opinion of their missionaries they
had not shown the proper reverence since the uprising of 1751. Noticia
de las misiones que administran los padres de la Compañía
de Jesús en esta Nueva España, 1765, University of Texas
Library, Austin, W. B. Stephens Collection, no. 68.
6Kessell, Mission of
7See Richard Herr, The
Eighteenth-Century Revolution in Spain, and N. M. Farriss, Crown
and Clergy in Colonial Mexico, 1759-1821. Also Kessell, "Friars
versus Bureaucrats," The Western Historical Quarterly, vol. 5
(1974), pp. 151-62.
8Robert Ricard, The
Spiritual Conquest of Mexico, trans. Lesley Byrd Simpson.
Canedo, O.F.M., convincingly argues this point in his introduction to
Sonora hacia fines del siglo XVIII, pp. 19-32.
10Spicer concludes that
"succeeding Franciscan efforts were relatively weak," and that "the
vigorous mission communities of the early 1700s were a thing of the
past." Analyzing the Hispanic conquest of the Upper Pimas, he devotes
thirteen pages to Jesuit endeavor and one extremely inaccurate paragraph
to Franciscan. Cycles of Conquest, pp. 118-32. Henry F. Dobyns in
"Military Transculturation of Northern Piman Indians, 1782-1821,"
Ethnohistory, vol. 19 (1972), pp. 323-43, evades the question of
"whether the Franciscan missionary effort among the Northern Pimans was
in fact less intense than that of the Jesuits" but labors instead to
show how much "cross-cultural contact" took place in the Piman garrison
11The notion that the
Jesuits knew the language and the Franciscans did not has no basis in
fact. For a documented refutation, see Kieran R. McCarty, O.F.M.,
"Franciscan Beginnings on the Arizona-Sonora Desert, 1767-1770," Ph.D.
dissertation, Catholic University of America, pp. 107-13.
1Theodore E. Treutlein,
ed., Missionary in Sonora, pp. 49-52. The text of Charles III's
decree of expulsion, Feb. 27, 1767, is printed in Alberto Francisco
Pradeau, La expulsión de los Jesuitas de las Provincias de
Sonora, Ostimuri y Sinaloa en 1767, pp. 28-29. For the full scope of
the Gálvez visita, see Herbert I. Priestley,
José de Gálvez, and Luis Navarro Garcia, "El
Marqués de Croix (1766-1771)," in Los virreyes de Nueva
España en el reinado de Carlos III, ed. José Antonio
Calderón Quijano, vol. 1, pp. 161-381.
2Kessell, Mission of
Sorrows, pp. 181-84.
3Juan Bautista de Anza to
Gov. Juan Claudio de Pineda, Arizpe, Aug. 15, 1767, Biblioteca Nacional,
México, Archivo Franciscan (AF), 39/886. Many of the documents in
the Archivo Franciscano, formerly the Franciscans' provincial archive at
the Convento Grande in Mexico City, were copiednot always
accuratelylate in the eighteenth century and included in the
collection "Memorias de Nueva España." Sets of these copies are
preserved in Spain and in the Sección de Historia of the Mexican
Archivo General de la Nación. Considerable portions were printed
in Documentos para la historia de Méjico, 21 vols.
4Marqués de Croix
to Fr. Manuel de Nájera, México, July 7, 1767, AF, 16/302.
Nájera to Marqués de Croix, México, July 8, 1767,
ibid. McCarty, "Franciscan Beginnings," pp. 5-12. Father
McCarty's important study, of which the dissertation is only the
beginning, will detail the Franciscan effort in all of Sonora and place
it in the larger perspective of eighteenth- and nineteenth-century Spain
5See McCarty, "Apostolic
Colleges of the Propagation of the FaithOld and New World
Background," The Americas, vol. 19 (1962), pp. 50-58; Michael B.
McCloskey, O.F.M., The Formative Years of the Missionary College of
Santa Cruz of Querétaro, 1683-1733; Isidro Félix de
Espinosa, O.F.M., Crónica de los colegios de propaganda fide
de la Nueva España, ed. Lino Gómez Canedo, O.F.M.;
Maynard J. Geiger, O.F.M., The Life and Times of Fray Junípero
Serra, O.F.M., vol. 1, pp. 90-95.
6Marqués de Croix
to Fr. Sebastián Flores, México, July 8, 1767, Archivo del
Colegio de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro, Convento Franciscano,
Celaya, Guanajuato (ACQ), K, leg. 14. This archive has been badly
scattered; only a part is preserved at Celaya. Photocopies or
transcripts of many documents are among the Bolton Research Papers
(BRP), Bancroft Library, University of California, Berkeley (BL).
7Nájera to Father
Guardian, México, July 11, 1767, ACQ, K, 14. Fr. José
Ignacio Alegre y Capetillo, México, April 9, 1769, Huntington
Library, San Marino, California, Gálvez Papers, box 8.
Venerable Discretorio a los Padres de Sonora para govierno suyo y de las
misiones, Colegio de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro (CSCQ), Aug. 4,
1767, ACQ, K, 14. Juan Domingo Arricivita, O.F.M., Crónica
serafica y apostólica del Colegio de Propaganda Fide de la Santa
Cruz de Querétaro de la Nueva España, segunda parte,
pp. 394-95. McCloskey, Formative Years, pp. 47-48. McCarty,
"Franciscan Beginnings," pp. 13-15, 26-27.
9A few details of the
Queretarans' trip from Guadalajara to Tepic can be gleaned from the
expense accounts in the Archivo General de la Nación,
México (AGN), Historia, vol. 287. For background and details of
the Sonora Expedition and of Gálvez grand design for the
northwest, see Navarro Garcia, Don José de Gálvez y la
Comandancia General de las Provincias Internas del Norte de Nueva
España, pp. 148-85.
Junípero Serra, vol. 1, pp. 184-85. McCarty, "Franciscan
Beginnings," pp. 27-32.
Aug. 10, 1767, in Pradeau, La expulsión, pp. 59-60.
María de los Reyes to Pineda, Tuape, July 26, 1768, AF, 40/917.
Reyes, Manifiesto estado de Sonora, México, April 20, 1772, AGN,
Misiones, 14; ed. Vargas Rea, Copia del manifiesto estado de las
provincias de Sonora.
13Guevavi, Tubaca y
Otros, fragmentary baptismal, marriage, and burial records, 1739-1767,
Archives of the Diocese of Tucson (ADT). Kessell, Mission of
Sorrows, pp. 74, 166-67. Andres Grijalva's name appeared at the head
of a list of the 43 able-bodied civilian males resident at Terrenate
earlier that year. Francisco Elías González, Padrón
individual del vecindario, Terrenate, April 6, 1767, AF, 33/705.
14Anza to Pineda, Sept.
7, and Aug. 22, 1767, AF, 39/886.
to Gálvez, Arizpe, Oct. 30, 1786, Archivo General de Indias,
Sevilla (AGI), Audiencia de Guadalajara (Guad.), leg. 521.
16Anza to Pineda, Sept.
7, 1767, AF, 39/886.
Huandurraga to Pineda, Tubac, Dec. 2, 1767, AF, 40/900. Extracto de las
noticias recibidas de Sonora con fecha de 18 de enero de 1768, AGI,
Guad., 511. Navarro Garciía, Gálvez, p. 166n.
18Domingo Elizondo to
Pineda, Tepic, Dec. 8, 1767, AF, 33/710. Geiger, Junípero
Serra, vol. 1, pp. 185-88. Kieran McCarty explains the political
maneuvering behind the scenes and points out that this attempt to shift
the missionary assignments was another example of the long-standing
jurisdictional rivalry between Guadalajara and Mexico City. "Franciscan
Beginnings," pp. 15-21, 32-33, 39-40.
19Fr. Mariano Antonio de
Buena y Alcalde to Gálvez, early 1769, Fr. Marcellino da Civezza
Collection, Library of the Antonianum, Rome (CC), 201.53.
20Elizondo to Pineda,
Rosario, Jan. 26, 1768, AF, 33/710.
Historical Memoirs of New California by Fray Francisco Palóu,
O.F.M., vol. 1, pp. 19-20.
22Elizondo to Pineda,
Guaymas, May 10, 1768, AF, 33/710.
23Reyes to Guardian and
Discretory, Cucurpe, Oct. 10, 1768. CC, 201.55.
Tamarón y Romeral to Pineda, Durango, Sept. 26, 1767, AF,
Tamarón, Durango, Oct. 15, 1767, CC, 201.52. Letters of
Tamarón to Pineda, Sept. 5, 1767, to Sept. 17, 1768, AF, 16/303.
Pineda to Tamarón, Horcasitas, Aug. 16, and June 15, 1768, AF,
40/906-07. McCarty, "Franciscan Beginnings," pp. 33-34, 51-59.
26Fr. Francisco Antonio
Barbastro, Compendio de lo más notable que han trabajado en
Sonora los hijos del Colegio de la Santa Cruz desde . . . 1768 hasta . .
. 1783, Babi$aacute;cora, Sept. 10, 1788, CC, 202.35. Arricivita relied
heavily on Barbastro for the history of the Sonora missions.
27Pineda to the
Marqués de Croix, Buenavista, March 24, 1768, AGN, Provincias
Internas (PI), 47. On May 10, evidently just before he learned of the
San Carlos arrival, Colonel Elizondo wrote the governor saying
that three more Querétaro friars were on their way to the capital
to receive missionary assignments. Elizondo to Pineda, May 10, 1768.
28Buena y Alcalde to
Guardian and Discretory, Tubutama, July 9, 1768, CC, 201.49. Buena y
Alcalde to [Gálvez, early 1769], CC, 201.53. Barbastro,
Compendio. Fr. Esteban de Salazar to Flores, Ures, Aug. 21, 1768, CC,
202.12. Pineda to Buena y Alcalde, Horcasitas [May, 17681, AF,
29Buena y Alcalde to
Guardian and Discretory, July 9, 1768, CC, 201.49. By carefully sifting
the available documentation Father McCarty has come up with a detailed
accounting of the Queretarans' whereabouts from the time of their advent
in Sonora until they were finally all matched with missions. "Franciscan
Beginnings," pp. 32, 64-70.
expulsión, pp. 86-91. Herr, Eighteenth-Century
Revolution, pp. 16-17.
1Fr. Pedro Pérez
de Mezquía to Conde de Regla, México, Jan. 5, 1764;
extract at the Academy of American Franciscan History. Marqués de
Cruillas to Julián de Arriaga, México, Nov. 11, 1763, AGI,
Audiencia de México (Mex.), 1507.
Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 516-17.
embarcación, Cádiz, July 18, 1763, et al., AGI,
5Not even Arricivita
could find out anything about Gil's parents, observing only that they
must have been good Christians to have raised such a son. The parish
records of Alfambra were destroyed in the 1930s during the Spanish Civil
6A possible relative,
Fray Basilio Gil de Bernabé y Sebastián (1717-1773),
well-known Mercedarian who became general of his order and theologian to
the king, apparently resided in Zaragoza at the time.
embarcación, July 18, 1763, AGI, Contratación, 5545A. For
a brief description of the convent, see Pascual Madoz, Diccionario
geográfico-estadistico-histórico de España y sus
posesiones de ultramar, vol. 16, p. 582. Nothing remains of it
9During Gil's stay on
Monlora a proper church for the Virgin was built to replace the
centuries-old hermitage. Monastery and church survive. Cinco Libros de
la iglesia parroquial, 1761-1783, Parish archive, Luna (Zaragoza).
Coronación canónica de Nuestra Señora de
10Fr. Joseph Antonio
Bernad to Guardian of the Colegio-seminario de Herbón, Madrid,
Nov. 17, 1762, and Fr. Miguel Ramón Pinilla to Fr. Antonio
Estévez, Madrid, Feb. 15, 1763, printed in Archivo
Ibero-Americano (ALA), vol. 3, pp. 68-73.
Madrid, Dec. 15, 1768, AGI, Contratación, 5545A.
12Kessell, "The Making
of A Martyr," New Mexico Historical Review (NMHR), vol. 45
(1970), pp. 181-96.
13Details of the mission
of 1763 are in AGI, Contratación, 5545A, and ACQ, N, 2.
and Diego de Lanz to Arriaga, Campeche, Nov. 8, 1763, AGI, Mex., 3117.
Razón de la carga de la fragata de S.M. el Mercurio,
ibid., 3118. Diego de Ayala and Lanz to Cruillas, Campeche, Dec.
15, 1763, ibid., 1507.
15Ayala and Lanz to
Cruillas, Dec. 15, 1763, ibid.
16Pedro de Urriola [to
Arriaga], Campeche, Dec. 23, 1764, AGI, Mex., 3152. Diligencias,
Campeche, Nov. 30, 1764, ibid. Sumario, Consejo de Indias, Dec.
23, 1765, AGI, Mex., 3002.
17Ayala and Lanz to
Cruillas, Dec. 15, 1763, AGI, Mex., 1507. Don Julián Vicente
Gonzál;ez de Andia was the inquisitor.
Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, p. 517.
19Cruillas to Arriaga,
México, Jan. 2, 1764, AGI, Mex., 1507. Gov. and oficiales reales
of Veracruz to Arriaga, Veracruz, March 10, 1764, ibid.,
20For the preaching of
home missions, see Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 1, pp.
Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 517, 541-42.
22Michael E. Thurman,
The Naval Department of San Blas, pp. 60, 96.
25Gi1 was in Horcasitas
on May 1, 1768, where he recorded a baptism he had performed April 11 at
San José de Gracia, a small Spanish settlement some twenty-five
miles below Ures on the Río Sonora. Fragmentary baptismal,
marriage, and burial records, Parish archive, Horcasitas, Sonora. Pineda
to Marqués de Croix, Horcasitas, June 17, 1768, AGN, PI, 47.
María de los Reyes, Noticia y estado actual de las misiones que
en la provincia de Sonora administran los padres del colegio de
propaganda fide de la Santa Cruz de Querétaro, México,
July 6, 1772, AGN, Misiones, 14. Even though Reyes claimed to have
before him reports from the various missions, his secondhand
descriptions are not always accurate. Kessell, Mission of
Sorrows, pp. 100-02, 167.
LaFora, Relación del viaje que hizo a los presidios internas
situados en la frontera de la América Septentrional perteneciente
al Rey de España, ed. Vito Alessio Robles, pp. 126-27;
translated by Lawrence Kinnaird as The Frontiers of New
28Kessell, Mission of
Sorrows, pp. 143-44, 201. De Calabazas Bautismos, fragmentary
baptismal, marriage, and burial records for Franciscan
Guevavi-Tumacácori, 1768-1825 (DCB), ADT. Reyes, Noticia y
29Kessell, Mission of
Sorrows, pp. 127, 144, 160-61, 168-69.
Gutiérrez], Padrón de los gentiles bautizados en esta
misión de San Joseph de Tumacácori, 1768-1795, CC, 201.82.
This may have been the only time at his first mission that Gil baptized
heathens, although Gutiérrez did include the statement that "more
were baptized, some at Calabazas, the ones who fled, and others who died
at the hands of the Apaches, but such entries are not in the book."
Unfortunately none of Gil's baptismal entries survive.
Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 20-21. Father Gil's initial
census is missing. An undated report, probably compiled about 1770,
placed the mission's total population at 62 to 71 families: Guevavi, 18
to 20; Calabazas, 9 to 10; Tumacácori, 15 to 16; and Sonoita, 20
to 25. Noticia individual de las misiones y pueblos, CC, 201.57. See
also Dobyns, "Indian Extinction in the Middle Santa Cruz River Valley,
Arizona," NMHR, vol. 38 (1963), pp. 163-81.
vecindario, Anza, Tubac, April 2, 1767, AF, 33/705.
33Teodoro de Islas to
Subdelgado y juez territorial, Arizpe, July 18, 1810, Pima County
Recorder's Office, Tucson (PCRO), Old Record Book "A."
34Extracto de la
revista, Tubac, Dec. 21, 1766, signed by the Marqués de
Rubí, Horcasitas, Feb. 21, 1767, AGI, Guad., 511. Kessell,
Mission of Sorrows, pp. 155, 174-75, and ed., "Anza, Indian
Fighter," The Journal of Arizona History (JAH), vol. 9 (1968),
Frontiers, pp. 23-24. Joseph de Urrutia, whose map of Tubac
appears opposite on page 41, was a member of the Rubí party.
Gálvez, p. 170.
Marqués de Croix, June 17, 1768, AGN, PI, 47.
38Gi1 recorded the
deaths at the presidio of Pitic sometime in 1769 of an Indian of Guevavi
and one from Sonoita. DCB.
Marqués de Croix, Horcasitas, May 16, 1768, AGN, PI, 47. Cuenta
formada por el comisario de la misión de Guevavi, n.d., Archivo
Histórico de Hacienda, México (AHH), Temporalidades
(Temp.), leg. 2010. Grijalva amassed a total of 56 receipts from Anza
for payments to Guevavi auxiliaries. Inventario, Grijalva and
Garcés, San Xavier del Bac, June 29, 1768, ACQ, K, 14. Presumably
there was nothing to inventory at Tucson, San Xavier's one visita. The
Guevavi inventory has not come to light.
40Buena y Alcalde to
Guardian and Discretory, Tubutama, July 9, 1768, CC, 201.49.
41Letters of the friars
to Guardian and Discretory, Sonora, Aug. 8, through Sept. 1,1768,
42Fr. Antonio Canals to
Guardian and Discretory, Opodepe, Aug. 13, 1768, CC, 201.13.
43Fr. Francisco Roche to
Guardian and Discretory, Cocóspera Aug. 12, 1768, CC, 201.68.
Reyes to Guardian and Discretory, Cucurpe, Oct. 10, 1768, CC,
44Fr. Esteban de Salazar
to Fr. Sebastián Flores, Ures, Aug. 21, 1768, CC, 202.11.
Pineda, San Xavier del Bac, July 29, 1768, Newberry Library, Ayer
Collection (AC), no. 1094. Garcés to Flores, San Xavier del Bac,
Aug. 13, 1768, CC, 201.24.
46Roche to Guardian and
Discretory, Aug. 12, 1768, CC, 201.68.
47Buena y Alcalde to
Pineda, Tubutama, July 26, 1768, AF, 40/914. Roche to Pineda, Soamca,
Aug. 6, 1768, AF, 40/913. Garcés to Pineda, July 29, 1768, AC,
no. 1094. Reyes to Pineda, Tuape, July 26, 1768, AF, 40/917.
