Geology and Paleoenvironments of the Clarno Unit
John Day Fossil Beds National Monument, Oregon
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A checklist of middle Eocene (Bridgerian-Uintan) fossils in nut beds and lahars of the Clarno Formation near Clarno and paleosols in which they have been found

ASPERGILLIACEAE (wood-rotting fungi)

Cryptocolax clarnensis Scott: cleistothecia, hyphae (large spored dry rot)
Cryptocolax parvula Scott: cleistothecia, hyphae (small-spored dry rot)

EQUISETALES (horsetails)

Equisetum clarnoi (Brown): stem, rhizome, cone (scouring rush) - Sayayk


Cyathea (Hemitelia) pinnata (MacGinitie) Lamotte: leaves (bipinnate tree fern) - Sayayk
Saccoloma gardneri (Lesquereux) Knowlton: leaves (large pinnate fern) - Luquem

CYCADALES (cycads)

Dioon sp.: leaf (cycad)

CONIFERALES (conifers)

Pinus sp. indet.: seed, wood, pollen (pine)
Torreya sp. indet.: seed (nutmeg tree)
Taxodiaceae gen. et sp. indet.: wood (redwood)
Taxus sp. indet.: seed (yew)

GINKGOALES (maiden hair trees)

Ginkgo bonesi Scott et al.: wood, leaf (ginkgo)

MONOCOTYLEDONAE (palms and grasses)

Ensete oregonense Manchester & Kress: seed (bananalike herb)
Graminophyllum sp. indet.: leaf (grass) - Cmuk
Sabal bracknellensis (Chandler) Mai: seed (palmetto)
Sabaljenkinsi Reid & Chandler: seed (palmetto)
Sabalites eocenica (Lesa) Dorf: leaf, wood (as Palmoxylon) (palm)

MAGNOLIACEAE (magnolias)

Liriodendroxylon multiporosum Scott & Wheeler: wood (tulip tree)
Magnolia angulata Scott & Wheeler: wood, leaf, seed (New World magnolia)
Magnolia leei Knowlton: leaf (bigleaf magnolia) - Patat, Sayayk
Magnolia longiradiata Scott & Wheeler: wood, seed (Asiatic magnolia)
Magnolia spp. indet.: seeds (magnolias)

ANNONACEAE (custard apples)

Annonaspermum cf. A. pulchrum Reid & Chandler: seed (custard apple)
Annonaspermum spp. indet: seed (custard apples)

SCHISANDRACEAE (schisandras)

Schisandraceae gen. et sp. indet: seed

LAURACEAE (laurels)

Cinnamomophyllum sp. cf. "Cryptocarya" eocenica Hergert: leaf (nutmeg) - Sayayk, Patat
Laurocarpum spp.: seeds (extinct laurels)
Lindera sp. indet.: seeds (wild allspice)
Litseaphyllum praelingue (Sanborn) Wolfe: leaf (avocadolike laurel) - Sayayk
Litseaphyllum presanguinea (Chaney & Sanborn) Wolfe: leaf (silverballi) - Sayayk, Cmuk
Litseaphyllum sp. cf. "Laurophyllum" merrilli Chaney & Sanborn: leaf (extinct laurel) - Sayayk
Ulminium scalariforme Scott & Wheeler: wood (laurel wood)


Anamirta sp. indet.: fruit (fish berry)
Atriaecarpum sp. indet: fruit (extinct moonseed)
Calycocarpum sp.: fruit (North American vine)
Chandlera lacunosa Scott: fruit (extinct hollowed moonseed fruit)
Daviscarpum sp.: fruit (extinct moonseed)
Diploclisia auriformis (Hollick) Manchester: fruit, leaf (Paleotropical vine) - Sayayk
Eohypserpa sp. indet: fruit (extinct moonseed)
Odontocaryoidea nodulosa Scott: fruit (extinct nodular moonseed fruit)
Palaeosinomenium venablesii Chandler: fruit (extinct moonseed)
Tinospora spp.: fruit (Indomalesian tropical vine)
Tinomiscoidea sp. indet: fruit (extinct moonseed)
Menispermaceae gen. et spp. indet.: fruits (extinct moonseeds)


