1See Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Administrative History, 1935-1980, by Sharon A. Brown, JEFF, 1984, p. 85. The WPA dioramas continued on display in the Old Courthouse exhibit galleries into the 1990s.
2For more on the Museum of Westward Expansion, see JNEM Administrative History, 1935-1980, by Sharon A. Brown, pp. 170-180; and "Museum of Westward Expansion, A Preview for Members of the Press," August 1976, part of an NPS press kit issued for the opening of the MWE, 3 pages, JEFF historian's files. See also the section on the Museum of Westward Expansion in this chapter.
3Interpretive Prospectus: Old Courthouse, 1971. This document specified that the themes of St. Louis history, architecture and the history of the building itself were appropriate and suggested interpretive uses for the structure.
6By enumerating and quantifying visitor services, funds could be allocated to successful programs, visitor use patterns could be charted to allow for a more informed seasonal hiring schedule, and the importance of special projects requiring funds from the Regional Office could be demonstrated. See JEFF Annual Statements for Interpretation, 1981-1991. Each of the programs and services mentioned are described in detail below.
10Ibid., and JNEM Administrative History, 1935-1980, by Sharon A. Brown, pp. 170-177. Memorandum, Superintendent Robert Chandler to Office of Public Affairs, WASO, August 4, 1976, JEFF historian's files.
11The MWE, with 42,000 square feet of exhibit area, became the second largest museum in the NPS when the Museum of American Immigration opened on Ellis Island in 1990. The immigration museum is roughly twice the size of the MWE.
12A fascinating, lengthy oral history interview with former Supervisory Park Ranger Dan Murphy, recalling many important details of the development stage and installation of the museum, is on file in the JEFF Library and the JNEM Archives.
21During this same period, extensive rehabilitation work was being conducted on the Old Courthouse. See Chapter 5, on the Old Courthouse Restoration and Rehabilitation, in this administrative history.
22Telephone interview with Rick Wilt, who served as JEFF chief of museum services and interpretation, 1980-1987, conducted on December 17, 1992, by JEFF Historian Bob Moore. The so-called "Hoppe Room" was located in what later became the park's conference room.
24JEFF Superintendent's Annual Report for 1986, p. 4; and 1987, p. 11. The Mississippian Gallery was later overshadowed by the construction of a modern visitor center/museum at the Cahokia Mounds State Park in Illinois. The Mississippian Room was closed and the exhibit dismantled in 1990.
30JNEM Administrative History, 1935-1980, by Sharon A. Brown, p. 180; "Gateway Arch aids in education," Hannibal, Missouri Courier-Post, February 9, 1979; "Museum Education Office At Arch Will Loan Slide Program Packages," North St. Louis Community News, January 16, 1979; "Teacher's workshop," St. Louis Globe-Democrat, February 21, 1979.
32See "Folklife Program: Guidelines; Jefferson National Expansion Memorial," prepared by Folklife Program Coordinator Jane Grosby-Bergey, pp. 8-10, attachment, 1981 JEFF Annual Statement for Interpretation; "JNEHA Annual Report, October 1, 1981 - September 30, 1982," pp. 4-6; and press releases on folklife activities, April 10, June 16, and July 28, 1980, copies, JEFF historian's files.
33JEFF Museum Education Brochure 1983-1984, copy in the education specialist's files, JEFF. See also Gateway, the JEFF park newspaper, Summer, 1980, which lists many of the Folklife Program's special events, held throughout the summer in the MWE, including cooperage and butter churning, concerts, ceramics, broom-making, and American Indian dancers; also The Gateway Guide, [the re-named park newspaper], Fall 1984, p. 3; copies, JEFF historian's files.
39This program ended because it was directly tied to the annual Folklife Festival, and JNEHA funds for both programs were cut in 1984. See the section on the Folklife Program under Special Events in this chapter.
44Museum Education Brochure, 1989-1990, copy attached to the 1989 Annual Statement for Interpretation, JEFF; interview with JEFF Education Specialist Sue Siller, May 1991, conducted by former JEFF Historian Mike Capps.