48Salazar to Flores,
Aug. 21, 1768, CC, 202.11.
Martín García to Guardian and Discretory, San Ignacio,
Aug. 9, 1768, CC, 201.48 et al. Fr. Diego Ximénez to
Viceroy Bucareli, México, March 30, 1773, CC, 202.36, and AGN,
Segesser, 1737, quoted in Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, p. 92.
51Buena y Alcalde to
Flores, Tubutama, Nov. 10, 1768, CC, 201.50.
Kessell, "Making of a Martyr," p. 190.
Ramírez de Arellano, Horcasitas, Oct. 31, 1782, Testimony in the
cause of Gil de Bernabé, June-Oct. 1782, Franciscan General
Archive, Rome (FGA), vol. XI/34, no. 36.
Compendio de los cuatro diarios, San Xavier del Bac, May 21, 1775, ACQ,
55Buena y Alcalde to
Flores, Nov. 10, 1768, CC, 201.50.
did not often distinguish between Apache raiding parties, whose major
object was livestock and other spoils, and war parties bent mainly on
revenge. As a rule I have used the term war party only for larger groups
evidently committed to more than hit-and-run raids. Bands of both
Chiricahua Apaches and Western Apacheswholly different tribal
groups speaking mutually intelligible Athapascan dialectswarred
with and raided Spaniards and Pimas. For informative discussions of war
and the raid from the Apache side, see Morris Edward Opler, An Apache
Life-Way: The Economic, Social, and Religious Institutions of the
Chiricahua Indians, pp. 134-39, 332-54, and Keith H. Basso, ed.,
Western Apache Raiding and Warfare, from the notes of Grenville
Goodwin. See also Daniel S. Matson and Albert H. Schroeder, eds.,
"Cordero's Description of the Apache1796," NMHR, vol. 32 (1957),
entries for Franciscan Guevavi-Tumacácori, 1769-1825, record the
burial of persons killed by Apaches during every season of the year.
Although some of the friars acknowledged the fall-to-spring "raiding
season," more persons died at Guevavi Tumacácori a manos de
los Apaches in July. DCB. Fr. Francisco Moyano, Noticia de las
misiones que ocupan los Religiosos del Colegio de la Santa Cruz de
Querétaro, Oquitoa, Feb. 5, 1805, AGI, Mex., 2736.
Marqués de Croix, Horcasitas, Sept. 17, and Oct. 17, 1768, AGN,
PI, 47. Croix to Pineda, México, Dec. 31, 1768, ibid.
Father Buena gave a somewhat different account of the attack on San
Xavier. He said the Apaches assaulted the village reaching the houses
and even the church. Because Garcés was at Guevavi most of the
people were out gathering wild fruits; otherwise, all might have been
killed. Buena y Alcalde to Flores, Nov. 10, 1768, CC, 201.50. Two weeks
before the Oct. 3 raid on Soamca, Comisario Grijalva had sold on account
54 head of the mission's cattle, at five pesos each, to Terrenate
Captain Francisco Elías González. Razón de los
efectos, Pedro Corbalán, Pitic, May 11, 1771, AHH, Temp., 2010.
At that rate, the 180 head stolen represented a loss of 900 pesos, or
nearly three times the friar's annual stipend. The Tubac ensign was
probably thirty-year-old Joseph de Huandurraga, a harsh and bitterly
disliked protégé of Captain Anza. Marqués de
Rubí, Puntos, Tubac, Dec. 29, 1766, AGI, Guad., 511.
59Roche to Pineda, Aug.
6,1768, AF, 40/913. Buena y Alcalde to Guardian and Discretory, July 9,
1768, CC, 201.49.
Marqués de Croix, Pitic, Dec. 19, 1768, AGN, PI, 47. Croix to
Pineda, México, Feb. 18, 1769, AGN, Historia, 18.
61Roche to Pineda,
Terrenate, Nov. 21, 1768, AF, 40/913. Early in 1769 Governor Pineda
approved the removal of the Pimas of Soamca to Cocóspera. Roche
to Pineda, Cucurpe, Feb. 9, 1769, ibid.
Croix to Pineda, México, March 18, 1769, AGN, Historia, 18.
Croix to Pineda, México, April 15, 1769, ibid.
Pineda, San Xavier del Bac, Feb. 21, and July 23, 1769, AC, no. 1094.
Pineda to Marqués de Croix, Pitic, April 18, 1769, AF, 38/858.
Marqués de Croix to Pineda, México, June 17, 1769, AGN,
Sept. 10, 1768, AGN, PI, 47.
Pineda, July 23, 1769, AC, no. 1094. As Garcés wrote this letter
someone from Tumacácori arrived to tell him that the Apaches had
stolen the rest of the cattle from Arivaca. That morning they had driven
them by La Canoa, part way between San Xavier and Tubac.
Buena y Alcalde to Pineda, Ónavas, May 24, 1769, AF, 40/914.
Navarro Garcia, Gálvez, pp. 168-75.
68Buena y Alcalde to
Gálvez, Tubutama, early 1769, CC, 201.53.
Álamos, June 3, 1769, cert. copy, March 19, 1783, CC, 202.21.
Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 1, pp. 192, 201-2. Previously
the visitor had ordered all Padres at former Jesuit missions to submit
censuses and suggestions for improving the Indians' lot. Gálvez,
Alamos, May 17, 1769, AGN, Historia, 18.
Pineda, Álamos, June 16, 1769, ibid.
individual, Guevavi, Oct. 28, 1768, AHH, Temp., 2010. Grijalva prepared
statements for San Xavier del Bac, Oct. 22, 1768, and Soamca, Oct. 30,
1768, ibid. Before the devastating November attack, Soamca was on
a par with Guevavi in material wealth, San Xavier notably poorer.
72At San Xavier del Bac
the transfer took place July 3. Garcés to Pineda, July 23, 1769,
AC, no. 1094.
73Fr. Joseph Soler to
Gil de Bernabé, Ati, May 26, 1772, CC, 202.10. On mission
economics, see McCarty, "Franciscan Beginnings," pp. 87-106.
Gómez Canedo, Sonora, p. 27. The friars failed in their
bid to get back the gold and silver taken from the missions at the time
of the Jesuit expulsion. Gálvez ordered it forwarded to the newly
established treasury at Álamos where the amount in cash would be
used to pay the debts of the missions with any surplus credited to them.
Gálvez to Pineda, Álamos, Aug. 3, 1769, AGN, Historia,
Marqués de Croix, Álamos, July 13, 1769, quoted by
Barbastro, Defensa de la Custodia de San Carlos de Sonora,
Banámichi, 1786, CC, misc.
75Fr. Joseph del
Río, Copia de las órdenes comunicadas a los padres
misioncros . . . por el Señor Visitador General, Ures, Sept. 30,
1769, AF, 40/912. Barbastro, Defensa. Cf. below, Chap. 4, 15.
76Buena y Alcalde to
Pineda, Ures, Oct. 26, 1769, AF, 40/914. Navarro García,
"Marqués de Croix," pp. 322-27. The viceroy, who despaired of the
visitor's recovery, urged that he be returned to Mexico City.
Marqués de Croix to Arriaga, México, Dec. 31, 1769, AGI,
Guad., 416. Barbastro, Defensa. Priestley, José de
Gálvez, pp. 278-83.
78Gálvez to Buena
y Alcalde, México, July 18, 1770, CC, 201.86.
79DCB. Gil buried the
seven from Calabazas in the cemetery at Guevavi on May 4, 1770.
80Extracto historial de
este expediente, n.d., AGI, Guad., 416.
81Anza to Pineda, Tubac,
May 10, 1770, AF, 40/903. During an Apache attack the following
February, the fortifications at Tucson, "built with a thousand
difficulties," served the people well. Garcés to Buena y Alcalde,
San Xavier del Bac, Feb. 20,1771, Copia de varios papeles, ACQ, H.
México, July 26, 1770, AGI, Guad., 416.
Bartolomé Ximeno to Guardian, Tumacácori, March 5, 1773,
AGN, PI, 81; Kessell, ed., "San José de
Tumacácori1773," Arizona and the West (AW), vol. 6
(1964), pp. 307-08.
excavations carried out in the mid-1960s indicate that the withdrawal
from Guevavi was an orderly one. Father Barbastro exaggerated in 1788
when he wrote that the Apaches "burned and destroyed the cabecera of
Guevavi and the village of Sonoita, imperiling the minister Fray [Juan]
Crisostómo Gil de Bernabé." Barbastro, Compendio. Ximeno
to Guardian, March 5, 1773, AGN, PI, 81.
85Garcés to Fr.
Joseph de Araujo, Tumacácori, Nov. 23, 1770, CC, 201.77, and FGA,
vol. XI/34, no. 1 (both copies). His diary of the trip is in AGN,
Historia, 396. A third account of this second entrada is in his
Compendio de los cuatro diarios, May 21, 1775, ACQ, H. For the Gila
River peoples, see Paul H. Ezell, The Hispanic Acculturation of the
Gila River Pimas, American Anthropological Association, Memoir No.
90 (1961); Frank Russell, "The Pima Indians," Annual Report,
Bureau of American Ethnology, no. 26 (1908); and Leslie Spier, Yuman
Tribes of the Gila River. Opposite page 95 Spier includes a
photograph of one of the willow-bark skirts described by
86Father Segesser quoted
in Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, p. 56. Barbastro, Compendio.
After an interval of five months Gil wrote a single burial entry March
12, 1771; not long after that, he was carried south. DCB.
87Born in Hervás,
bishopric of Plasencia, Sánchez Zúñiga had entered
the Franciscan Order in 1761 at the recollect convent of Santa
María de Gracia. Fr. Juan Domingo Arricivita, Lista de los
cuarenta religiosos, Madrid, June 21, 1769, AGI, Guad., 369.
Zúñiga's first burial entry recorded the death of Governor
Juan of Calabazas at night on San Juan's Day eve, June 23, 1771; the
body was buried in the Guevavi church. He also wrote the earliest
marriage entry surviving from the Franciscan period, for five Indian
couples wed at Tumacácori, June 29, 1771. All the men were Pimas,
three of the women Pápagos. From his entries in the mission books
it appears almost certain that Sánchez Zúñiga lived
at Tumacácori. DCB.
México, June 17, 1771, AGI, Guad., 416. Navarro García,
Gálvez, pp. 187, 200-05. On July 1, 1771,
Zúñiga buried two men from Tumacácori killed by
Apaches in one assault, and an ox herder and two women killed at Sonoita
in another. DCB.
Viceroy Antonio María Bucareli, Álamos, Dec. 24, 1771,
AGI, Guad., 512. Anza to Gabriel Antonio de Vildósola, Tubac,
Sept. 17, 1771, ibid.
91Bucareli to Arriaga,
México, Oct. 28, 1771, ibid., 511. Hugo O'Conor, Extracto
de revista de inspección, Tubac, Aug. 1775, ibid., 515.
92Both Gil and
Sánchez Zúñiga recorded September 16 deaths. DCB.
For the next eight years, until the spring of 1780, Sánchez
served at San Ignacio where he supervised a major reconstruction of the
church, "the only one in those provinces of rough masonry with vault."
Broken in health, he returned to the college and from there to Spain.
Early in 1782 he petitioned the king to grant him the privileges of a
predicador general. His bid was denied; he had not served the
required fourteen years in the missions. Sánchez
Zúñiga to the king, Madrid, Jan. 4, 1782, et al.,
AGI, Guad., 372.
93Salazar to Buena y
Alcalde, Tubutama, Nov. 13, 1771, ibid., 512. On October 22,
1771, Agorreta married three Indian couples por enfermedad del Padre
94DCB. Bernardo de
Gálvez to captains of Fronteras, Terrenate, and Tubac, Chihuahua,
July 25, 1771, et al., AGN, PI, 93. Corbalán to Bucareli,
Álamos, Dec. 24, 1771, et al., AGI, Guad., 512.
Garcés to Buena y Alcalde, Nov. 1771, Copia de varios papeles,
ACQ, H. Barbastro, Compendio.
Junípero Serra, vol. 2, pp. 12032.
after depredation, Canals and Reyes told how Apaches had made off with
the horse herds of both Tubac and Fronteras killing soldiers and
settlers in the process. Canals and Reyes to Joseph de Faini, Durango,
Sept. 4, 1771, AGI, Guad., 512. In February Anza had received permission
to chase the Apaches who had stolen the Tubac herd. [Marqués de
Croix] to Elizondo, México, Feb. 23, 1771, AGN, PI, 81. Navarro
Garcia, Gálvez, pp. 203-08.
Gálvez' propaganda, the college, on Croix's orders, had named ten
friars for the new missions. Noticia breve, June 17, 1771.
Garcés, Compendio de los cuatro diarios, May 21, 1775, ACQ, H.
1Expediente sobre que al
colegio de Santa Cruz de Querétaro . . . se le conceda una
misión de 40 religiosos, AGI, Guad., 369.
religiosos de la Observancia de San Francisco para el colegio de la
Santa Cruz de Querétaro . . . 1769, AGI, Contratación,
5545A. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, p. 538.
3Fr. Romualdo Cartagena
to Viceroy Antonio María Bucareli, CSCQ, July 2, 1772, ACQ, M,
4Cartagena to Bucareli,
CSCQ, Sept. 25, 1772, ibid.
Zúñiga, Bartolomé Ximeno, Gaspar de Clemente,
Joseph Matías Moreno, Tomás Eixarch, Juan Bautista de
Velderrain, Joaquín Antonio Belarde, and Baltazar Carrillo.
6Arricivita, Lista, 1769.
The register is not complete for Ximeno's administration: his earliest
entry records the burial at Guevavi of an Indian widow from Calabazas on
July 6, 1772; his last, a baptism on Aug. 15, 1773. DCB.
Diccionario, vol. 14, p. 768.
8Kessell, "Making of a
Martyr," pp. 182-85. Barbastro, Compendio.
9Reyes, Noticia y
10Cartagena to Bucareli,
CSCQ, Sept. 30, 1772, AGN, PI, 152. Gómez Canedo,
Sonora,pp. 87-90, 118-19.
11Reyes, Noticia y
estado. Cartagena to Bucareli, Sept. 30, 1772.
estado. Cartagena to Bucareli, Sept. 30, 1772. DCB.
14Reyes, Noticia y
15DCB. Despite the
urging of Gálvez in 1769, only rarely before the late 1770s, when
a more detailed format for recording baptisms, marriages, and burials
was implemented, did the missionary show a Spanish surname for a mission
Indian. Perhaps Becerra was an acculturated Yaqui or Ópata. The
first names of the various justicias, as well as those of the persons
who performed some of the specialized duties around the mission, appear
frequently in the baptismal, marriage, and burial records.
16Cartagena to Bucareli,
Sept. 25, 1772. Clemente's first and last entries in the extant
Tumacácori register, both marriages, are dated Nov. 16, 1772, and
Jan. 23, 1775. DCB.
Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, p. 448. Except for
the roofing of the Calabazas church, which seems to have been done after
the fall harvest of 1772, it is impossible to fix the precise dates of
these physical improvements. On Sept. 22, 1772, Ximeno recorded the last
burial at Guevavi of a body from Calabazas. Clemente on March 4, 1773,
entered the details of a burial at Calabazas "in the church." Four
months earlier, on Nov. 16, 1772, he had celebrated a marriage at
Calabazas, which may mean that the church was already in service by
19Garcés to Fr.
Diego Ximénez, San Ignacio, Dec. 25, 1776, CC, 201.18.
20Gil de Bernabé
to Bucareli, Ures, June 30, 1772. AGN, PI, 247. Vildósola to Gil
de Bernabé, Terrenate, Aug. 9,1772, ibid., 81. Cartagena
to Bucareli, CSCQ, Oct. 16, 1772, ibid., 247. Bucareli to the
captain at Terrenate, México, Nov. 17, 1772, ibid. Gov.
Mateo Sastre to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Jan. 20, 1773, ibid., 81.
For a brief biographical sketch of the "fearless, valiant, and
insubordinate" Vildósola, which incorrectly credits him with
founding the presidio of Tubac, see Francisco R. Almada, Diccionario
de historia, geografía y biograf&iacuxte;a sonorenses, p.
Arellano, Horcasitas, Oct. 31, 1782, and Monteagudo, Horcasitas, Oct.
27, 1782, Testimony in the cause of Gil de Bernabé.
Diccionario, pp. 732-33.
23Sastre to Bucareli,
Horcasitas, Oct. 19, 1772, AGN, PI, 81; translated in Bolton, Anza's
California Expeditions (ACE), vol. 5, pp. 33-40.
24For Gil, Sastre, and
the Seris, see Kessell, "Friars, Bureaucrats, and the Seris of Sonora,"
NMHR, vol. 50 (1975), pp. 73-95.
25Bucareli to Bernardo
de Urrea, México, April 21, 1773, AGI, Guad., 513.
estado. For a brief commentary on this report, see Sanford A. Mosk,
"Economic Problems in Sonora in the Late Eighteenth Century," Pacific
Historical Review, vol. 8 (1939), pp. 341-45.
27Petition of Fr. Joseph
Pinilla to Bucareli, n.d.; Opinion of Fiscal José Antonio de
Areche, México, May 13, 1772; Decree of Bucareli, México,
May 15, 1772, AGN, PI, 152. Arricivita, Crónica
seráfica, pp. 437-38. Barbastro, Defensa.
28Reyes to Bucareli,
México, July 6, 1772, transmitting Estado y noticia, AGN,
Discretory to Bucareli, CSCQ, July 31, 1772, ibid. Bucareli to
Guardian and Discretory, México, Sept. 2, 1772, ibid.
30Opinion of Areche,
México, July 13, 1772, AGN, PI, 152. From a similarity in wording
it would appear that Areche had Reyes' April 20 report at hand as well.
Bucareli, México, Sept. 2, 1772, ibid. Most of the replies
are here too.
31Ximeno to Guardian,
Tumacácori, March 5, 1773, ibid., 81. I edited a copy of
Ximeno's report in the Civezza Collection as "San José de
Tumacácori1773: A Franciscan Reports from Arizona," AW,
vol. 6 (1964), pp. 303-12. I mistook the abbreviation nros.
(nuestros), our side or our men, for mros. (ministros or
misioneros), ministers or missionaries, and thereby thrust upon
Father Ximeno the unlikely and misleading statement, "I have never heard
it said that the missionaries have killed even one Apache."