Trochodendron becki (Hergert & Phinney) Scott & Wheeler: wood (Japanese vessel-less tree)
Euptelea baileyana Scott & Barghoorn: wood (Japanese vessel-less shrub)


Joffrea spiersii Crane & Stockey: fruit, wood (as Cercidiphyllum alalongum), leaf (as Cercidi-phyllum crenatum) (extinct katsura) - Sayayk, Patat

PLATANACEAE (sycamores)

Macginicarpa glabra Manchester: ovulate fruits, flowering heads (as Platananthus synandrus), anthers (as Macginistemon mikanoides), leaves (as Macginitea angustiloba), wood (as Plataninium haydenii) (Clarno plane) - Sayayk, Patat
Platanus sp.: fruit (sycamore)

HAMAMELIDACEAE (witch hazel family)

Hamamelidaceae gen. et sp. indet.: fruit

BETULACEAE (birches)

Alnus clarnoensis Klucking: leaf (alder) - Sayayk, Patat
Betula clarnoensis Scott & Wheeler: wood (birch)
Betulaceae gen. et sp. indet.: fruits (birch)


Quercus palaeocarpa Manchester; leaf: acorn, wood (as Quercinium crystallifera) (oak)
Castanopsis sp.: fruit, wood (as Fagaceoxylon ostryopsoides) (chestnut)

ACTINIDIACEAE (kiwi fruit family)

Actinidia sp.: seed (kiwi fruit)

THEACEAE (tea family)

Cleyera sp. indet.: fruit (cleyera)

SYMPLOCACEAE (lodh bark family)

Symplocus sp.: seed (lodh bark)

STERCULIACEAE (cocoa family)

Triplochitioxylon oregonensis Manchester: wood (whitewood)
Chattawaya paliformis Manchester: wood (extinct pterospermumlike wood)


Aphananthe sp. indet.: fruit (Indomalesian tree)
Cedrelospermum lineatum (Lesquereux) Manchester: fruit (extinct elm)
Celtis sp. indet.: fruit (hackberry)
Trema sp. indet.: fruit (guacimilla)
Ulmaceae gen et sp. indet.: seed, wood, leaf


Castilla sp. indet.: leaf, wood (as Ficoxylon) (fig)

FLACOURTIACEAE (West Indian boxwoods)

Saxifragispermum sp. indet.: seed (extinct dicot)

SAPOTACEAE (chicle family)

Bumelia spp.: seeds (neotropical hardwood)

SAXIFRAGACEAE (saxifrages and hydrangeas)

Hydrangea sp. indet.: fruit (hydrangea)


Leguminicarpon sp. indet.: pod, wood (as Tetrapleuroxylon) (African legume wood)

NYSSACEAE (tupelos)

Nyssa spatulata (Scott) Manchester: seed (extinct tupelo)
Nyssa spp.: seeds (tupelos)

ALANGIACEAE (alangiums)

Alangium oregonensis Scott & Wheeler: wood, fruit (alangium)
Alangium sp.: fruit (alangium)

CORNACEAE (dogwoods)

Cornus sp. indet: fruit (dogwood)
Langtonia bisulcata Reid & Chandler: fruit (extinct large fruit)
Mastixia sp. indet.: fruit (Indomalesian dogwood)
Mastixiocarpum sp. indet.: fruit (extinct dogwood)
Mastixioidiocarpum oregonense Scott: fruit (extinct dogwood fruit)

ICACINACEAE (tropical vines)

Iodes multireticulata Reid & Chandler: seeds (Paleotropical vine)
Iodes sp. indet.: seeds (Paleotropical vine)
Goweria dilleri (Knowlton) Wolfe: leaf - Luquem, Sayayk
Palaeophytocrene pseudopersica Scott: fruit (extinct discoid icacina vine fruit)
Palaeophytocrene hancocki Scott: fruit (extinct large inflated icacina vine fruit)
Pyrenacantha sp. indet.: fruit (Paleotropical vine)
Icacinaceae gen. et spp. nov.: fruits and seeds