49The traveling suitcase program initially produced two projects, one on American Indians and the other on mountainmen. Response from the community was immediate and overwhelming, and preparations began for three additional trunks soon afterward. Museum Education Brochure, 1989-1990; JEFF Superintendent's Annual Report for 1987, p. 11; JEFF Superintendent's Annual Report for 1988, p. 11.
57Interview with Interpretive Specialist Tom Richter, Midwest Regional Office, by JEFF Historian Bob Moore, September 4, 1993. See also Chapter 7, Entrance Fees, in this administrative history for further details.
68"Closing? Old Courthouse May Be Shut," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, March 18, 1982, pp. 1 and 5. Replies were immediate in the "letters to the editor" sections of the local papers. "To close the Old Courthouse is unthinkable!" wrote one local resident, "To do this would be like doing away with Mom, apple pie, and the American flag." St. Louis Globe-Democrat, April 2, 1982, p. 13A.
75JNEM Administrative History, 1935-1980, Sharon A. Brown, pp. 178 and 180; Gateway, JEFF park newspaper, Summer, 1980 p. 4; copy, JEFF historian's files; "Mosey on over to Frontier Festival at Gateway Arch, St. Louis Globe-Democrat, August 20, 1982; "Thousands Sample Frontier Life At Festival," St. Louis Globe-Democrat, June 18-19, 1983; "Frontier Folklife Festival at the Arch," St. Louis Globe-Democrat, July 23-24, 1983, p. 8B.
77Interview with former JEFF Superintendent Jerry Schober, September 25, 1992. Several people (who wished to remain uncredited) who worked in the park prior to 1984 recalled that the Missouri Friends of the Folk Arts could be demanding and arrogant. Crowds which attended the festival were, in the opinion of some observers, drawn primarily from the visitors who would ordinarily have come to the site; there was a relatively small percentage who came specifically to see the festival. It was determined by Superintendent Schober that the entire community was not being served by a rather costly annual event. In addition, JNEHA was having problems with its cash flow at this time, caused by the expenses of the Charles Russell exhibit, and could ill-afford to support the program. Scrapping the annual festival also brought the program of weekly folklife programs in the Old Courthouse and Museum of Westward Expansion, discussed earlier in this chapter, to an end. However, this decision was controversial, and remained a point of dissention among many who worked at JEFF in the early 1980s. Employees who supported the festival felt that it had been usurped by the VP Fair, and continued to lament its demise.
78"Money Shortage Imperils Folklife Festival At Arch," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, November 13, 1983, p. 5D; "Frontier Folklife Festival at Arch canceled for lack of sponsor," St. Louis Globe-Democrat, February 15, 1984; "Letters From Readers," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, February 14, 1984. The 1984 festival was held, on a reduced basis, at Faust Park in Chesterfield, Missouri. See "Frontier Folklife Festival is Endangered No Longer," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, June 12, 1984 p. 4A.
90"Tree-Decorating Party Opens Display At Old Courthouse," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, December 4, 1983; Press Release, "A World of Christmas Decorating Party," November 28, 1983; "What's Happening," St. Louis Post-Dispatch, December 1, 1987.
96JEFF Superintendent's Annual Reports for 1987, p. 12; 1988, p. 10; 1989, pp. 15-16; 1990, pp. 20-21; 1991, p. 21; and interview with Education Specialist Sue Siller, May 1991. Scout patches were given away free of charge after the successful completion of requirements, but due to the large volume of scouts participating, the patch was sold beginning in 1991.
98See Chapter 8 on the Jefferson National Expansion Historical Association in this administrative history for more on the Union Station Urban Initiative Project; and also JEFF Superintendent's Annual Reports for 1987, pp. 1-2; 1990, pp. 20-21; 1991, pp. 21-22.
105JEFF Superintendent's Annual Report for 1985; "Arch visitor's center to bear George B. Hartzog's name," St. Louis Globe Democrat, May 11-12, 1985 p. 6A; "Sudden illness keeps honoree from Hartzog museum naming," St. Louis Globe-Democrat, May 13, 1985 p. 7A.
127Ibid. JEFF's Museum of Westward Expansion was the first museum in the National Park System to seek and receive accreditation by the AAM, in 1979. Interview with JNEHA Executive Director Ray Breun, October 9, 1992.