Ximeno had been preoccupied with the Apache menace from the beginning.
The second burial he performed was for three women killed in a July 14,
1772, attack on Guevavi. DCB.
32Sastre to Bucareli
Horcasitas, Jan. 21, 1773, AGI, Guad., 513. Extractos, México,
Feb. 24, and April 26, 1773, ibid. Bucareli to Arriaga,
México, April 26, 1773, no. 891, ibid., 512.
33Bucareli to Arriaga
and Extracto, México, Jan. 27, 1773, ibid., 513. One of
Opler's informants told him that the Chiricahua Apaches were afraid of
parrots. Apache Life-Way, p. 239.
34Ximeno to Guardian,
March 5, 1773.
35Bucareli to Guardian,
México, April 21, 1773, AGI, Guad., 513. Kessell, "Friars,
Bureaucrats, and Seris."
Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 42631.
37The collection has not
turned up. Correspondence with Franciscans in Rome, a search of the
Archivo de la Embajada de España cerca de la Santa Sede in Madrid
and the AGI in Sevilla, and visits to Alfambra, Teruel, and Zaragoza in
Spain and the ACQ in Celaya, México, have provided no leads to
the missing Gil de Bernabé material.
Testimony in the cause of Gil de Bernabé.
Antonio Núñez, Horcasitas, Sept. 22, 1782,
40Even had the initial
stages of Gil's cause gone well, the time was wrong. In 1779 Charles III
had complained about all the Spanish causes pending in Rome. He demanded
a full accounting and an assessment of each candidate's chances. Charles
III to the Duque de Grimaldi, El Pardo, March 12, 1779, AGI, Indiferente
41Fr. Pedro Font to
Ximénez, Tubutama, Jan. 20, 1777, CC, 201.80. Mission San Antonio
de Padua (Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe) de Pitic, baptismal,
marriage, burial register, Archivo de la Mitra de Sonora, Hermosillo
(AMS). Ximeno's first and last entries at Pitic were for baptisms, July
3, 1774, and Sept. 1, 1776.
42Lists of personnel,
ACQ, M, 2.
43The baptismal and
marriage records, complete for Moreno's tenure at Tumacácori,
show his first entry Oct. 17, 1773, and his last Dec. 22, 1774. DCB.
Arricivita, Lista, 1769. Moreno to his sister, Madrid, March 26, 1769,
CC, 202.14; quoted in large part by Arricivita, Crónica
seráfica, pp. 536-40.
44Fr. Joseph Soler to
Cartagena, Pitiquito, Aug. 12, 1773, CC, 201.28.
45The governor of New
Mexico reported briefly on the state of the missions in his province,
mildly rebuked the friars for their ignorance of the Indian languages
and their poor record teaching Spanish, and pointed out the need for
more missionaries. Pedro Fermín de Mendinueta to Bucareli, Santa
Fe, Jan. 8, 1773, AGN, PI, 152; translated by Marc Simmons as Indian
and Mission Affairs in New México, 1773.
46Urrea to Bucareli,
Altar, Dec. 9, 1772, AGN, PI, 152.
47Anza to Bucareli,
Tubac, Dec. 15, 1772, ibid.; Kessell, ed., "Anza Damns the
Missions: A Spanish Soldier's Criticism of Indian Policy, 1772," JAH,
vol. 13 (1972), pp. 53-63.
48Areche to Bucareli,
México, Oct. 12, 1772, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 12-24.
49He meant 1732. See
Kessell, Mission of Sorrows, pp. 45-50.
50Three years earlier
Anza had been sent to investigate bitter complaints by the Indians of
San Ignacio. Not only, they alleged, did their missionary, Fray Diego
Martín García, abuse them, calling them "dirty dogs and
bad Christians," but he also forced them "to work for the mission from
Monday through Saturday, leaving them no time to provide for their own
support." Anza to Pineda, Santa Ana, Jan. 18, 1770, AF, 40/903. Anza's
brother-in-law believed that the Indians' work load was greater under
the Franciscans than it had been under the Jesuits. Gabriel Antonio de
Vildósola to Bucareli, Fronteras, Dec. 7, 1772, AGN, PI, 152.
51Anza to Bucareli, Dec.
Crónica seráfica, pp. 447-49, 456-59, 437-43.
Certification of sailing, Jacobo Sánchez Samaniego, Cádiz,
April 3, 1743, AGI, Contratación, 5545A.
Bucareli, Colegio de San Fernando, March 30, 1773, AGN, Californias,
Aug. 10, 1773, and Bucareli, México, Aug. 14, 1773,
Bucareli. Colegio de San Fernando, Sept. 18, 1773, ibid.
Oct. 25, 1773, and Bucareli, México, Oct. 27, 1773,
Bucareli, Colegio de San Fernando, Oct. 31, 1773; Areche, México,
Nov. 10, 1773, and Bucareli, México, Nov. 11, 1773; Cartagena to
Bucareli, CSCQ, Nov. 26, 1773, and Jan. 14, 1774; Cartagena to Fr.
Antonio Ramos, Querétaro, Jan. 14, 1774, ibid. [Bucareli]
to Gov. Francisco Antonio Crespo, México, Oct. 29, 1773, AGN, PI,
58Ramos, Tubutama, April
13, 1774; visita of Pimería Alta, April 28-June 8, 1774, AGN,
Californias, 39. Luis Baldonado, O.F.M., translated portions of another
copy as "Missions San José de Tumacácori and San Xavier
del Bac in 1774," The Kiva, vol. 24 (1959), no. 4, pp. 21-24.
vecinos de razón, positively identified as residents of
Tumacácori in the mission register during 1774 were: Interpreter
Juan Joseph Ramírez, his wife Francisca Manuela Sosa, their
daughter Bibiana Jacoba (born Dec. 12); Juan Antonio Durán and
María Guadalupe Ramírez and their newborn son Joseph
Jesús Sebastián; María Soledad Ramírez;
Joseph Antonio Pérez and Bárbara Pacha; and widow
María Esmerencia Romero. DCB.
60Estado de la
población de las misiones de la Sonora, 1774, CC, 201.83. Totals
for all eight Pimería Alta missions were 2,018 Indians and 168
61From entries in the
Tumacácori register it would appear that Father Moreno had been
living at least part of the time at Calabazas. DCB. Father Roche of
Cocóspera had told the Father Visitor how fervently the people of
Soamca wanted to go back to their gutted pueblo even after six years'
62Fr. Juan Díaz
to Bucareli, Tubac, June 12, 1774, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 153-54. Ramos to
Díaz, Tumacácori, June 13, 1774; visita of Pimería
Baja, June 25-Aug. 10, 1774; Crespo to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Aug. 18,
1774, AGN, Californias, 39.
63Soler to Cartagena,
Aug. 12, 1773.
1Bolton, Rim of
Christendom, pp. 470-73. Donald Rowland, ed., "A Project for
Exploration Presented by Juan Bautista de Anza," Arizona Historical
Review (AzHR), vol. 7 (1936), no. 2, pp. 10-18. Peter M. Dunne,
S.J., Jacobo Sedelmayr: Missionary, Frontiersman, Explorer in Arizona
and Sonora. Navarro Garcia, Gálvez, pp. 168-70,
Relación, Pitic, Sept. 21, 1769, AGI, Guad., 512. Anza to Pineda,
Tubac, Aug. 20, 1769, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 1-2. Garcés, Diario,
Oct.-Nov. 1770, AGN, Historia, 396.
Bucareli, San Xavier del Bac, Dec. 1, 1772, AGN, PI, 81. Arricivita,
Crónica seráfica, p. 450. Garcés to Buena y
Alcalde, San Xavier del Bac, Feb. 20, 1771, Copia de varios papeles,
ACQ, H. Anza to Pineda, Tubac, May 10, 1770, AF, 40/903. Anza to
Bucareli, Tubac, Dec. 15, 1772, AGN, PI, 152.
5For details and
documents, see ACE, vol. 1, pp. 43-62, and vol. 5, pp. 1-108. Bolton
exaggerated the spirit of comradeship and cooperation between Anza and
6Anza to Bucareli, Tubac,
Jan. 3, 1774, AGN, PI, 237. Crespo to Viceroy Martín de Mayorga,
México, March 29, 1780, ibid., 258.
7Anza to Bucareli, Tubac,
Jan. 3, 1774, two letters, ibid., 237. Bolton, ACE, vol. 1, pp.
63-64, gives the date of the raid as Dec. 2, 1773. Father Díaz
confirmed the Jan. 2 date. Father Junípero Serra reported that
two raids took place and that a sergeant and some muleteers were killed.
Ibid., vol. 5, p. 123. Serra was right. Apaches had indeed hit
Tubac early in Dec. for a hundred head of cattle. An unnamed sergeant
and seventeen men overtook the thieves "in the ruggedest part" of the
Sierra de Santa Catalina. Over the soldiers' protests the sergeant
ordered the column to dismount and attack. He paid straight away with
his life, and the enemy carried off three wounded, presumably alive. In
Feb., while Anza was gone, ten men on the way from Terrenate to Tubac to
relieve the substitute detachment rode into an Apache ambush. Two died,
the rest were wounded, but not before they had killed the enemy leader,
a much-scarred war chief, along with two of his braves. Crespo to
Bucareli, Horcasitas, Jan. 23 and Feb. 25, 1774, AGN, PI, 96. Extractos,
México, April 26 and June 26, 1774, AGI, Guad., 513.
8For the diaries of Anza,
Garcés, and Díaz, see ACE, vol. 2. A list of 17 of the
Tubac soldiers is in ibid., vol. 5, p. 203. Gorgoll made entries
in the Tumacácori register Jan. 4 and 22, and March 19 (the
patronal feast), 1774. DCB.
9Bucareli to Arriaga,
México, June 26, 1774, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 175-82.
Gálvez, pp. 264-66.
11See Mary Lu Moore and
Delmar L. Beene, eds., "The Interior Provinces of New Spain," AW, vol.
13 (1971), pp. 265-82; and Enrique González Flores and Almada,
eds., Informe de Hugo O'Conor sobre el estado de las Provincias
Internas del Norte, 1771-76.
12Antonio Bonilla to
O'Conor, Informe sobre la Provincia de Sonora, Chihuahua, Aug. 14, 1774,
AGN, P1, 88. Bonilla called the present-day San Pedro River the
Terrenate and the valley at Santa Cruz the Valle de los Santos
Ángeles Custodios. He used the name San Pedro only for a section
of the river's headwaters to which he ordered Terrenate moved. O'Conor
would countermand the order and place Terrenate, not Tubac, at Santa
Cruz. Crespo to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Jan. 16, 1775, ibid.
O'Conor to Bucareli, Carrizal, Nov. 6, 1774, ibid.
13Anza to Bucareli,
Terrenate, June 8,1774, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 150-52. Crespo to
Bucareli,Horcasitas, June 18, 1774, AGN, PI, 96.
14Bucareli to Arriaga,
México, Aug. 27, 1774, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 183-85. [Bucareli] to
Anza, México, Aug. 17, 1774, AGN, PI, 237.
May 21-July 10, 1774, ACE, vol. 2, pp. 375-92. The page reproduced on p.
385 is in Clemente's hand. Arricivita, Crónica
seráfica, pp. 455-56. Garcés officiated at a baptism
at Tumacácori, Aug. 20. DCB.
Cartagena, Jan. 12, 1775, CC, 201.16. Garcés to Bucareli,
Tumacácori, Aug. 17, 1774, AGN, PI, 23. Anza was miffed because
Garcés did not report directly to him. Anza to Bucareli,
Terrenate, Aug. 6 and 7, 1774, ibid., 237.
17Crespo to Bucareli,
Cieneguilla, Dec. 19, 1774, ibid., 96.
18Crespo to O'Conor,
Tubac, Nov. 25, 1774, ibid., 88. Fr. Juan Díaz to
Bucareli, Ures, March 21, 1775, ACE, vol. 5, pp. 276-90.
19Crespo to Bucareli,
Altar, Dec. 15, 1774, ibid., pp. 238-48. Bucareli shelved the
proposal for the time being: he wanted more information. [Bucareli] to
O'Conor, México, Feb. 21, 1775, AGN, PI, 88. Anza also offered to
lead such an expedition. Anza to Bucareli, México, Dec. 8, 1774,
20DCB. On the native
captives known in Sonora as Nijorasroughly equivalent to the
genízaros of New Mexicosee Dobyns, et al.,
"What Were Nixoras?" Southwestern Journal of Anthropology, vol.
16 (1960), pp. 230-58.
extant entry in the Tumacácori register, a marriage, is dated
Jan. 23, 1775; Moreno's, a baptism, Dec. 22, 1774. DCB. Lists of
personnel, ACQ, M.
22Fr. Francisco Moyano,
Noticias de las misiones que ocupan los religiosos del colegio de la
Santa Cruz de Querétaro, Oquitoa, May 18, 1803, AGI, Mex.,
Diccionario, vol. 6, p. 277.
24Lista de los cuarenta
y nueve religiosos . . . a el colegio de propaganda fide de San Fernando
de México, 1769, AGI, Guad., 369. Victor R. Stoner, "Fray Pedro
Antonio de Arriquibar, Chaplain of the Royal Fort at Tucson," ed.
Dobyns, AW, vol. 1 (1959), pp. 71-73. Arriquibar made his earliest
extant entry at Tumacácori, a baptism, Feb. 26, 1775, and his
last entry, a marriage, March 27, 1780. DCB.
1769. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 10, pp. 308-12. Lists of
personnel, ACQ, M. Eixarch, who also wrote his name Eyxarch, made his
first and last entries in the surviving Tumacácori books March 14
and Oct. 1, 1775: both were for baptisms. DCB.
Tumacácori, May 12, 1775, Libro de patentes, ACQ; Kessell, ed.,
"Father Eixarch and the Visitation at Tumacácori, May 12, 1775,"
The Kiva, vol. 30 (1965), pp. 77-81. Six weeks earlier a
statement of the Sonora missions' monies for annual expenses showed
Tumacácori, still listed as Guevavi, with 580 pesos 5 reales.
Ati, San Xavier, and Cocóspera were poorer, San Ignacio more than
three times as rich. Razón del estado, March 30, 1775, CC,
Barragán, et al., Tucson, Nov. 24, 1777; translated as
Appendix C to Lt. John G. Parke, Report of Explorations for Railroad
Routes . . . 1854-5 in Reports of Explorations and Surveys . . .
1853-6, vol. 7, 33d Cong., 2d sess., Sen. Ex. Doc. 78 (Washington,
D.C., 1857). DCB.
28Sidney B. Brinckerhoff
and Odie B. Faulk, Lancers for the King, pp. 42-45. On May 9
Eixarch had baptized eight-day-old María Rita Gregoria of Tubac,
daughter of Leonor Domínguez and an unknown father. DCB. The
previous month Arriquibar may have accompanied Lieutenant Oliva on
campaign. Crespo to Bucareli, Horcasitas, May 21, 1775, AGN, PI, 96.
29Crespo to Bucareli,
Horcasitas, June 22, 1775, and [Bucareli] to Crespo, México, Aug.
23, 1775, ibid.
inspected Tubac between Dec. 20, 1766, and Jan. 5, 1767. See Kessell,
Mission of Sorrows, pp. 173-80.
31O'Conor, Extracto de
revista, Tubac, Aug. 9-18, 1775, AGI, Guad., 515.
32O'Conor to Bucareli,
Janos, Aug. 29, 1775, AGN, PI, 88.
the site inspection certification at San Xavier del Bac, Aug. 20, 1775,
ibid. Dobyns translated it in Lance, Ho! Containment of the
Western Apaches by the Royal Spanish Garrison at Tucson, p. 5. See
also Moore and Beene, "Report of O'Conor," pp. 270-71.
Bucareli, March 21, 1775. [Bucareli] to O'Conor, México, May 10,
1775, AGN, PI, 88.
35O'Conor to Bucareli,
Altar, Aug. 3, 1775, ibid.
Bucareli, San Xavier del Bac, Aug. 20, 1775, ibid., 237.
37Anza to Bucareli,
Horcasitas, Sept. 23, 1775, ibid. Bernardo de Urrea to Bucareli,
Altar, Sept. 11, 13, and Oct. 4, 1775, and Feb. 3, 1776, ibid.
Vicente Gaspar was suspected of being in league with rebel Pimas.
Expediente formado a consecuencia de consulta del Gobernador don
Francisco Crespo, con que acompañó la causa principiada
contra el indio Yuma Vicente Gaspar, ibid., 246.
38ACE, vol. 1, pp.
227-41. Font's complete diary, Sept. 29, 1775-June 2, 1776,
ibid., vol. 4. I have changed a few words in quoting Bolton's
translations from vols. 2-5.
39Ibid., vol. 4,
pp. 137-38. Anza's diary, Oct. 23, 1775-June 1, 1776, ibid., vol.
3, p. 3.
40Anza to Bucareli,
México, Jan. 7, 1775, AGN, PI, 237.
the mission of 1763, AGI, Contratación, 5545A.
Arricivita,Crónica seráfica, pp. 560-61.
42Crespo to Bucareli,
Dec. 15, 1774. Garcés to Cartagena, Jan. 12, 1775. Garcés
to Crespo, Tucson, Jan. 29, 1775, AGN, PI, 96. Crespo to Bucareli,
Horcasitas, Feb. 21, 1775, ibid.
Bucareli, March 21, 1775. ACE, vol. 1, pp. 216-18.
Díaz, México, May 24, 1775, AGN, PI, 88.
Bucareli, Aug. 20, 1775. In July, Garcés had announced that Fray
Juan Gorgoll would be his compañero. Garcés to Anza,
Tucson, July 7, 1775, AGN, PI, 237. Anza to Bucareli, Tubac, Oct. 20,
46Anza to Bucareli, Jan.
7, 1775. [Bucareli] to Anza, México, Jan. 9, 1775, AGN, PI,
47Anza to Bucareli,
Tubac, Oct. 20, 1775, ibid.
48ACE, vol. 4, p. 523.
Anza assured the viceroy that he had already handed over the instrument
to Font. Anza to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Sept. 23, 1775, AGN, PI, 237.
49ACE, vol. 4, pp.