RHAMNACEAE (buckthorns)

Berhamnophyllum sp. indet.: leaf (buckthorn)

VITACEAE (grapes)

Ampelopsis sp. indet: seed (tropical climber)
Ampelocissus spp. indet: seeds (tropical climber)
Parthenocissus angustisulcata Scott: seed (Virginia creeper)
Parthenocissus spp.: seeds (Virginia creeper)
Vitis magnisperma Chandler: seed (grape)
Vitis sp.: seed (grape)

STAPHYLEACEAE (bladdernuts)

Tapiscia occidentalis Manchester: seed (bladdernut)

SAPINDACEAE (soapberry family)

Deviacer sp. indet.: seed (soapberry)
Palaeoallophyllus sp. indet: seed (tropical tree)

SABIACEAE (aguacatilla)

Meliosma sp. cf. M. jenkinsii Reid & Chandler: seed (aguacatilla)
Meliosma sp. cf. M. simplicifolia: leaf, wood, fruit (aguacatilla) - Sayak, Cmuk
Meliosma spp.: seeds (aguacatilla) Sabia sp.: seed (sabia)

ACERACEAE (maples)

Acer clarnoense Wolfe and Tanai: leaf (maple) - Sayayk

BURSERACEAE (torchwoods)

Bursericarpum spp. indet.: fruit (torchwood)


Astronium sp. indet.: wood (kingwood)
Pentoperculum minimus (Reid & Chandler) Manchester: fruit (extinct dicot)
Rhus sp. indet: fruit (sumac)
Tapiriria clarnoensis Manchester: wood (Neotropical tree)


Cruciptera simsoni (Brown) Manchester: fruit (extinct four-lobed wingnut) - Sayayk, Patat
cf. Hooleya lata Wing and Hickey: fruits, wood (as Clarnoxylon blanchardi Manchester & Wheeler) (extinct two-lobed wingnut)
Juglans clarnensis Scott: fruit, leaf (Clarno black walnut) - Patat
Palaeocarya clarnensis Manchester: fruit, wood (as Engelhardioxylon nutbedensis) (extinct three-lobed wingnut)
Palaeoplatycarya sp.: fruit (extinct wingnut)

ARALIACEAE (ivy and ginseng family)

Araliaceae gen. et sp. indet.: seed (ivy)

RUBIACEAE (coffee and gardenia family)

Emmenopterys sp. indet.: seed (gardenia)

COLEOPTERA (beetles)

Buprestidae gen. et sp. nov.: beetle (wood borer)

CROCODYLIA (alligators)

Crocodylia gen, et sp. indet.: teeth (alligator)

CHELONIA (turtles)

Hadrianus sp. indet.: carapace fragments (box turtle)

EQUIDAE (horses)

Orohippus major Marsh: teeth (small four-toed horse)

BRONTOTHERIIDAE (extinct titanotheres)

Telmatherium sp. indet.: teeth (large hornless titanothere)

HELATETIDAE (extinct tapirs)

Hyrachyus eximius Leidy: teeth (small cursorial rhinolike tapir)

OXYAENIDAE (catlike extinct carnivores)

Patriofelis ferox Marsh: teeth (lionlike carnivore)

Note: Sources of names are Chaney (1937), Scott (1954, 1955, 1956), Klucking (1956), Scott and Barghoorn (1955), Hergert, 1961; Scott and others (1962), Gregory (1969), Brown (1975), Manchester (1977, 1979, 1980a, 1980b. 1981, 1983, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1991, 1994), Bones (1979), Scott and Wheeler (1982), Crane and Stockey (1985), Wolfe and Tanai (1987), C.B. Hanson (personal communication, 1990), Retallack (1991a), and Manchester and Wheeler (1993), and Manchester and Kress (1993). This list does not include 74 additional problematic fruits and seeds of uncertain familial affinities listed by Manchester (1994).

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Last Updated: 21-Aug-2007