128"Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Library Operating Policy, May, 1989," JEFF File K22. The information summarized in this administrative history comes largely from an unidentified park report, discovered by former JEFF Historian Mike Capps in the JNEM Archives, which was the only source concerning early JEFF library history to be found.
135JEFF Superintendent's Annual Report for 1988, p. 12; "Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Archives Annual Report for 1989," and "Jefferson National Expansion Memorial Archives Annual Master Plan, March 1988," copies, JEFF library.
143The Slyman Brothers sold washers and dryers in television commercials which made them appear to be sitting on the top of the Arch. See "Exhibit Invites Arch Comments," p. 4 in "Arch of Triumph The Gateway Arch At 25," St. Louis Post-Dispatch Magazine, October 28, 1990. See also "Gateway Arch 25th Anniversary, An Exhibit in the Making," October 28, 1990, prepared for the American Institute of Architects Convention, JEFF historian's files.
147JEFF Superintendent's Annual Report for 1990, p.18. For more on museum security, see Memorandum, Acting Superintendent Gary W. Easton to John Sowl, Midwest Regional Office, December 4 and 18, 1991.
150Interview with Exhibit Specialist Dan Swift, December 21, 1992. The goals of the exhibit staff were enhanced by the efforts of Sylvia Coleman, who created and expanded the program between 1988 and 1992, and whose work was continued by Dan Swift.
153JEFF Superintendent's Annual Report for 1985, File A2621, JEFF Files. The historical information in this chapter on Indian Peace medals was compiled from several sources: Bauman L. Belden, Indian Peace Medals in the United States, 1789-1889, (reprint of 1927 edition) New Milford, Connecticut: N. Flayderman and Company, 1966; Melvill Allan Jamieson, Medals Awarded to North American Indian Chiefs, 1714-1922, and to Loyal African and Other Chiefs in Various Territories Within the British Empire London: 1936; Margo Jester, "Peace Medals," American Indian Traditions, Vol. 7 No. 5; Francis Paul Prucha, "Peace and Friendship, Indian Peace Medals in the United States" (exhibition catalog) Washington, D.C.: National Portrait Gallery, Smithsonian Institution, 1985; Francis Paul Prucha, Indian Peace Medals in American History, Madison, Wisconsin 1971; and Francis Paul Prucha, The Great Father: The United States Government and the American Indians, Volume I, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1984.
154The "image wall" was completed in 1976 when the Museum of Westward Expansion opened, but its complicated slide/film program never seemed to function properly. As early as 1982, the Regional Office noted during an Operations Evaluation: "[It] has been out of service for a considerable period due to apparent problems with its 'sophisticated' program 'computer'. Staff expertise apparently does not exist to undertake the required repairs. Since problems with the 'wall' are long-standing, management should make the decision to either discontinue the program and release its numerous projectors for use elsewhere . . . or keep [the system] operational." See the JEFF Operations Evaluation Report, Midwest Regional Office, May 1982. A major renovation project in 1985 involved retro-fitting power units, balancing for equal air flow across each 1000 watt bulb, and reprogramming the 20-tray program. The decision to remove the wall came after years of frustration with a museum exhibit that rarely functioned properly, which created unacceptable utility costs for cooling the projectors. Interview with JEFF Education Specialist Sue Siller, December 18, 1992.
157JEFF Superintendent's Annual Report for 1990, pp. 3-4 and 24. Jerry Schober knew the Director of the American Indian Center, Evelyn Voelker, personally. This St. Louis-based group represented over 50 tribes.
160The position of a park historian at JEFF evolved from the need for the preparation of an administrative history covering the years 1935-1980. Sharon A. Brown, an interpretive ranger with an MA in history, was hired by Assistant Superintendent Norm Messinger to write this history, on a one-year appointment. Upon completion of this task, Ms. Brown arranged for a one-year leave of absence to obtain a Ph.D. Upon her departure for another position as a historian with the NPS, Jon James was hired as park historian. Chief of Interpretation Rick Wilt hired James not as a research historian, but as a subject matter specialist who would serve not only an expert on the administrative history files and be familiar with the history of westward expansion, but would also conduct training courses, edit publications, review potential sales items, and audit staff programs for historical content. Telephone interview with Rick Wilt, December 17, 1992.
Last Updated: 15-Jan-2004