50For the march from
Tubac to the Colorado, see ibid., vol. 1, pp. 242-91, and the
diaries in vols. 3 and 4. The diary of Father Garcés is published
in English in Elliot Coues, ed., On the Trail of a Spanish
Pioneer, 2 vols. (New York, 1900), and again in John Galvin, ed.,
A Record of Travels in Arizona and California, 1775-1776 (San
Francisco, 1967) and Diario de exploraciones en Arizona y California
en los años de 1775 y 1776 (México, 1968).
51See C. Daryll Forde,
"Ethnography of the Yuma Indians," University of California
Publications in American Archaeology and Ethnography, vol. 28, no. 4
(1931), pp. 152-54.
52Eixarch's diary, Dec.
4, 1774-May 11, 1775, ACE, vol. 3, pp. 311-81. Bolton called it "one of
the best of all diaries of a missionary at his daily talk."
Ibid., vol. 1, p. ix. See also Jack D. Forbes, Warriors of the
México, Feb. 24 and April 26, 1773, AGI, Guad., 513. The
correspondence and monthly reports of Captain Urrea, 1774-1775, contain
frequent mention of the Piatos' disloyalty and their trafficking with
Apaches. AGN, PI, 237.
54Ramos to Urrea,
Sáric, Jan. 6, 1776, ibid., 246.
55Crespo to Mayorga,
March 29, 1780.
56Alfred Barnaby Thomas,
Forgotten Frontiers, pp. 10-13, and Navarro Garcia,
Gálvez, pp. 238-40.
58Font's complete diary,
ACE, vol. 4, p. 485.
59Coues, On the
Trail, and Galvin, Record of Travels.
60Font's complete diary,
ACE, vol. 4, pp. 510-15. Contemporary correspondence, including a
late-1776 rundown by Font himself of pueblos destroyed by Apaches, fails
to substantiate the story. Font to Ximénez, Imuris, Nov. 30,
1776, CC, 201.79.
61Eixarch's first and
last baptisms at Oquitoa are dated Sept. 11, 1776, and Feb. 1, 1781.
ACE, vol. 3, p. 381n. Lists of personnel, ACQ, M. Records of the Jalisco
Province, Biblioteca Pública del Estado, Guadalajara, Asuntos
Eclesiásticos, 98/26. Notaría Parroquial, Acaponeta,
Nayarit, Libros de bautismos, tomo 1.
Ximénez, Tumacácori, Sept. 24, 1776, CC, 201.17. ACE, vol.
1, p. 493.
1Crespo to Bucareli,
Horcasitas, July 18, 1776, AGN, PI, 96.
2Real orden, San
Ildefonso, Sept. 24, 1776, AGI, Guad., 559.
3For the establishment of
the Comandancia General, see Navarro García,
Gálvez, pp. 275-81. Alfred Barnaby Thomas, Teodoro de
Croix and the Northern Frontier of New Spain, 1776-1783, pp. 16-68,
takes the part of Croix while Bernard E. Bobb, The Vice-regency of
Antonio María Bucareli in New Spain, 1771-1779, pp. 128-55,
sees the conflict from the vantage point of his man.
Gálvez, pp. 264, 280, 241-43. O'Conor died in
Mérida de Yucatán, March 8, 1779.
5Croix to Guardian,
México, Feb. 19, 1777, ACQ, M.
6The missions turned over
were: Tecoripa (Aug. 16); Ónavas (Sept. 3); Cumuripa (Sept. 9);
San José de Pimas (Sept. 10); Ures (Sept. 26); Opodepe (Oct. 6);
Cucurpe (Oct. 10); Pitic de Seris (n.d.). Fernando Mesía and
Francisco de Salas Carrillo, México, July 3, 1780, AGN, PI, 258.
[Bucareli] to Crespo, México, May 25, 1775, and Crespo,
Índice de los asuntos, Horcasitas, Oct. 24, 1776, ibid.,
96. Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 460-61.
7Font to Ximénez,
Imuris, Nov. 30, 1776, CC, 201.79. Font opposed the surrender of the
Pimería Baja missions. For the college to leave those missions in
such a sad state and push on to the Gila and Colorado he thought was
Lista, 1769. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 6, p. 437.
9Building contract for
the church at Suaqui, Real de San Marcial, April 11, 1774, AGN, PI, 247.
Velderrain to Pedro Corbalán, Suaqui, May 25, 1774, and
Corbalán to Velderrain Álamos, May 30, 1774, ibid.
Velderrain to Juan Joseph Lumbreras, Tecoripa, July 2, 1775,
Ximénez, Tucson, Feb. 19, 1778, CC, 201.20. Fr. Francisco
Iturralde, Visita de las misiones de la Pimería, Sept. 5 to Oct.
30, 1797, ACQ. CSCQ, Libro de difuntos, 1776-ca. 1850, ACQ. Velderrain
entered only a single baptism in the Tumacácori book, on Dec. 5,
1776. DCB. Early in 1777 he and Fray Joaquin Belarde were looking after
San Xavier for Garcés. Garcés to Ximénez, Tubutama,
Feb. 3, 1777, CC, 201.19.
11[Bucareli] to O'Conor,
México, Oct. 18, 1775, and O'Conor to Bucareli, Carrizal, Dec. 2,
1775, AGN, PI, 88.
12Allande y Saavedra to
Croix, Tucson, June 15, 1777, AGI, Guad., 515.
Ximénez, Nov. 30, 1776. Barbastro, Compendio. Father Barbastro,
also one of the group from Pimería Baja, had gone on to Tubutama.
Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 486-88, 561.
14Moreno to Roche,
Ímuris, Nov. 16, 1776; Roche to Trespalacios, Cocóspera,
Nov. 16, 1776; Trespalacios to Crespo, Ímuris, Nov. 17, 1776;
Crespo to Bucareli, Horcasitas, Nov. 22, 1776, AGN, PI, 96. Font to
Ximénez, Ures, July 18, 1776, CC, 201.78. Navarro García,
Gálvez, p. 242. Ximénez to Bucareli, CSCQ, Feb. 7,
1777, AGN, PI, 237. Bucareli to Ximénez, México, Feb. 12,
1777, ACQ, M.
Ximénez, Tubutama, Jan. 20, 1777, CC, 201.80. Font to
Ximénez, Nov. 30, 1776.
Gálvez, Querétaro, Aug. 23, 1777, AGI, Guad., 515. The
Tumacácori burial entries for most of 1777 are missing.
17For Anza's tenure as
comandante de armas, see Thomas, "Juan Bautista de Anza in Sonora
1777-1778," in A. Curtis Wilgus, ed., Hispanic Essays, pp.
18ACE, vol. 1, pp.
496-505. Anza to Bucareli, Durango, April 3, 1777, and Horcasitas, May
22, 1777, AGN, PI, 237. Thomas, "Anza in Sonora."
19Anza to Croix,
Horcasitas, June 30, 1777, AGI, Guad., 515. Anza had changed his tune.
While in Mexico City he had agreed with O'Conor's positioning of the
Sonora garrisons. ACE, vol.5, p. 383.
20Croix to Anza,
Querétaro, Aug. 15, 1777, and Croix to Gálvez,
Querétaro, Aug. 23, 1777, AGI, Guad., 515.
al., Tucson, Nov. 24, 1777. The other two members of the delegation
were Francisco Castro and Antonio Romero. Both the Yuma Sentinel
(April 13, 1878) and the Mining and Scientific Press, XL (May
15,1880), p. 312, picked up the story a century later.
22Allande y Saavedra to
Garcés, Tucson, Nov. 21, 1777, FGA, vol. XI/34, no. 29.
Ximénez, Feb. 19, 1778.
Gálvez, pp. 324-27. Roque de Medina, Extracto de la
revista de inspección, Real Presidio de San Agustín de
Tucson, May 3, 1779, AGI, Guad., 271.
Arricivita, Crónica seráfica, pp. 488, 524-29. Juan
Agustín de Morfi, O.F.M., Diario y derrotero (1777-1781),
eds. Eugenio del Hoyo and Malcolm D. McLean, p. 148.
Gálvez, Chihuahua, June 29, 1778, AGI, Guad., 276.
1769. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 16, p. 345. Arricivita,
Crónica seráfica, p. 560. Lists of personnel, ACQ,
M. Font to Ximénez, Nov. 30, 1776, and Jan. 20, 1777. Belarde
seemed to take over burials at Tumacácori. A hiatus in the
record, where several pages were removed, ends with Belarde's entry on
Sept. 24, 1777. His last entry as Arriquibar's compañero at
Tumacácori, also a burial, was dated May 30, 1779. DCB.
Crónica seráfica, p. 560. CSCQ, Difuntos.
Gabriela Ramírez, March 20, 1776, and José Loreto, Dec.
10, 1778; he buried Juan Cris&ocaute;stomo, Nov. 17, 1777. DCB. Stoner,
"Arriquibar," p. 77.
30Extracto de novedades,
Croix, Arizpe, March 26, 1780, AGI, Guad., 271. Reyes complained
frequently of the spying vagabonds in Sonora and Sinaloa, e.g., to
Felipe de Neve, Álamos, March 31, 1784, ibid., 347
Arizpe, July 23, 1780, ibid., 271. Papel de puntos, Roque de
Medina, Tucson, May 3, 1779, ibid. For a blow-by-blow account,
see Morfi, Diario, pp. 299-302. Francisco Perdigón had a
Pima namesake at Tumacácori. About thirty years old, he too died
in 1780, on Dec. 28. DCB.
32DCB. In a letter to
Croix, Captain Allande reported repulsing Apaches who charged the
stockade at Tucson on June 26 in an effort to restore two girls held
captive by the Spaniards. News of scattered deaths, including the one at
Tumacácori, reached Croix throughout the summer. Extracto, Croix,
Arizpe. Aug. 23, 1780, AGI, Guad., 271.
1769. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 8, pp. 104-08. Padrón,
estado Espíritual y temporal . . . de Cucurpe, Carrillo, Nov. 13,
1772, AGN, PI, 81. Carrillo's first entry at Tumacácori is for a
burial dated April 21, 1780. DCB.
34In 1772 Bucareli had
been reminded of the king's constant conviction that only by gentle
means could the Apaches and other Indians be won over. Arriaga to
Bucareli, El Pardo, March 6, 1772, AGI, Guad., 512.
35Max L. Moorhead,
The Apache Frontier, pp. 115-23. For Croix in Sonora, see
ibid., pp. 45-60; Navarro García, Gálvez,
pp. 322-23, 351-425 passim; and Thomas, Croix, pp. 43-68
passim (the Sonora section of Croix's general report from Arizpe,
Oct. 30, 1781, AGI, Guad., 253, is translated on pp. 132-230).
36Croix, Oct. 30,
37Rocha's report as
quoted by Croix, ibid.
38For the 1779-1782
Spanish experiment among the Yumas, see Scott Jarvis Maughan, "Francisco
Garcés and New Spain's Northwestern Frontier, 1768-1781," Ph.D.
dissertation, University of Utah, 1968, pp. 199-257; Arricivita,
Crónica seráfica, pp. 489-514 (based heavily on
Barbastro's Compendio); Navarro García, Gálvez, pp.
332, 393-96; Forbes, Warriors of the Colorado, pp. 175-220; Edwin
A. Beilharz, Felipe de Neve, pp. 121-29; and Charles E. Chapman,
The Founding of Spanish California, pp. 389-413. Tueros, who
succeeded Bernardo de Urrea as captain of Altar, served as interim
military governor between Anza and Ugarte, 1777 to 1779.
39ACE, vol. 5, pp. 400,
40Tueros to Barbastro,
Horcasitas, March 15, 1779, ACQ.
Bucareli, Ati, March 11, 1779, AGN, PI, 246.
sections of Croix's instructions, signed at Arizpe in March, 1780, and
commented on them. Crónica seráfica, pp. 497-504.
The entire text was quoted by Fr. Diego Miguel Bringas de Manzaneda y
Encinas, Informe al Rey sobre las misiones de la Pimería Alta,
sobre nuevas fundaciones, sobre las malas providencias de la
Comandancia, la paz mal establecida con los Apaches, y otros muchos
asuntos importantes, 1796, par. 64, CC, 202.42. Daniel S. Matson and
Bernard L. Fontana of the Arizona State Museum are translating and
preparing the Bringas report for publication.
43Islas, Hoja de
servicios, Dec. 31, 1780, AGI, Guad., 281 bis.
44Bringas, Informe al
Rey. DCB. Pedro Fages, Noticia de los captivos y captivas, et
at., Pitiquito, Jan. 22, 1782, AF, New Mexico documents (NM), leg.
10, no. 62. Croix, Relación particular de cada una de las
jurisdicciones de las provincias de Sinaloa, Ostimuri y Sonora, Arizpe,
June 2, 1783, AGI, Guad., 284. Islas, Diario, Dec. 9 to 27, 1780,
Concepción, Jan. 1, 1781, ibid., 517.
45Díaz to Croix,
Concepción, Nov. 8, 1780, et al., ibid.
46Manuel R. Pazos,
O.F.M., ed., "El V. P. Fr. Juan Antonio Joaquín de Barreneche,
martirizado por los Indios Yumas del Río Colorado el 19 de julio
de 1781," AlA, vol. 1 (1941), pp. 455-73.
47Islas to Croix,
Concepción, Jan. 17, 1781, et at., AGI, Guad., 517.
48The next twenty-two
burials by Carrillo spanned six years. DCB. In September, Father
Barbastro wrote of "the epidemic of smallpox that is now spreading."
Barbastro to Morfi, Tubutama, Sept. 25, 1781, AF, NM, 10:63; published
in Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 123-26. Donald B. Cooper,
Epidemic Disease in Mexico City, 1761-1813, pp. 56-69. Simmons,
"New Mexico's Smallpox Epidemic of 1780-1781," NMHR, vol. 41 (1966), pp.
49Croix, Oct. 30, 1781.
Ernest J. Burrus, S.J., ed., Diario del Capitán Camandante
Fernando de Rivera y Moncada, vol. 2, pp. 494-511.
50Velderrain to Bonilla,
Tucson, Aug. 6, 1781, et al., AGI, Guad., 517. Croix to Ugarte,
Arizpe, Aug. 12, 1781, ibid.
51Croix to Ugarte,
Arizpe, Sept. 16, 1781, AGN, Historia, 24. Croix to Gálvez,
Arizpe, Feb. 28, 1782, AGI, Guad., 517.
52Fages, Noticia de los
captivos y captivas. Ronald L. Ives, ed., "Retracing the Route of the
Fages Expedition of 1781," AW, vol. 8 (1966), pp. 49-70, 157-170.
53Clarence Cullimore, "A
California Martyr's Bones," California Historical Society
Quarterly, vol. 33 (1954), pp. 13-21. Bringas, Sermón . .
. et 19 de julio de 1794; reprinted in Burrus, Rivera y
Moncada, vol. 2, pp. 539-675.
54Barbastro to Fages,
Santa Teresa, Feb. 4, 1782, and Fages to Barbastro, Pitiquito, Feb. 16,
1782; quoted in full by Bringas, Informe al Rey, par. 68. Kessell,
"Making of a Martyr," p. 181.
Crónica seráfica, p. 540. Serra to Fr.
Fermín Francisco de Lasuén, San Carlos, Dec. 8, 1781,
Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 2, p. 310.
Gálvez, Feb. 28, 1782.
Gálvez, Arizpe, Jan. 23, 1783, AGI, Guad., 518. Navarro
García, Gálvez, pp. 395-96.
Arizpe, Jan. 23, 1781, AGI, Guad., 271. Thomas, Forgotten
Frontiers, pp. 30-41.
Gómez Canedo, O.F.M., assesses Croix as "a diligent man with a
reputation for energy, a great producer of reports: the results of his
administration were in reality inferior to appearances. I do not share
the admiration for him of his principal biographer, Alfred B. Thomas. .
. . Rudeness is not equivalent to energy, nor does a great bureaucratic
shuffling of papers always indicate valid results." Sonora, p.
60Bringas, Informe al
Rey. Chapman's assertion, Spanish California, pp. 407-409 that
the "mongrel" settlements were the idea of Garcés and Díaz
appears unfounded. Certainly Croix took all the credit as long as things
seemed to be going well. Bringas claimed that it was Asesor Pedro
Galindo Navarro who actually worked out the details of the Yuma
establishments. Informe al Rey, par. 59.
2San Ildefonso, Sept. 16,
1776, AGI, Guad., 559, and AGN, Misiones, 14.
Kino, p. 23. Navarro García, Gálvez, pp. 159, 187,
4Reyes to Guardian,
Madrid, May 26, 1778; quoted by Barbastro, Defensa.
5Garcés to Fr.
Diego Ximénez, Tucson, Feb. 19, 1778, CC, 201.20.
6Terna submitted by the
Council of the Indies, May 29, 1780, et al., AGI, Guad., 559.
7Pius VI approved the
custodies on Nov. 17, 1779, and Commissary General Vega signed the
statutes Dec. 14, 1780. Apostolic brief and statutes were published
together in Madrid in 1781; a copy, along with other related material,
is in AGI, Guad., 559.
8Reyes to Gálvez,
Madrid, Aug. 25, 1780, and Gálvez to Reyes, San Ildefonso,
Aug. 24, 1780, ibid. The irrepressible Antonio de los Reyes
deserves a full-length scholarly biography. In the meantime,
detailssome conflictingof his stay in Spain and of his
subsequent tenure as first bishop of Sonora can be found in Geiger,
Junípero Serra, vol. 2, pp. 343-74; Gómez Canedo,
Sonora, pp. 33-41; Fidel de Lejarza, O.F.M., "Las misiones
de Sonora en un momento de su historia," Missionalia Hispanica,
vol. 6 (1949), pp. 170-77; Almada, Diccionario, pp. 686-88;
Vicente de P. Andrade, Noticias biográficas sobre los ilustrísimos
prelados de Sonora, de Sinaloa y de Durango, pp. 1-8; and
Antonio Nakayama, Historia del Obispado de Sonora.
9Reyes to Gálvez,
Cádiz, Oct. 30, 1781, and Puerto de Santa María, Jan. 15,
1782, AGI, Guad., 559. The cédula, printed and widely distributed in New
Spain, was dated at Aranjuez, May 20, 1782. AGN, Misiones, 14.
10Reyes to Croix,
México, Sept. 16, 1782, AGI, Guad., 348.
11Reyes to Guardian and
Discretory, CSCQ, Nov. 11, and 15, 1782, CC, 201.56-60.
12Guardian and Discretory
to Reyes, CSCQ, Nov. 19, and 20, 1782, ibid.
Reyes to Guardian and Discretory, CSCQ, Nov. 20, 1782, CC, 201.64.
14Reyes to Mayorga, CSCQ,
Dec. 13, 1782, AGN, PI, 258.
15Reyes to Croix,
Culiacan, April 24, 1783, AGI, Guad., 348.
16Fr. Francisco Pangua,
et al., to Mayorga, San Fernando de México, Feb. 3, 1783,
AGN, Misiones, 14. Pangua told Father Serra that they were trying to
kill the Reyes projects before they could be instituted and do real
harm. Geiger, Junípero Serra, vol. 2, p. 349.
17Reyes to Mayorga,
Álamos, June 20, 1783, AGN, Misiones, 14.
18The friars usually put
the distance from Tumacácori to Calabazas at four leagues. A
report by Croix, dated in Arizpe, June 2, 1783, but evidently based on
earlier figures, placed the population of Tumacácori at 42 Indian
and 7 Spanish families, for a total of 125 persons. At Calabazas there
were 40 families and a total of 84. Tubac was reported abandoned, its
158 persons having left for the Colorado River settlements or the
presidio of Tucson because of water shortage and Apaches. Relación
particular de cada una de las jurisdicciones.
19AGI, Guad., 348.
20Reyes to the king,
Álamos, Feb. 17, 1784, ibid. Reyes to Gálvez, Ures,
Oct. 7, 1783, ibid., 426.
Arizpe, Sept. 27, 1783, ibid.
mandatos del Venerable Definitorio a los Padres Vicarios y Misioneros,
Ures, Oct. 28, 1783, Ernesto López Collection, Santa Teresita Parish,
Ciudad Obregón, Son. Summary for the Council of the Indies, March 29,
1784, including letters of Neve, Oct. 20, and Nov. 17, 1783, AGI, Guad.,
Sonora, pp. 35-36.
Ximénez, Santa Teresa, May 4, 1777, ibid., pp.
114-23. His meticulous instructions to the friars, Tubutama, May 6,
1780, are preserved in the Genaro García Collection, University of Texas
26Barbastro to Neve,
Tubutama, Dec. 24, 1783; quoted in Gómez Canedo, Sonora, p.
27Barbastro to the king,
Aconchi, July 9, 1788, AGN, Misiones, 14. In his prolix, polemical
Defensa, Barbastro quoted considerable correspondence to document his
arguments. Reyes continued to put the pressure on the reluctant
Queretarans. E.g., Reyes to Neve, Bacum, July 24, 1784, and Reyes to
Viceroy Matías de Gálvez, Sonora, Oct. 1, 1784, AGN,
abreviado de las misiones, Banámichi, Jan. 8, 1791, AGI, Guad., 559.
Barbastro, Defensa. Fr. Juan José Sáenz de Gumiel to Viceroy
Bernardo de Gálvez, CSCQ, July 15, 1785, AGN, Misiones, 14. Since
the superiors of the college no longer "took care of those missions,"
they told the viceroy that they could not possibly report on their
condition or progress. He would have to apply to the custody. Fr. Juan
Alias, et al., to the viceroy, CSCQ, Sept. 15, 1787, AGN,
29Records of the
Pagaduría de Arizpe, AGI, Guad., 450. During the late 1770s in the
confusion of instituting the General Command of the Provincias Internas,
the government had fallen behind on payment of sínodos. Croix brought
them up to date. Croix to Mayorga, Arizpe, April 10, 1780, et
al., AGN, PI, 258.
30Fr. Francisco Iturralde
to Fr. Diego Bringas, Tubutama, Dec. 19, 1795, CC, 203.39.
31Reyes, Informe general,
Sonora, Sept. 15, 1784, AGN, Misiones, 14; published by Roberto Ramos in
the series Documentos para la historia de Sinaloa, vol. 1.
32Reyes to José de
Gálvez, Sonora, Sept. 20, 1784, AGN, Misiones, 14.
33Méritos de Allande,
Tucson, n.d., probably May 1, 1785, AGI, Guad., 520.
34Allande, Memorial to
the king, Tucson, n.d., ibid. Neve to Gálvez, and Extracto de
novedades, Arizpe, Jan. 26, 1784, ibid., 519. Dobyns used these
documents in Lance Ho!
35Carrillo buried two of
his Indians killed by Apaches in the monte Nov. 1, 1784. DCB. On
March 24, 1786, Apaches tried to steal Tumacácori's oxen. Troops
from the presidio of Tucson and Pima auxiliaries gave chase but were
unable to overtake the hostiles. Extracto de novedades, Jacobo Ugarte y
Loyola, Chihuahua, June 1, 1786, AGI, Guad., 521.
years earlier, the Ópata company of Bavispe was organized on Aug. 1,
1781. A second company of Ópatas was created at Bacoachi, April
1, 1784. Roque de Medina, Revistas de inspección, 1785-1786, AGI,
37Alférez Nicholás de
Errán, paymaster of the new company, picked up the payroll in Arizpe.
Records of the Pagaduría de Arizpe, AGI, Guad., 450.
38Extracto de novedades,
Croix, June 2, 1783, ibid., 284. Extracto de novedades, Joseph
Antonio Rengel, Chihuahua, Feb. 26, 1785, ibid., 520. Navarro
García, Gálvez, p. 445.
servicios, Presidio de Pimas de San Rafael de Buenavista, AGI, Guad.,
286. It is probable that all or most of these recruits were from
Calabazas and Tumacácori; Captain Allande would not have looked
favorably on recruiting Pima warriors from Tucson or San Xavier, since
he frequently called on them himself. The names of Bohórquez, Legarra,
and others appeared earlier in the Tumacácori register of
baptisms, marriages, and burials. DCB.
40Medina, Revista de
inspección, Real Presidio de San Rafael de Buenavista, San Ignacio, Nov.
30, 1783, AGI, Guad., 285. The Pimas were supposed to get some carbines,
but the shipment Croix expected had not arrived by June 2. Extracto de
novedades, June 2, 1783.
41Extracto de novedades,
Neve, Arizpe, May 31, 1784, AGI, Guad., 520. Carl Sauer, ed., "A Spanish
Entrada into the Arizona Apacheria," Arizona Historical Review,
vol. 6 (1935), no. 1, pp. 3-13. This is the partial diary of the
Santa Cruz (Las Nutrias) contingent in the Allande campaign. The year
was 1784, not 1793. In a compilation of his record, Allande listed the
Sept., 1784, campaign "to the lofty and rugged Sierra de la Arivaipa,"
during which his force killed three women and one shaman (un
sagal). Allande, Memorial to the king. The troops from Santa Cruz
rode through Tumacácori, where the diarist noted the presence of
the missionaries of San Ignacio and Cocóspera. Mission Indian
auxiliaries from Tumacácori and San Xavier also served in this
42Medina, Revista de
inspección, Compañía de San Rafael de Buenavista, San
Carlos de Buenavista, Nov. 26, 1785, AGI, Guad., 521.
43Ugarte, Estado mayor de
1787; Moorhead, Apache Frontier, p. 90n. Bancroft and others
evidently confused Mission San Ignacio with the presidio of San Ignacio
de Tubac and placed the Pima company at the old presidio several years
earlier. Arizona and New México, p. 383. 5ee also Dobyns,
44See Moorhead, Apache
Frontier, for a summary and interpretation of the
Instrucción, and Gálvez, Instructions for Governing the
Interior Provinces of New Spain, 1786, ed. Donald E. Worcester, for
Instrucción of 1786 had sixteenth-century precedents. 5ee Philip
Wayne Powell, Soldiers, Indians, and Silver: The Northward Advance of
New Spain, 1550-1600.
Frontier, pp. 182-83.
47Extracto de novedades,
Ugarte y Loyola, Chihuahua, Nov. 30, 1786, AGI, Guad., 521. Strangely,
these deaths do not show up in the Tumacácori book of burials.
Later, on Feb. 25, 1788, and July 24, 1789, Carrillo recorded burials of
two other mission Indians killed by Apaches. DCB.
48Reyes to Rengel, Tesia,
June 10, 1785, et al., AGI, Guad., 349. Reyes to Matías de
Gálvez, Sonora, Oct. 19, 1784, ibid., 347.
49Real orden, El Pardo,
Jan. 14, 1784, opinions of the fiscal, México, Aug. 15, 1784, and
Feb. 25, 1785, and viceroy's decree, May 21, 1785, AGN, Misiones, 14.
Reyes to Matías de Gálvez, Sonora, Oct. 1, 1784.
50Reyes to Conde de
Gálvez, Álamos, Sept. 2, and Oct. 28, 1785,
José de Gálvez, Banámichi, Oct. 14, 1785; printed in
Lejarza, "Las Misiones, pp. 177-85. Barbastro, Defensa. Guardian
of CSCQ to Bishop Francisco Rouset, CSCQ, March 6, 1805, ACQ. M, 3.
Gálvez, Oct. 14, 1785.
53Miguel Antonio Cuevas
to Ugarte, Álamos, March 16, 1787, AGI, Guad., 521.
54Fr. Manuel María
Trujillo to Barbastro, Madrid, Jan. 24, 1788, AGN, Misiones, 14.
55Barbastro to the king,
July 9, 1788. Ugarte to Viceroy Manuel Antonio Flores, Chihuahua, Aug.
7, 1789; Bishop Granados to Flores, Arizpe, Aug. 27, 1789; Sáenz de
Gumiel to Viceroy Conde de Revillagigedo, Querétaro, Feb. 24,
1792; Cedula, Madrid, Aug. 17, 1791; et al., ibid. Lejarza, "Las
Misiones," pp. 185-87.
Gálvez, p. 506. Thomas, Forgotten Frontiers,
pp. 364-68. Documents concerning a pension for Anza's widow,
AGI, Guad., 289. Some of these documents have been translated in J. N.
Bowman and Robert F. Heizer's jumbled Anza and the Northwest Frontier
of New Spain, pp. 87-98.
57Kessell, "The Puzzling
Presidio: San Phelipe de Guevavi, alias Terrenate," NMHR, vol. 41
(1966), pp. 38-39. Juan María Boh6rquez and Santiesteban,
Noticias que manifiestan las existencias de los bienes de comunidad,
Cocóspera, Nov. 15, 1788, AF, 35/762.
Frontier, pp. 192-96. George P. Hammond, ed., "The
Zúñiga Journal, Tucson to Santa Fe: The Opening of a
Spanish Trade Route, 1788-1795," NMHR, vol. 6 (1931), pp.
59A big fuss was made
when Anza's remains were rediscovered and identified at Arizpe in 1963.
See Bowman and Heizer, Anza.
60DCB. Barbastro, Estado
abreviado, Jan. 8, 1791, confirmed the abandonment of Calabazas:
Tumacácori, without visitas, had a population of 15 boys and
girls, 63 men and women, and 30 married couples (who may or may not have
been included in the 63). Gutierrez, Padrón de los gentiles.
61DCB. Although the San
Rafael company had its own books of baptisms, marriages, and burials, on
Nov. 14, 1787, Carrillo entered a Tubac baptism in the Tumacácori
register where it is the earliest mention of "soldados de la compañía de
Pimas." On Jan. 21, 1788, Rosa, the wife of soldado Juan Legarra, stood
as godmother to a Pápago boy, Sebastián Pamplona. Later the same
year Carrillo identified Miguel Castro and María Dolores as
"vecinos de Tubac." Ugarte, Estado que manifiesta el numero de tropas,
Chihuahua, Feb. 1, 1787, AGI, Guad., 521. Manuel Merino, Plan general de
las tropas, México, Nov. 21, 1789, AGN, PI, 46.
62Villaescusa seems to
have stayed in the south where he became commander of the presidio of
San Carlos de Buenavista. His son, Juan Joseph, had been baptized by
Arriquibar on July 21, 1783, at San Ignacio. Certificate of baptism,
Tumacácori, June 9, 1788, Parish archive, Banámichi, Sonora.
Errán's nombramiento, Madrid, Feb. 22, 1789, AGI, Guad., 506.
63Apparently Otero came
with Errán. Pedro Villaescusa's wife was Ignacia Otero, perhaps a
relative. The 1789 grant seems to be the earliest recorded in the
General Land Office documents in Phoenix. Ray H. Mattison, "Early
Spanish and Mexican Settlements in Arizona," NMHR, vol. 21 (1946), p.
Tumacácori, April 5, 1792, Parish archive, Ures, Sonora.
65Garrido y Durán to the
viceroy, Arizpe, Nov. 23, 1789, AGN, Misiones, 13.
Revillagigedo. Arizpe, Aug. 16, 1790, ibid.; published in
Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 95-105.
67It was in response to
this order that Reyes had submitted his report of Sept. 15, 1784.
Revillagigedo, Arizpe, April 16,1791; Nava to Revillagigedo, Chihuahua,
Jan. 27, 1792, AGN, Misiones, 13; Gómez Canedo, Sonora,
69Revillagigedo to the
king, México, Dec. 27, 1793, AGI, Mex., 2735; published in
Informe sobre las misiones, 1793, e Instrucción reservada al
Marqués de Branciforte, 1794, introducción y notas de
José Bravo Ugarte, pp. 15-116. Calabazas was shown as a
visita of Tumacácori, even though it had been abandoned for some
five or six years.
Revillagigedo, Aconchi, Dec. 1, 1793, AGN, PI, 33; Gómez Canedo,
Sonora, pp. 49-91. In 1791, just before the demise of the
custody, Barbastro had reluctantly turned over to Bishop Granados the
five Pimería Baja missions of Aconchi, Banámichi, Ures, Mátape,
and Ónavas, with the proviso that he and the other friars might stay on
until other missions fell vacant. Although at this time no one seemed to
be seriously considering secularization of the Pimería Alta
establishments, Barbastro vigorously defended their mission status. See
Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 64-69, 106n, 109,
71Barbastro, May 28,
1792; quoted by Gómez Canedo, Sonora, pp. 61-62n, 75.
Earl Jackson, Tumacácori's Yesterdays, p. 36. A year after
Carrillo's death Tumacácori's old church was described as "split
in two." Alfred F. Whiting, "The Tumacácori Census of 1796,"
The Kiva, vol. 19 (1953), p. 10.
Revillagigedo, Dec. 1, 1793.
73Carrillo is the first
Franciscan whose record is complete in the fragmentary Tumacácori
books. On March 3, 1793, he married his namesake to Teresa Errán, a
Pápago girl of heathen parents. DCB.
Padrón de los gentiles. Father Gutiérrez included several
heathens evidently baptized by Carrillo at Tubac and entered in the
presidio's lost book.
"Tumacácori Census," pp. 7-9. Although the names of
Cristóbal Medina and Juana Peciña did not appear on the 1796
Tumacácori census, a surviving son, Juan Luis, identified as a
Pima, was listed. He died in Nov. 1798, at age seven years nine months;
his parents were already deceased. The other two Medina children shown
in 1796 were from another family.
sailing, Marqués del Surco, Cádiz, Dec. 17, 1789, AGI,
Diccionario, vol. 1, pp. 109-10.
For María de Ágreda, see The Memorial of Fray Alonso de
Benavides, 1630, trans. Mrs. Edward E. Ayer, pp. 189-90, 275-78, and
T. D. Kendrick, Mary of Ágreda.
4Sherburne F. Cook quoted
in Cooper, Epidemic Disease, p. 84.
5Relación de los
religiosos, CSCQ, Dec. 10, 1786, AGI, Mex., 2735.
6Three expedientes of
documents concerning the two-wave Sarobe mission of 1789 are in
ibid. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 5, pp. 304-10.
7CSCQ, Libro de
8Bringas, Informe al
9Fr. Ángel Collazo
to Fr. Juan Francisco Rivera, Búsanic, Sept. 28, 1794, CC, misc.
Fr. Florencio Ibáñez to Rivera, Sáric, July 5,
1795, ibid. Fr. Francisco Iturralde to Rivera, Tubutama, March 7,
1795, CC, 203.33.
Bertrán to Rivera and the Discretory, n.d., CC, 203.34.
11Bringas, Informe al
rey. Lista de los religiosos sacerdotes que existen en el colegio,
Rivera, CSCQ, Sept. 22, 1795, AGI, Mex., 2737. Burrus, Diario de
Rivera, vol. 2, pp. 533-34. Henry R. Wagner, The Spanish
Southwest, 1542-1794, pp. 489-92.
12Bringas to Rivera,
Valle de San Bartolomé, May 28, 1795, CC, 202.46. Kessell,
Mission of Sorrows, pp. 169-70.
13Barbastro to Bringas,
Aconchi, April 31[?], 1795, CC, 202.63.
14Rivera to Bringas,
CSCQ, June 17, 1795, CC, misc. Bringas to Iturralde, Aconchi, Sept. 13,
1795, CC, 202.52.
15Llorens and Fr.
Antonio Díez to Bringas, San Xavier del Bac, Jan. 2, 1796, CC,
misc. Certification of sailing, Leandro Navarro, Cádiz, March 8,
1782, AGI, Juzgado de Arribadas, 533.
"José de Zúñiga, Commandant at Tucson," The
Kiva, vol. 22, (1956), pp. 1-4. Geiger, Junípero
Serra, vol. 2, p. 263.
"Zuñiga Journal." Navarro García, Gálvez, p. 507.
According to his service record, Ensign Antonio Narbona,
second-in-command, was assigned to the Compañía de Tubac
at this time. Service record of Narbona, Fronteras, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN,
PI, 233. Six years later Sergeant Juan Manuel Martínez of Altar,
another member of the Zúñiga expedition, was named ensign
of the Pima company. Nombramiento, Aranjuez, Feb. 11, 1801, AGI, Guad.,
18Bringas to Nava,
Chihuahua, March 13, 1796, quoted in full in his Informe al rey, par.
61. The map of Pimería Alta showing the Bringas party's route to
and from the Gila was published by Ezell, "Fray Diego Bringas, a
Forgotten Cartographer of Sonora," Imago Mundi, vol. 13 (1956),
p. 156. Bringas to [Zúñiga], Cocóspera, Sept. 29,
1795, CC, 203.35.
19Iturralde to Bringas,
Tubutama, Sept. 24, 1795, and Santa Teresa, Dec. 8, 1795, CC, 203.35-36.
Born Oct. 26, 1740, in the city of Tarazona, Ibáñez at age
sixteen had entered the order at the convento of Nuestra Señora
de Jesús in Zaragoza, the same house where Juan Crisóstomo
Gil de Bernabé had been invested a decade earlier. Lista de los
cuarenta y nueve, 1769, AGI, Guad., 369. Geiger, Franciscan
Missionaries in Hispanic California, 1769-1848, pp. 124-25.
made only two entries in the Tumacácori books, both baptisms,
Dec. 18 and 24. Gutiérrez made the entries before and after.
to Rivera, July 5, 1795.
22Iturralde to Father
Guardian, Tubutama, Dec. 4, 1797, CC, 203.21.
to Rivera, Caborca, April 4, 1796, CC, misc.
24Iturralde to Rivera,
Tubutama, April 5, 1796, CC, 203.34. Iturralde to Bringas, Tubutama,
Feb. 4 and March 4, 1796, CC, 203.41-42.
25Iturralde to Father
Guardian, Dec. 4, 1797. Iturralde to Bringas, Tubutama, May 5, 1796, CC,
sailing, Dec. 17, 1789, et al., AGI, Mex., 2735. Madoz,
Diccionario, vol. 8, pp. 28-29. Fr, Joseph Cardoso, Lista de los
religiosos, CSCQ, Feb. 7, 1824, ACQ. Geiger, Junípero
Serra, vol. 1, pp. 23-29. Evidently Fray Mariano had relatives in
the order. One Francisco Bordoy was serving in 1814 as official
chronicler of the Franciscan province of Mallorca. Ibid., p. 18.
A Joseph Bordoy of Palma, twenty-three, sailed for the college of San
Fernando in 1810. Certification of sailing, Joaquin de Abaurrea,
Cádiz, May 26, 1810, AGI, Mex., 2736.
sailing, Dec. 17, 1789, et al. López was described as a
native of "La Villa y Corte de Madrid," which is to say, the capital.
Since his brethren frequently attributed his delicate stomach to his
upbringing "en la corte" he may indeed have grown up at the royal
Census." Burials place the census in September or October. DCB. See also
Dobyns, "The 1797 Population of the Presidio of Tucson," JAH, vol. 13
(1972), pp. 205-09. In compiling the required data, Bishop Rouset made a
few modifications in the Revillagigedo format. For one thing, he counted
deserted Guevavi, Calabazas, and Sonoita as a mission (no. 34) separate
from Tumacácori (no. 35). The three pueblos abandoned because of
the Apaches, he said, "are situated in the San Luis Valley, the most
fertile region known in the provinces of Sonora, according to the word I
have, abundantly watered, and so suited to raising stock that in times
not long passed a cow was valued at less than three pesos." He mentioned
that he had given the friars of Tumacácori the faculties to
administer the presidio of Tubac. They did not collect the customary
100-peso stipend, rather it went for the needs of the presidial chapel.
Rouset, Misiones de la Provincia de Sonora, Hacienda de San
Nicolás Tolentino de Pánuco, July 24, 1797, AGI, Guad.,
29Socies to Fr.
Sebastián Ramis, San Xavier del Bac, March 20, 1797, CC,
30Iturralde to Fr.
Francisco Miralles, Tubutama, Oct. 2,1798, CC, 203.29.
sailing, Dec. 17, 1789, et al. Madoz, Diccionario, vol. 4,
p. 231. Cardoso, Lista.
32Prado to Ramis,
Tumacácori, May 30, 1797, CC, misc. Salazar to Gil de
Bernabé, Tubutama, May 31, 1772, CC, 202.12.
33Iturralde to Rouset,
Tubutama, May 31, 1797, AMS.
34Prado to Ramis, May
30, 1797. Five weeks later Prado, concerned by the possibility of
finding himself at times alone at the mission, requested that the bishop
modify the faculty to celebrate two Masses every day of obligation for
the benefit of the people of Tubac. The bishop granted his request. For
a period of three years Prado or his successor, bound to say one Mass at
Tubac and one at Tumacácori on feasts of obligation, might
dispense with Mass at the mission on those days the Indians were not
obligated, unless twelve or more obligated persons showed up. Prado to
Rouset, Tumacácori, July 4, 1797, and Rouset to Prado, Hacienda
de Pánuco, Aug. 26, 1797, AMS.
36Iturralde to Father
Guardian, Dec. 4, 1797.
Ramis, Tubutama, Nov. 28, 1797, CC, misc.
38Iturralde to Father
Guardian, Dec. 4, 1797. The enclosures referred to in the letter are not
to Father Guardian, Sáric, March 28 and July 3, 1798, CC, misc.
Iturralde to Ibáñez, Tubutama, March 19, 1798, CC, 203.25.
Iturralde to Miralles, Tubutama, May 4 and Oct. 2, 1798, CC, 203.26 and
29. Geiger, Franciscan Missionaries, p. 125. See also
Ibáñez, Los Pastores (The Shepherds), trans.
María López de Lowther.
40Just when Prado left
is not clear. He last signed the Tumacácori books on Oct. 21,
1797, when he struck the notice of an unauthorized Jan. 15 visita by
Licenciado Manuel María Moreno. DCB. In his letter of Oct. 2,
1798, Iturralde lamented Prado's return to the college but he did not
say when or if he had departed. The president did not notify the bishop
of Prado's exit until the following January, when he requested the
faculties of chaplain at Tubac for Gutiérrez. Iturralde to
Rouset, Tubutama, Jan. 28, 1799, AMS. Prado served as guardian at the
college, 1809-1812, 1815-1818, 1824.
41Iturralde to Rivera,
April 5, 1796.
42Bringas to Nava,
Chihuahua, March 15, 1796, and Opinion of Galindo Navarro, Chihuahua,
Dec. 9, 1796, quoted in full in his Informe al rey, pars. 36-37. Urrea
to Francisco Iriarte, Arizpe, Feb. 9, 1825, BL, M-M 495.
43Iturralde to Fr.
Sebastián Ramis, Tubutama, Dec. 4, 1796, CC, 203.23. Bringas to
Nava, March 13, 1796.
44Barbastro to Bringas,
Aconchi, July 19, 1796, CC, 202.65.
45Bringas, Informe al
46Cedula Aranjuez, June
16, 1797, and Nava to President of Pimería Alta missions,
Chihuahua, Nov. 18, 1797, CC, 202.41.
47Iturralde to Fr.
Francisco Miralles, Tubutama, March 3, 1798, CC, 203.24. Bringas,
Informe al rey, pars. 10-35.
48Iturralde to Miralles,
Tubutama, June 4 and Sept. 4, 1798, and Aconchi, Jan. 12, 1799,CC,
203.27-28 and 31.
49Iturralde to Miralles,
Tubutama, Oct. 2, 1798, CC, 203.29.
50Iturralde to Miralles,
Tubutama, Nov. 3, 1798, CC, 203.30.
51Bordoy dated his last
entry in the Tumacácori books, a baptism, June 26, 1799. He
confessed a woman whom Gutiérrez buried on Sept. 23, but when,
Gutiérrez did not say. DCB. Libros de Aconchi, Parish archive,
Banámichi, Son. Libros de Tubutama, Parish archive, Altar, Son.
CSCQ, Libro de difuntos.
52Bringas, Informe al
53Moyano, Noticia, 1803.
DCB. Whiting, Tumacácori Census." Gutiérrez,
Padrón, Tumacácori, Dec. 9, 1801, AMS.
Padrón, Tubutama, Dec. 26, 1801, AMS. Certification of sailing,
March 8, 1782. CSCQ, Libro de difuntos. Gómez Canedo,
Sonora, p. 60n.
Las Provincias Internas en el siglo XIX, p. 11.
58Moyano, Noticia, 1803.
In total population Tumacácori, even with the increase, ranked
only fifth among the eight missions.
Provincias Internas, pp. 1-11.
Last Years of Spanish Arizona, 1786-1821," AW, vol. 9 (1967), pp.
61Moyano, Noticia de las
misiones, Oquitoa, Feb. 5, 1805, AGI, Mex., 2736.
62In his report of May
18, 1803, Father President Moyano showed two missionaries for
Tumacácori, yet between 1799 and 1804 Gutiérrez alone
performed all the mission baptisms, marriages, and burials. DCB.
sailing, Marqués del Surco, Cádiz, Nov. 14, 1789, AGI,
Mex., 2735. Lista de los religiosos, Rivera, CSCQ, Sept. 22, 1795,
ibid., 2737. It would appear that Fernández Saravia,
Joseph Ignacio Ramírez, and Gregorio Ruiz were three of the four
who rode north from the college in early 1802 "with the Father
President." Geiger, "A Voice from San Xavier del Bac (1802-1805),"
Provincial Annals, vol. 16 (1953), p. 7. For some reason
Gutiérrez entered the three baptisms celebrated by
Fernández Saravia (Feb. 19, March 31, and June 11, 1804); the
latter only signed them. DCB. CSCQ, Libro de difuntos.
64Geiger, "Voice from
San Xavier," pp. 5-11, and Miguel Marín H., "Un misionero poblano
en la Pimería Alta," Abside, vol. 32 (1968), pp. 404-25.
Ramírez' parents were Joseph Ramírez de Arellano and
Joséfina Espino Barrios. He had been ordained at Valladolid
(Morelia) on March 19, 1800, the feast of Saint Joseph.
65Between Dec., 1804,
and May, 1805, Ramírez buried sixteen bodies. DCB. Geiger, "Voice
from San Xavier," pp. 10-11. Moyano to Father Guardian, Nov. 4, 1805, as
quoted in CSCQ, Libro de difuntos.
66Two folios of
Tumacácori baptisms, including Ramírez' last and Ruiz'
first entries, are missing. Ruiz entered a burial Jan. 4, 1806, and his
last baptism on Oct. 20, 1807. DCB. CSCQ, Libro de difuntos.
67See Richard E.
Greenleaf, "Land and Water in Mexico and New Mexico 1700-1821," NMHR,
vol. 47 (1972), pp. 88-89.
Informe sobre las misiones, pp. 31, 22.
del Carpio, Petition in behalf of the Indians of Tumacácori,
Arizpe, 1806, and Decree of García Conde, Arizpe, Dec. 17, 1806,
U.S., 46th Congress, 2d sess., Sen. Exec. Doc. 207 (SED), pp. 3-4.
Neither the government transcription nor the translation is accurate. A
somewhat better translation by Henry O. Flipper, Special Agent for the
Justice Department with the Court of Private Land Claims, Oct., 1893, is
in the Thomas Benton Catron Collection, Special Collections, University
of New Mexico Library (Catron), PC 29, 302, box 3. Mattison's account of
the "Tumacácori and Calabasas Grants" is some what confused.
"Spanish and Mexican Settlements," pp. 291-94, and "The Tangled Web: The
Controversy Over the Tumacácori and Baca Land Grants," JAH, vol.
8 (1967), pp. 72-73.
Petition in behalf of the Indians, Tumacácori, Dec. 23, 1806,
SED, p. 8.
72If this was the same
Manuel Fernández de la Carrera who served as the friars' attorney
at Arizpe during the 1780s and 1790s he must have been elderly when he
died. A gentleman of that name lived in Arizpe at least as late as 1796.
Ignacio Bustamante and Pedro de Mata Biñolas to Viceroy
Marqués de Branciforte, Arizpe, Oct. 24, 1796, AGN, PI, 204.
73Testimony of Apodaca,
Romero, and Baes, Tubac, Dec. 24, 1806, Jan. 7, and 9, 1807, SED, pp.
74Proceedings of the
survey, Jan. 13-17, 1807, SED, pp. 4-8.
75SED, pp. 10-12. See
also Greenleaf, "Land and Water."
76Arivaca grant, Catron,
PC, 302, box 3.
77Map of the Private
Land Claim of San José de Tumacácori, surveyed by Y.
Bonillas, July 1894, ibid. In the slightly revised 1973 edition
of his folksy Tumacácori's Yesterdays, Earl Jackson,
following Mattison, still asserts incorrectly (pp. 41, 54) that the 1807
grant contained "over 52,000 acres."
1Iturralde to Rivera,
Tubutama, March 7, 1795, CC, 203.33.
Dedication of Caborca," The Kiva, vol. 24 (1959), no. 4, inside
back cover. Navarro García, Provincias Internas, pp.
45-47. Almada, Diccionario, pp. 701-02.
Provincias Internas, pp. 53-57. Because Moreno had from the
bishop authority to inspect only the presidios, his visitation of the
missions was later declared void. Socies to Bringas, San Xavier del Bac,
April 28, 1797, CC, misc. See herein, Chapter 8, note 40.
4Prado to Fr. Pablo de
Moya, CSCQ, Oct. 23, 1811, ACQ, photocopy, BL, BRP, no. 375.
5García Conde to
Bernardo Bonavia, Arizpe, Aug. 14, 1813; published as "El gobernador
intendente de Sonora informa...," Memorias de la Academia Mexicana de
la Historia, vol. 10 (1951), folletines, pp. 143-78. Burrus,
Diario de Rivera, vol. 2, p. 534.
6Service record of
Vicente [sic] Sambrano, Tubac, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 233.
Certification of enlistment (Dec. 16, 1785), Tubac, Dec. 31, 1817,
Provincias Internas, pp. 10, 12, 59-62.
8Salcedo to Cevallos,
Chihuahua, May 23, 1813, AGI, Mex., 2737. Moyano to García Conde,
Oquitoa, Feb. 4, 1812, ibid. Cevallos to Salcedo, CSCQ, Oct. 16,
9Cevallos to Salcedo,
México, Dec. 6, 1809, Feb. 10 and April 27, 1810, ibid.
Salcedo to Cevallos, Chihuahua, Jan. 15 and March 27, 1810, and to
Rouset, Chihuahua, April 15, 1810, ibid.
10Salcedo to Cevallos,
Chihuahua, Oct. 22, 1811, and Oct. 11, 1810, ibid. Cevallos to
Salcedo, México, July 28, and CSCQ, Sept. 17, 1810, ibid.
Rouset to Salcedo, Culiacan, Sept. 19, 1810, ibid.
11Llorens to Moyano, San
Agustín de Tucson, Dec. 27, 1811, ibid.
12Cevallos to Salcedo,
Colegio de Guadalupe de Zacatecas, Dec. 12, 1812, and Chihuahua, Feb.
25, and March 3, 1813, ibid. Salcedo to Cevallos, Chihuahua, Jan.
4, and May 23, 1813, ibid. Copies of Cevallos' file on the case
as well as his undated letter of summary and transmittal are in ACQ, D,
leg. 4, photocopies, BL, BRP, no. 369.
13Cevallos to Bringas,
Durángo, Dec. 31, 1812, AGN, Misiones, 18. Certifications of
sailing, Joaquín de Abaurrea, Cádiz, Dec. 15, 1803, and
April 4, 1805, AGI, Mex., 2737.
Prado to Viceroy Félix
Calleja, CSCQ, Jan. 1816, AGN, Misiones, 18.
15Cevallos to Bringas,
Dec. 31, 1812. Moyano to Iturralde, Oquitoa, June 4, 1813, ACQ, Cartas
de Sonora (CS). Typescripts of the so-called Cartas de Sonora, hundreds
of documents from the ACQ for the period 1813-1842, variously labeled,
are filed at the Bancroft Library in the Bolton Research Papers, nos.
359 and 378. Carbon copies are in BL, M-A 25. BL, BRP, no. 373, contains
photocopies of some of the documents.
16Ruiz to Viceroy
Francisco Javier Venegas, México, Aug. 24, 1811, et al.,
AGN, Misiones, 18.
Cevallos to Bringas, Durango, Dec. 31, 1812, and Chihuahua, Jan. 27,
1813, AGN, Misiones, 18.
18Moyano to Iturralde,
Oquitoa, Sept. 4, 1813, ACQ, CS. Pérez signed no marriage or
burial entries at Tumacácori. The baptisms from late 1810 to late
1814, four folios, are missing. DCB.
19Bonavia to Alonso
Tresierra, Durango, July 5, 1814, AGI, Mex., 2737. Bonavia to
Esteban Varea, Durango, Aug. 12, 1816, ibid.
20Bonavia to Tresierra,
Durango, Jan. 27, 1814, ibid.
21Llorens to Bringas,
San Xavier del Bac, April 4, 1814, ACQ, CS. Tumacácori's
Francisco Pérez had spent some time with the despondent Llorens
at Bac that spring of 1814.
Bustamante to Bonavia, Arizpe, Feb. 10, 1814, and Bonavia to Bustamante,
Durango, March 1, 1814, et al., AGI, Mex., 2737.
23Narbona to Bustamante,
Presidio of Tucson, April 18, 1814, ibid. Service record of
Narbona, Fronteras, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 233. DCB. At this time the
Tubac company consisted of a lieutenant, an ensign, two sergeants, and
76 soldiers, whose total annual salary came to 12,350 pesos, 4 reales.
[Simón Elías González], Resumen de la tropa
veterana, May 20, 1814, BL, M-M 379, no. 44.
24Cevallos to Bringas,
Oquitoa, June 4, 1814, AGN, Misiones, 18. Cevallos to Viceroy Juan Ruiz
de Apodaca, Ures, April 17, 1818, ibid. Fontbona to Ruiz de
Apodaca, Cocóspera, Jan. 24, 1817, ibid.
25Cevallos to Bringas,
Durango, Feb. 2, 1815, and Ures, June 14, 1815, ACQ, CS.
26Cevallos to Ruiz de
Apodaca, April 17, 1818. José Francisco Velasco, Noticias
estadisticas del Estado de Sonora, p. 143, makes this intriguing
statement: "The ministers were very industrious, especially Fray Narciso
Gutiérrez, during whose time the said mission loaned 22,000 pesos
to the royal treasury at Arizpe." He was referring to Cocóspera,
where Gutiérrez never served.
27Cevallos to Bringas,
San Xavier del Bac, July 7, 1814, ACQ, CS.
28Cevallos to Bringas,
Feb. 2 and June 14, 1815.
29Royal order of the
Regency, Cádiz, Oct. 12, 1813, AGN, Misiones, 18.
30Cevallos to Ruiz de
Apodaca, April 17, 1818. Commandant General Bonavia strongly supported
Cevallos against Father President Moyano et al., particularly in
the Father Prefect's effort to better the lot of the poor neophytes and
impose on the missionaries more efficient management of mission produce
and stricter accountability. Bonavia to Bringas, Durango, March 29,
1815, ACQ, D, leg. 4, photocopy, BL, BRP, no. 369.
31Llorens to Bringas,
Tucson, Jan. 4, 1815, ACQ, CS. Gutiérrez to Fr. Diego Gil, May
28, and April 26, 1815, ibid.
Gil, May 28, and April 26, 1815.
33Prado to Calicia, Jan.
al., 1815-1816, AGN, Misiones, 18.
35Fontbona to Ruiz de
Apodaca, Cocóspera, Jan. 24, 1817, with enclosures,
36Prado to Ruiz de
Apodaca, CSCQ, Aug. 6, 1817, ibid.
37Antonio Cordero to
Bonavia, Arizpe, Aug. 19, 1817, et al., ibid. Ruiz de Apodaca to
Guardian of CSCQ, México, Jan. 21, 1818, ibid. Nearly two
years later the guardian of the Querétaro college assured the
bishop of Sonora that the Fontbona-Creó-Ruiz scandal was a thing
of the past, that all the calumny they had heaped upon the other friars
had been shown to be false. Moreover, he had reliable information that
Fontbona had died in Campeche. Fr. Buenaventura Tuny to Bishop Bernardo
del Espíritu Santo, CSCQ, Nov. 28, 1819, AMS.
38Cevallos to Ruiz de
Apodaca, April 17, 1818. Cedula, Palacio, Nov. 7, 1815, AGI, Mex., 2737.
Fr. Joseph Pérez to Fr. Juan Buenaventura Bestard, San Ignacio,
Feb. 5, 1817, AGN, Misiones, 18. Gutiérrez to Gil, May 28,
39"Notes on the State of
Sonora and Cinaloa" by Colonel Bourne in H. G. Ward, Mexico in
1827, vol. 1, pp. 569-70. Cevallos died at Ures on Nov. 23, 1826, at
the actual age of seventy-seven. CSCQ, Libro de muertos.
de Pimas de Tubac, Pie de lista y extracto de la revista, Juan Bautista
Romero, Jan. 1, 1817, AGN, PI, 206. Certifications of time served
against the insurgents for the following Tubac troops: Ambrosio
Sambrano, Inocencio Soto, José Manuel Camargo, Juan Maldonado,
and Simón Castro, Tubac, Dec. 31, 1817, ibid., 243.
41Service records of
Romero and Elías González, Tubac, Dec. 31, 1817,
ibid., 233. Tubaca y Otros, Mission Guevavi, fragmentary
baptismal, marriage, and burial records, 1739-1767, ADT.
Soto's enlistment (July 16, 1793), Tubac, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 243.
Libros de Tubac. fragmentary marriage and burial records, 1814-1824, BL,
de Tubac, Pie de lista y extracto, Romero, Feb. 1, 1817, AGN, PI, 206.
These filiaciones offer the anthropologist a prime source.
44Presidio de Tucson,
Pie de lista y extracto, Manuel Ignacio de Arvizu, Tucson, June 1, 1818,
ibid., 233. DCB.
Bestard, Feb. 5, 1817.
Bestard, Feb. 5, 1817.
Espíritual y temporal de las misiones de la Pimería Alta,
Oquitoa, Dec. 31,1818, AGN, Misiones, 3. Navarro García,
Provincias Internas, pp. 86-91.
50There are missing
folios in the baptismal book, for all or part of the years 1805-1806,
1808, 1810-1814, and 1817-1821. Despite Gutiérrez' incredibly
sloppy numbering, a reasonably accurate estimate can be arrived at by
multiplying the average number of entries per extant folio by the number
of missing folios. DCB.
González, Estado de las misiones de la Pimería Alta,
Caborca, Jan. 4, 1821, AMS.
52Kessell, Mission of
Sorrows, p. 106. Dobyns, Hepah, California! The Journal of Cave
Johnson Couts . . . 1848-1849, pp. 58-59.
53Cevallos to Bringas,
Sept. 1814, ACQ, CS.
54DCB. CSCQ, Libro de
Diccionario, pp. 368-69.
56Ibid., p. 454.
Gutiérrez' acknowledgment of episcopal circular,
Tumacácori, Oct. 1, 1820, AMS.
Diccionario, pp. 453-54. Andrade, Noticias
biográficos, p. 25, claims the bishop traveled over 3,600
miles and confirmed more than 93,000.
2DCB. The error in year
was compounded in marble in the mortuary chapel of mission San Xavier
del Bac, the final resting place of Narciso Gutiérrez. There the
friar's death date reads Dec. 21, 1821.
sailing, Felipe José Benítez, Cádiz, April 24,
1813, et al., AGI, Mex., 2736. Cardoso, Lista. Prado to Calleja,
CSCQ, Jan., 1816, AGN, Misiones, 18. Bringas to Calleja, CSCQ, Feb. 15,
1815, ibid. In Spain the friar signed himself Estelrich, the
conventional mallorquin spelling. By the time he reached
Tumacácori he had dropped the final 'h.'
Estado, 1821. Estelric, who often let someone else write the entries for
his signature, signed the Tumacácori and Tubac books from early
Jan. 1821, through May 1, 1822. DCB. Libros de Tubac. The friar had
entered his last baptism at Magdalena on Dec. 26, 1820. Parish archive,
Diccionario, pp. 562-63. Mattison, "Spanish and Mexican
Settlements," pp. 310-13. Service record of Pérez, Primera
compañia volante de Nueva Viscaya, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI,
Liberós to Pérez, Tumacácori, Sept. 6, 1822, BL,
M-M 379, no. 75. For a more complete treatment of the big beef sale and
its aftermath, see Kessell, "Father Ramón and the Big Debt,
Tumacácori, 1821-1823," NMHR, vol. 44 (1969), pp. 53-72. Almada,
Diccionario, pp. 239, 241-42. Rafael Elías González
was a great-grandfather of Plutarco Elías Calles, president of
Mexico, 1924-1928. Simón, according to Almada, had commanded
the Tubac company of Pimas, evidently in absentia from 1805 to at least
1807 while Ensign Manuel de León acted for him.
7Estado de la
población, 1774, CC, 201.83. Moyano, Noticia, 1803, AGI, Mex.,
2736. Moyano, Noticia, 1805, ibid. Pérez, Estado, 1818,
AGN, Misiones, 3. González, Estado, 1819, AMS. González,
Estado, 1820, AMS.
Bestard, San Ignacio, Feb. 5, 1817, AGN, Misiones, 18.
9Bringas, Informe al
10Nearly forty years
later Samuel Woodworth Cozzens set down a delightful, singularly
inaccurate version of how the SaleroSpanish for
saltcellarcame by its name. The Bishop of Sonora, it seemed, was
visiting the Jesuits at Tumacácori. Every detail to insure the
prelate's pleasure had been seen to, save one. Where, he demanded, was
the saltcellar? Chagrined at their oversight, the Jesuits rushed out,
dug the ore, smelted it, and wrought forthwith a massive silver
saltcellar. It was still to be seen, Cozzens assured his readers, in the
bishop's palace at Hermosillo. The Marvellous Country, pp.
11Libros de Tubac.
Stoner, "Arriquibar," pp. 76-77. Fray Narciso Gutiérrez had
buried don Agustín Ortiz, the Arivaca grantee, in the Tubac
church "near the chancel" on Jan. 9, 1817.
González, Culiacán, July 6, 1821, and González to
Espíritu Santo,Caborca, June 4, 1821, AMS.
Diccionario, pp. 84, 295, 368-70, 454. For a discussion of the
effect of Spanish anti-clerical legislation in lining up the Mexican
hierarchy behind independence, see Farriss, Crown and Clergy, pp.
237-53. Provincia de Sonora, Noticia de los puntos de dicha provincia
donde se ha jurado la independencia, Chihuahua, Sept. 18, 1821, et
al., Archivo Histórico Militar Mexicano, México,
Secretaría de Guerra y Marina (AHMM).
Pérez, Tumacácori, Sept. 10, 1821, and draft, BL, M-M 379,
no. 62. Pérez to Liberós, Chihuahua, Sept. 24, 1822,
ibid., no. 77.
to González, Culiacán, Dec. 7, 1821, acknowledged by
Elías González, Tumacácori, Jan. 29, 1822, AMS.
Espíritu Santo, Caborca, Oct. 4, 1822, AMS. DCB.
Espíritu Santo, Caborca, Dec. 4, 1822, AMS.
to Estelric, Culiacan, Feb. 14, 1823, AMS.
19Br. Francisco Javier
Vázquez to Espíritu Santo, Pitic, Nov. 4, 1823, AMS.
Dávalos to Espíritu Santo, Tecoripa, April 12, 1824, AMS.
Tabula II, 1827, ACQ. List of contributors, Guásavas, July 30,
1832, Archivo Histórico del Estado de Sonora, Hermosillo (AES).
Fragment of Guásavas Libro de Entierros, Parish archive,
sailing, José Sentesvillano, Cádiz, July 19, 1813, et
al., AGI, Mex., 2736.
22On May 30, Father
García baptized con licencia del ministro a five-year-old
Yuma boy giving him the name Ramón Liberós. DCB.
23For details of the
contest between Liberós and Pérez, see Kessell, "Father
Ramón," pp. 58-68.
24On the basis of
present documentary evidence, it is impossible to determine the
contribution of each friarGutiérrez, Estelric, and
Liberósto the church project or the chronology of
construction. Apparently by the time Liberós arrived, enough had
been built to warrant his hope that the structure might soon be put to
25DCB. It has been
suggested, on the basis of an analysis of the interior decorations, that
the new church "must have been in use for some time before the 1822
date." Charlie R. Steen and Rutherford J. Gettens, "Tumacácori
Interior Decorations," Arizoniana, vol. 3, no. 3 (1962), p. 8.
The documentary evidence, meager though it is, does not support this
assumption. The dedication of a new mission church at Santa
Bárbara in California a couple of years earlier included a
similar transfer of two friars' coffins into vaults under the sanctuary.
Geiger, Santa Barbara, p. 47.
26DCB. Libros de Tubac.
Liberós later baptized and buried several more children of
Ramón and María Leocadia. On Jan. 20, 1824, he married
Ignacio Pamplona, son of Ramón and his first wife, to
María Piedad Barrios.
Inventario que manifiesta las alajas de plata . . . de las ocho
misiones, Caborca, Oct. 26, 1822. AMS.
28La Canoa grant,
Catron, PC 29, 302, box 2. Mattison, "Spanish and Mexican Settlements,"
Herreros and the mission of Tumacácori, Tubac, Jan. 4, 1823, ACQ,
CS. Transfer by Herreros to Gov. Ramón Pamplona for the pueblo of
Tumacácori, Tubac, Dec. 4, 1826, ibid. Mattison, "Spanish
and Mexican Settlements," pp. 298-300. Nicolás Herreros signed
for his illiterate father the transfer to Elías, Tubac, Dec. 26,
1831. Sonoita grant, Catron, PC 29, 302, box 4. On June 20, 1822,
Liberós had married widower Herreros and María Pelegrina
Valencia of Santa Fe, New Mexico. Libros de Tubac.
Espíritu Santo, Tumacácori, May 8, 1823, AMS.
to Liberós, Culiacán, June 6, 1823, AMS.
32DCB. Libros de Tubac.
33Francisco Iriarte to
alcaldes constitucionales, Fuerte, Feb. 28, 1825, BL, M-M 380, no. 9.
Fr. José María Pérez Llera, Apuntes sobre los
acontecimientos acaecidos en este colegio de la Santa Cruz de
Querétaro desde el año de 1821 y sus misiones hasta el mes
de diciembre de 1844, ACQ.
34Noticia de las
cantidades que se les deben en esta tesorería a las misiones de
la Pimería Alta, Arizpe, Jan. 1, 1825, ACQ. CS. It was admitted
in 1828 that mission sínodos had been in arrears "for a long
time." Only the bishop, his secretary, and his notary got paid
punctually, which seemed inconsistent to some, since the state also
collected the tithe for the diocese. Juan M. Riesgo and Antonio J.
Valdés, Memoria estadística del Estado de
Occidente, p. 18.
Apuntes. Some of the documentation on the ill-fated Prado mission is in
AGI, Mex., 2737.
Tumacácori, Nov. 20, 1825, AMS. When I edited this letter in
1965, I assumed the recipient to have been Fray Joseph Gómez,
twenty-year veteran of the Altar River missions. Montes, a
catalán who had come over in the second contingent of the
1811-1813 mission, much closer to Liberós in age and experience,
now seems a better bet. Kessell, "A Personal Note from
Tumacácori, 1825," JAH, vol. 6 (1965), pp. 147-51.
37Aros to Urrea, Nov.
1, 1824, et al., AHMM. Seven years earlier Aros had been a
corporal serving under Captain Simón Elías González
at Santa Cruz. Pie de lista y extracto, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 206.
Leon, Semanario de los acontecimientos, Tucson, Feb. 1, 1825, AES.
Alcalde Ignacio Pacheco, Tranquilidad publica, Tucson, June 4, 1826,
40See Lowell John Bean
and William Marvin Mason, Diaries and Accounts of the Romero
Expeditions in Arizona and California, 1823-1826, and Forbes,
Warriors of the Colorado, pp. 242-44. José Romero, a
native of the Valle de Oposura, was forty-one at the end of 1817 and the
lieutenant in command of the Ópata company at Bacoachi. He had
served previously at Horcasitas, Tucson, and Altar, where in interim
command he had "made peace" with the Yuma nation. Service record of
Romero, Bacoachi, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 233.
41Ríos to Urrea,
[Tucson,] n.d., BL, M-M 495.
manifiesta la demarcación de las rancherías de los Pimas
gentiles Gileños, Arizpe, March 21, 1825, ibid. Urrea to
Iriarte, Arizpe, Feb. 9 and March 21, 1825, ibid.
Diccionario, pp. 811-12, 278.
Simón Elías González, Arizpe, Aug. 23, 1825, BL,
González to secretario de estado, Arizpe, Aug. 5, 1825,
46Bean and Mason,
Diaries, pp. 73-80. Forbes, Warriors of the Colorado, pp.
20, 1825. In view of the assertion that Yaquis brought the matachines to
Arizona, this reference to the dance at Tumacácori in 1825, a
dozen years or so after a colony of Yaqui miners moved in at Guevavi, is
of some interest. See Spicer, Cycles of Conquest, pp. 509-10,
515; and Gertrude P. Kurath, "The Origin of the Pueblo Indian
Matachines," El Palacio, vol. 64 (1957), p. 260.
48Statements by Manuel
de León, Ramírez, and José León, Tucson,
Nov. 20 and 26, 1825, AMS.
Informe sobre las misiones de Pimería Alta, San Ignacio, Oct. 8,
1828, ACQ, SC. Just how many persons died at Tumacácori in the
epidemic of 1826 is impossible to say. All the pages of burial,
baptismal, and marriage entries after April, 1825, have been torn from
the Tumacácori books. DCB.
50Pacheco to the
governor, Tucson, Nov. 4, 1826, et al., AES, typescripts, BL, M-A
19. See also David J. Weber, The Taos Trappers, pp. 112-33.
51Alcalde Juan Romero
to the governor, Tucson, Jan. 4, 1827, AES.
52Romero to the
governor, Tucson, March 4, 1827, AES. Almada, Diccionario, p.
53Bringas to Fr.
Francisco Mogrovejo, CSCQ, Feb. 1, 1828, Archive of the Franciscan
Province of Michoacán, photocopies, BL, BRP, no. 373.
Pérez Llera, Apuntes. Eugenio de Aviraneta e Ibargoyen, Mis
memorias íntimas, 1825-1829. For background on the expulsion,
see Romeo Flores Caballero, La Contrarrevolución en la
54Eduardo W. Villa,
Historia del Estado de Sonora, pp. 173-82.
55Thirty-six and a
native of Cucurpe, Villaescusa had begun his career in 1804 and by 1817
had served at Buenavista, Fronteras, Santa Cruz, and Horcasitas. Alejo
García Conde had classified him as a "very regular officer."
Service record of Villaescusa, Pitic, Dec. 31, 1817, AGN, PI, 233.
Apuntes. Juan José Tovar to ayuntamiento of Altar, Altar, April
8, 1828, BL, M-M 380, no. 38. Santiago Redondo to Villaescusa, Altar,
April 9, 1828, ibid., no. 39. Grande, Informe, Oct. 8, 1828.
57San Ignacio, Libro de
casamientos, Parish archive, Magdalena, Son.
Historia, pp. 179-81. Almada, Diccionario, p. 306. Tovar
to ayuntamiento of Altar, April 8, 1828. González to ayuntamiento
of Altar, Caborca, April 9, 1828, BL, M-M 380, no. 40. Redondo to
Villaescusa, April 9, 1828.
Redondo, Tubutama, April 22, 1828, BL, M-M 380, no. 41.
Historia, pp. 179-81.
eulogy of González in CSCQ, Libro de difuntos. Pérez
García to Nicolás Martínez, Ures, May 11, 1828,
Lista. Díaz to governador de la mitra, Presidio of Santa Cruz,
Oct. 7, 1828, AMS. He was at Cocóspera on Sept. 25, 1828, where
he signed a peculiar baptismal entry recalling two of his expelled
brethren, Francisco Solano García and Ramón
Liberós: "I Fray Rafael (Liberós) Díaz solemnly
baptized a boy to whom I gave the name Francisco Solano." Evidently
Díaz moved up to Tucson late in 1828. During 1829 Pérez
Llera signed the Cocóspera books more often than Díaz.
From 1830 to 1836 Díaz lived at Cocóspera.
Cocóspera, Libro de bautismos, Libro de entierros, BL, M-M
3Manuel Escalante y
Arvizu to José María Almada, Arizpe, Oct. 13, 1828, AES.
[Almada] to Escalante y Arvizu, Sept. 13, 1828, AES. Índice de
documentos, Sept. 27, 1828, AES.
4Grande, Informe, San
Ignacio, Oct. 8, 1828, and Observaciones, Magdalena, Nov. 1, 1828, ACQ,
CS. Velasco, Noticias, pp. 148-49, quotes a glowing 1829
assessment of the job done by Redondo and Grande in inventorying and
setting right the finances of the seven Pimería Alta missions,
which still, according to them, possessed significant resources. The
combined debt owed these missions stood at: 4,456 pesos 2 reales by
presidial companies; 27,097 pesos 5 reales 11 granos by private parties;
and "a considerable sum which may exceed 30,000 pesos" by the federal
Apuntes. In the spring of 1829 Grande instructed the Tumacácori
administrator not to hand over the mission's kitchen garden to the
friars until the governor resolved the matter. Grande to Sr. Admor., San
Ignacio, April 28, 1829, ACQ, CS.
6Escalante y Arvizu to
governor, Arizpe, Jan. 13, 1830, and Dec. 19, 1828, AES.
7Grande to Gov.
Francisco Escobosa, Cucurpe, May 25, 1830, AES. Villa, Historia,
8Pérez Llera to
excelentísmo señor, n.d., ACQ, CS.
9Pérez Llera to
governor, 1830, incomplete, ibid.
Apuntes. Pérez Llera to governor, 1830.
minister of justice, Hermosillo, Aug. 6, 1831, ACQ, CS.
Diccionario, pp. 247-48, 525-29, 648-50. Villa, Historia,
14Ignacio Sardina to
governor, Tucson, May 4, 1828, AES.
Grande, Tumacácori, Dec. 9, 1829, AES. Escalante y Arvizu to
governor, Arizpe, Jan. 13, 1830, AES. Either the Apache killed by Ochoa
was not Nagayé or another capitancillo, killed in 1831, had the
same name. Índice de las novedades, José Grijalva, Tucson,
Oct. 1, 1831, AES. To avenge the death of this second Nagayé,
done in through the treachery of Tucson settlers, some fifty mounted
Apaches galloped right up to the presidio wall on Oct. 19, 1831, and
proceeded to examine the defenses as if planning an attack. Inocencio
Buitrón to governor, Arizpe, Oct. 25, 1831, AES. A year later
still another Capitancillo Nagayé, of the Pinaleños,
accepted a peace treaty. Ramón Morales to vice governor, Arizpe,
Sept. 27, 1832, AES.
16At the same time
three vaqueros were killed and 1,200 horses and mules driven off from
Rafael Elías' San Pedro ranch. Escalante y Arvizu to alcalde of
Santa Cruz, Arizpe, Jan. 11, 1830, BL, M-M 380, no. 55. Escalante y
Arvizu to governor, Jan. 13, 1830.
vecindario de Tubac, ACQ, CS. Riesgo and Valdes, Memoria
estadistica, pp. 63-64. A year's pay for the entire garrison came to
13,372 pesos 6 reales. "In the jurisdiction of Tubac," wrote the same
two authors, "excursions into the countryside are attended by continual
danger of robbery and murder by the Apaches. There is, nevertheless, a
silver mine which was worked a few years ago. San José de
Tumacácori is an adjacent mission pueblo. Its population is very
small. At a rancho in its district, called Las Calabazas [Guevavi?], a
gold mine is worked by poor people. Others apply themselves to
collecting dust of the same metal at the placers."
et al., Cocóspera, May 20, 1832, and Joaquín
Vicente Elías to Escalante y Arvizu, Cocóspera, May 21,
1832, AES. Comandancia Militar del Estado de Occidente,
Instrucción y método . . . para mantener una guerra
defensiva contra los Indios Apaches, Manuel Ignacio de Arvizu, Arizpe,
Dec. 16, 1829, BL, M-M 380, no. 54. Six months before, Joaquín
Vicente Elías had bought the Sonoita grant from León
Herreros for 200 fanegas of wheat delivered to Fray Rafael Díaz
on Herreros' account. Transfer, Tubac, Dec. 26, 1831, Catron, PC 29,
302, box 4.
Vicente Elías to Escalante y Arvizu, Tucson, May 28, 1832, and
Arizpe, two letters, June 19, 1832, AES.
Martínez to Escalante y Arvizu, San Ignacio, June 17, 1832, AES.
"Triunfo sobre los Apaches en el Estado de Sonora," Chihuahua, July 6,
21Narbona quoted by
José María Elías González to Escalante y
Arvizu, Arizpe, June 18, 1832, AES.
Rápida ojeada al Estado de Sonora, Territorios de California,
y Arizona . . . 1835, ed. Vargas Rea, p. 78.
Villaescusa, Tubac, June 10, 1832, and José María
Elías González to Escalante y Arvizu, Arizpe, June 18,
Escalante y Arvizu, Tubac, Oct. 4, 1832, and José María
Elías González to Escalante y Arvizu, Arizpe, July 23 and
Aug. 12, 1832, AES.
Elías to Escalante y Arvizu, Tubac, July 4, 1834, and Loreto
Ramírez to commanders at Tubac and Santa Cruz, Tucson, July 3,
26Díaz to vice
governor, Cocóspera, Nov. 1, 1832, and Andrés Granillo to
Escalante y Arvizu, Cocóspera, Aug. 5, 1832, AES. Only two of the
men, Crisanto Higuera and Pedro Hipólito [Pineda], were listed
thirty-one years before by Father Gutiérrez. Of the twelve family
names shown, six had appeared on the Gutiérrez census.
Gutiérrez, Padrón, 1801. Fray Angélico
Chávez, Archives of the Archdiocese of Santa Fe,
1678-1900, p. 103.
27Fr. Pedro de
Arriquibar to the bishop, Tucson, March 6, 1811, AMS.
seguidas contra la persona del administrador de la misión de
Tumacácori José Sosa, Elías, Tubac, Feb. 4, 1834,
ACQ, CS. Padrón del vecindario de Tubac.
Tubac, May 28, 1836, ACQ, CS.
Apuntes. Pérez Llera to minister of war, CSCQ, June 29, 1841;
printed in José Agustín de Escudero, Noticias
estadisticas de Sonora y Sinaloa, pp. 43-46. Almada,
Diccionario, pp. 305, 650-58.
and burial books, Parish archives, Magdalena and Altar, Son. CSCQ, Libro
de difuntos. Opodepe, Libro de entierros, Parish archive, Rayón,
Gándara, April 16, 1839, AES.
34Díaz to Fr.
Antonio González and Fr. Ángel Arroyo, San Ignacio, May
28, 1841, ACQ, CS.
35CSCQ, Libro de
González and Arroyo, May 28, 1841. Flores to Gándara,
Opodepe, Aug. 7, 1841, AES. Antonio González signed the inventory
for San Ignacio on Sept. 7, 1841. BL, M-M 380, no. 65.
invested on Feb. 22, 1823, and he professed March 25, 1824. CSCQ, Libro
de incorporaciones, ACQ. The friar did not date the Tumacácori
inventory. Two more undated inventories of Tumacácori's church
furnishings, both unsigned, are preserved with the González
document in BL, M-M 285.
María Martínez et al. to Father Joseph P.
Machebeuf, San Xavier del Bac, Dec. 16, 1858, ADT. Jackson,
Tumacácori's Yesterdays, pp. 52-53. Mattison, "Spanish and
Mexican Settlements," pp. 293, 309-10.
39Bishop Garza to
Pérez Llera, Culiacán, Nov. 9, 1841, and Pérez
Llera to Garza, CSCQ, Sept. 28, 1841, AMS.
40Pérez Llera to
Garza, CSCQ, Dec. 27, 1841, and March 26, 1842, AMS.
to Flores, Magdalena, Oct. 5, 1842, AMS.
Garza, San Ignacio, May 25, 1843, AMS. Noticia, Roque Ibarra, Tubac,
March 1, 1843, BL, M-M 381, no. 45.
Tubac, Nov. 1, 1842, ibid., no. 2, et al. The Tubac
establecimiento de paz was smaller than its counterpart at Tucson. In
1835 there had been 106 Apache men, 117 women, and 263 children
receiving wheat rations at the Tucson camp. They were presided over by
General Antuna and Capitancillos Nichuy and Flaco. Establecimiento de
Apaches del Tucson, Comadurán, Arizpe, July 16, 1835, BL, M-M
380, no. 62.
Quiroga to secretario del departamento, Cucurpe, May 31, 1843, AES. The
Aug. 4, 1843, issue of El Voto de Sonora printed Santa Anna's
decree of June 21 authorizing the Jesuits to refound missions all across
the northern frontier from Texas to the Californias. The editors favored
José María Elías González, Tucson, Dec. 1,
1842, BL, M-M 381, no. 38, et al.
46Garza to José
de Aguilar, Culiacán, April 19, 1850, AMS.
Abreviado informe, Cieneguilla, May, 1844, BL, M-M 381, no. 62. Bishop
Garza later wrote that a lone Queretaran friar, doubtless
González, had returned to Pimería Alta "and died soon
after." Garza to Juan Francisco Escalante and Manuel María
Encinas, Culiacán, April 19, 1849, AMS.
48SED, pp. 13-15.
Mattison, "Spanish and Mexican Settlements," pp. 293-94, and "Tangled
Web." The United States Supreme Court ruled in 1898 that the sale to
Aguilar was illegal and void, thus nullifying all subsequent transfers
of the grant. Because the rightful owners, the Tumacácori
Indians, had in the meantime abandoned the grant, it reverted to the
49San Ignacio, Libro de
bautismos, Parish archives, Magdalena, Son. Most of those who hung on at
Tumacácori till the end are named in these entries. García
Rojas had taken over Dan Ignacio and the northern Pimería on June
José María Elías González, Tucson, Sept. 17,
1844, BL, M-M 381, no. 64.
Elías González, Tucson, Dec. 7, 1845, two letters, and
Diario, Nov. 29-Dec. 7, 1845, ibid., nos. 84-85.
Elías González, Tucson, Feb. 3, 1846, ibid., no.
Gonález to governor, Arizpe, Nov. 10, 1837, AES.
"Sidelights on Fifty Years of Apache Warfare, 1836-1886,"
Arizoniana, vol. 2, no. 3 (1961), pp. 3-14; Ralph A. Smith, "The
Scalp Hunter in the Borderlands, 1835-1850," AW, vol. 6 (1964), pp.
5-22; and Weber, Taos Trappers, pp. 220-25.
Vázquez to Bishop Garza, Altar, Feb. 10, 1849, AMS.
56Cooke quoted by
Bancroft, Arizona and New México, p. 478. See also Almada,
Diccionario, pp. 382-86.
Pedro Losa, Cieneguilla, April 23, 1847, AMS.
burial record, 1848, BL, M-M 411. Luisa Huerta et al. to
commandant general, Tucson, July 6, 1848, AES.
59Dobyns, Journal of
Couts, pp. 58-59.
60Petitions to Judge
Charles Trumbell Hayden by Jones et al., Guevavi, July 9, 1864,
and by Jones, Guevavi, Aug. 1, 1864, PCRO, Old Record Book "B," pp. 75,
77. U.S., 48th Congress, 1st sess., Sen. Exec. Doc. 53, pp. 12-14.
61Dobyns, Journal of
Couts, pp. 58-59,61. Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico,
(Feb. 21, 1849), pp. 1-3, BL. Bancroft says nine persons were killed in
the attack on Tubac. Arizona and New Mexico, p. 475. Fronteras,
Tubac, Cuquiárachi, Chinapa, Ópotu, and Cocóspera
were listed as "completely abandoned" in mid-January. Jesús
María Encinas to Gándara, Ures, Jan. 15, 1849, typescript,
BL, M-A 6. A good many of the displaced persons from Tubac evidently
ended up at Santa Cruz, as well as at Tucson. See J. Lucas Biso
[José Lucas Picó], "Resumen breve y explicatorio de los
pueblos del partido de Arizpe," Ures, March 8, 1850, Boletín
de la Sociedad Mexicana de Geografía y Estadistica, primera
época, vol. 2 (1864), pp. 62-67.
Aguilar to juez de paz of Santa Cruz, Ures, April 30, 1849, BL, M-M 381,
Gándara, Jan. 15, 1849.
Vázquez to Garza, Feb. 10, 1849. Francisco Javier Vázquez
to secretario de la superior curia episcopal, Cieneguilla, May 22, 1849,
66Aguilar to Garza,
Ures, June 8, 1849, et al., AMS. Several months later Francisco
Javier Vázquez moved to Caborca where he recalled that he had
blessed the cornerstone of the church and its final vault.
Vázquez to Garza, Caborca, Sept. 20, 1849, AMS. Robert H. Forbes,
Crabb's Filibustering Expedition into Sonora, p. 5, relates a
similar attack on "Cieneguita" involving the old priest and his sister,
attributing it to Parker H. French, the overland expedition
leader-turned-desperado, who does not seem to have reached Sonora until
67See Kenneth Hufford,
"Travelers on the Gila Trail, 1824-1850," JAH, vol. 7 (1966), pp. 1-8,
vol. 8 (1967), pp. 30-44.
68Powell, The Santa
Fé Trail to California, 1849-1852, ed. Douglas S. Watson, p.
142. Jackson, Tumacacori's Yesterdays, pp. 57-58.
recorded at Tucson 22 baptisms, 118 confirmations, 120 confessions, and
4 marriages; and at San Xavier del Bac 21 baptisms, 76 confirmations,
and 22 confessions. Lorenzo Vázquez, Altar, Jan. 16, 1849,
70Citizens of Tucson to
prefect of San Ignacio, Tucson, Feb. 6, 1850, et al., AMS.
71Garza to Aguilar,
April 19, 1850. Br. Lorenzo Vázquez planned to visit Tucson and
San Xavier in August, believing that God would protect him from the
Apache barbarians. Vázquez to bishop, Altar, Aug. 6, 1850,
72CSCQ, Libro de
arreglo de curatos en Sonora to Garza, Ures, July 19, 1850, AMS.
74Aguilar to ministro
de relaciones, Ures, April 30, 1851, AMS.
75For an idea of the
intrigue and grand plans generated among foreigners by Mexico's desire
to people the northern frontier, see Rufus K. Wyllys, The French in
Sonora (1850-1854). Almada, Diccionario, pp. 80-81,
"Projected Mexican Military Colonies for the Borderlands, 1848," JAH,
vol. 9 (1968), pp. 39-47; "A Colonization Plan for Northern Sonora,
1850," NMHR, vol. 44 (1969), pp. 293-314; and "Projected Mexican
Colonies in the Borderlands, 1852," JAH, vol. 10 (1969), pp. 115-28.
May 23, 1851, AMS.
Vázquez to bishop, Altar, July 27, 1851, AMS. Pimas and
Pápagos recorded the horrible contagion on their calendar sticks.
See, for example, C. H. Southworth, "A Pima Calendar Stick," AzHR, vol.
4, no. 2 (1931), p. 45.
79A translation of the
contract signed Dec. 9, 1852, is quoted in full by Fontana,
Calabazas, p. 77. Almada, Diccionario, pp. 112-14,
Calabazas, pp. 77-78. Earlier that year the prefect of San
Ignacio had reported to Gándara a great gathering of Apaches bent
on the destruction of Tucson and Santa Cruz. Gándara to ministro
de relaciones, Ures, Feb. 15, 1853, typescript, BL, M-A 17. A somewhat
different version of the action at Calabazas appeared in the Nov. 10,
1855, Sacramento Union: "In March, 1853, the place was besieged
and circled closely around by three hundred Apaches, against whom the
little garrison fought bravely. Messrs Hundhaused and Hulseman
[sic] made a sally during the siege, and shot down three Apaches,
for which deed they were complimented in high terms in all the papers of
Mexico. The assailants lost twenty four men in the course of the short
siege, and since then have not troubled the place seriously."
81Julius Froebel and
James A. Bennett quoted in Fontana, Calabazas, p. 79.
82Unsigned draft of
order, Ures, Sept. 28, 1853, BL, M-M 381, no. 129.
83Cota to commandant
general, Tubac, June 17, 1853, and draft of reply, July 8, 1853,
ibid., no. 117. Cota commended First Sergeant José
Paredes, Corporals Rodriguez and Cirilio Tanori, and paisano José
Ortega. The fortunate Martínez, a soldier and land-owner at Tubac
at least as early as 1838, had abandoned the place with the other
refugees in 1848. At Tucson he petitioned for a farming grant and
grazing rights "in the vacant and uncultivated lands of the missions of
San Xavier and Tucson," which he received, allegedly with the consent of
the Indians of San Xavier. Mattison, "Spanish and Mexican Settlements,"
Gándara, Tubac, July 6, 1853, M-M 381, no. 57. Zenteno to
governor and commandant general, Tubac, July 18, 1853, three letters;
Relación de los Apaches que forman la ranchería de este
establecimiento; and drafts of replies, July 28, 1853, ibid.,
85Circular, Ures, Sept.
13, 1853, ibid., no. 126. Zenteno to governor and commandant
general, Tubac, July 30, and Aug. 11, 1853, et al., ibid., nos.
86Instrucciones que se
dan al Comandante de la Linea del Tucson a Santa Cruz Capitán
Andrés Zenteno, Ures, Nov. 9, 1853, et al., ibid., nos.
131-32, 135-36. The command at Tubac had devolved on First Sergeant
José Paredes. Zenteno reassumed it when named chief of the line.
The captain dispatched messengers to Culo Azul to arrange a meeting with
him at Tucson.
87Zenteno to Ayudante
Inspector Bernabé Gómez, Tubac, Jan. 18 and 21, 1854,
ibid., nos. 138-39.
Union, Nov. 10, 1855.
Arellano to Gómez, Guaymas, April 3 and 4, 1855, BL, M-M 381,
nos. 141-42. For photos of a young-appearing Antonio Azul, Pima head
chief in 1872, see Ezell, Hispanic Acculturation, p. 52.
90Compañía presidial de
caballería del Tucson, Lista para la revista, Sept. 1, 1855, BL,
M-M 381, nos. 153-54.
91As Poston later
remembered it, life at Tubac in 1856 and 1857 was one delightful picnic,
with an abundance of charming señoritas, Sunday feasts of wild
turkey, mescal, and French wines followed by excursions to the quaint
ruins at Tumacácori, and the exhilaration of productive Yankee
self-sufficiency in one's own utopian company town. See his Building
a State in Apache Land, ed. John Myers Myers, and "Poston's
Narrative" in J. Ross Browne, Adventures in the Apache
The Geography and Resources of Arizona and Sonora, p. 12.
Gómez, Tucson, May 15, 1855, and Inventario de los vasos sagrados
y ornamentos sacerdotales que existen en la iglesia de este pueblo
pertenecientes a la misión de Tumacácori, May 16, 1855,
M-M 381, nos. 146-47.
Union, Nov. 10, 1855. Fontana, Calabazas, pp. 80, 83-84.
Bancroft, Arizona and New Mexico, p. 490n.
95José Zapata to
Machebeuf, Tucson, June 13, 1859, ADT. Martínez et al. to
Machebeuf, Dec. 16, 1858.
O.F.M., "Carnacion Tells Her Tale," AzHR, vol. 3, no. 4 (1931), p.