COLONIAL
A Study of Virginia Indians and Jamestown: The First Century
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CHAPTER 10:
Decoding the Documents: "Indians" in Selected Seventeenth Century Documents & Secondary Sources (continued)

Compiled by Katharine Harbury

Key:

£ = British pound
bb. or bbls. = barrells
bu. = bushels
ch. =chains
d = pence
Folder = item in numbered folder
Folio(s =old term for a page, pages or a pair of pages
lb. or lbs. = Pounds, either in tobacco or money
p = poles
PB = Patent Book
r = rods
s = shillings
S = Source

*Note: The sources for this chart are found in various types of Colonial papers such as; land patents, deeds, wills, court records, inventories, tithables, petitions, grievances, private correspondence, and treaties. The sections of the Acts of Assembly pertaining to Indian-non-Indian relations are included in the time-line in Chapter 10. Records are grouped by type, country and date. The counties are arranged alphabetically and in some instances records are summarized by categories of potential interest such as: Indian goods, tobacco, corn, Roanoke and peake, beaver and animal skins. References pertaining to Bacon's Rebellion, news events of the day and treaties are included by county. A list of primary and secondary references is included at the end of the chart. The "C.O." in the Public Record Office microfilms stands for "Colonial Office."

Note on date entries: Gregorian and Julian Calendars: changed from March to Jan. as the starting point of the new year, which is why some records appear to be out of sequence or appear as 1662/3. Abreviations 7br.=Sept., 8br.=Oct., 9br.=Nov. and Xbr.=Dec.



Abstracts: Acts of Assembly

James City County: See "Native Chronology" for entries.



Abstracts: Colonial Papers (Library of Virginia)

Charles City County: Colonial Papers (Library of Virginia)

Source

Name/ Party

Type

Date

Payment

Servants

Slaves

Details

Folder 6, 1689, #24

Petition to Francis Howard, Lord Effingham by Chickahominy Indians, et al.

Petition

1689

The Chickahominy Indians and various other tribes asked Lord Effingham for protection against other Indian tribes.

James City County: Colonial Papers (Library of Virginia)

Source

Name/ Party

Type

Date

Payment

Servants

Slaves

Details

Folder 3, 1681-1683, #17

Cornelius Dabney

Petition

16 9br. 1682

Payment

Cornelius Dabney petitioned the Council regarding payment for his services as an interpreter for the Queen of Pamunkey. Stated that the Assemblies at Middle Plantation had promised to pay him 2,800 lbs. of tobo. w/o caske while the other Assembly at James City also had promised to pay him 1,680 lbs. tobo. w/ caske and 10,000 lbs. tobo. w/o caske. Again supposed to be paid 4,000 lbs. tobo. as allowance per annum... 10,960 lbs. of tobo. is now due to him.

Folder 3,

1681-1683, #15

Moses Davis

Petition

7 Dec.1682

Compensation

Provided meat to Mattaponi Garrison; wants payment from House of Burgesses.

Folder 9, 1691, 1692, #28

Interpreter

Document

April 1692

Notification

To notify Indians of possible alarm.

P.R.O.

C.O. 5/1312, Pt. 1, folios 318-319

Betty [Ann], Queen of Pamunkey, et al.

Petition

22 May 1701

Land

Betty [Ann], Queen of Pamunkey and her men requested of Gov. Nicholson that their lands be confirmed and a patent be given.

Folder 14, 1701, #7

Council

Order

23 Aug. 1701

Committee

An order by the Council for a joint committee with the Burgesses to discuss the "Indian problem." The Pamunkey Indians are "praying" for a patent.

Folder 14,

1701, 1702, #30

Governor & Council

Document

22 May 1702

Need for arms and ammunition for the militia against the "enemy."

Folder 16, 1706, #27

The "Queen and Great Men" of the Pamunkey Tribe

Petition

1706

Land

Ann, the Queen of Pamunkey and her great men signed their petition to the Lt. Governor, asking for a patent to their lands.

Folder 20, 1709, #29-30

Robin, Indian and President & Council

Petition

27 Oct. 1709

To stay among the English

Robin, a Pamunkey Indian, requested that he be allowed to stay among the English to practice his trade of shoemaking. He does not wish to return to the Pamunkey village because he does not want to be "barbaric," etc. The Council ordered that Robin be permitted to remain among the colonists.

Folder 22, 1710, #18

Ann and men of the Pamunkey

Petition

1710

As much as they wanted to pay their usual annual tribute, Ann and the men of Pamunkey petitioned in this badly faded document for relief from their annual tribute because of great want and famine. Families are either forced to scatter and live among the English or risk withered and disabled bodies from starvation. [Note: Although this document is dated outside the time frame, the document shows its very importance.]

Surry County: Colonial Papers (Library of Virginia)

Source Name/ Party Type Date Payment/
Action
Servants Slaves Details

Folder 8, 1691, #14

Tho. Busby,

interpreter

Petition

May 1691

List of expenses

Public interpreter to Southern Indians in 1677, Middle Plantation.

York County: Colonial Papers (Library of Virginia)

Source

Name/ Party

Type

Date

Payment/
Action

Servants

Slaves

Details

Folder 8, 1691, #14

Thomas Busby

Petition

May 1691

List of expenses

Public Interpreter to Southern Indians in 1677, Middle Plantation.



Abstracts: Correspondence

James City County:

Source

Name/ Party

Type

Date

Payment/
Action

Servants

Slaves

Details

Brown
1964: 392
[Vol. 2587, folio 88]

Don Alonso de Velasco to Philip III, King of Spain

Letter

14 June 1610

Hardships of Colony

The ship, Swallow, reported that the "Indians hold the English surrounded in the strong place which they had erected there, having killed the larger part of them." The others were left so completely w/o provisions that they believed it was impossible to escape since the survivors ate the dead." And "they also ate one native (died by fighting) by digging him up two days after burial." Almost all those came in this ship "had died from eating dogs, cat skins and other vile stuff " and the Indians had killed swine brought to Virginia. Unless given provisions soon, all of them will perish.

Brown
1964: 519-521
[Vol. 2588, folio 82 (enclosed in folio 81)]

Duke of Lerma to Secretary Antonio de Arostegui

Document

Enclosed w/ a letter dated 13 Nov. 1611

Defense


Four earthworks: first one is at the mouth of the river w/ stockades, posts, 7 pieces of artillery, 2 of 35 quintales & 30, 20 & 18 (all of iron), & 50 men, women and boys. Second one is 2/3 of a league from the first one while the third a musket shot — both have pieces of artillery for defense against the Indians. The fourth/main settlement is 20 leagues up the river from the first fort, w/ 16 pieces of artillery of __ iron and palisades like the others. There are no interaction w/ the Indians due to times of war & peace. Indians are dressed in deerskins, use bows & arrows and cultivate only maise & nuts. However, they do not bring metals like gold & silver.

Thomson
1965:209
#144

John Chamberlain

Letter

9 July 1612

Bad news from Virginia

Two or three ships have arrived from Virginia, but their news bring only "discomfort," and "that Sir Thomas Gates and Sir Thomas Dale are quite out of heart."

Brown 1964:572
[Vol. 2589, folio 61]

Marquess of Flores to Philip III, King of Spain

Letter

1 Aug. 1612

Marriages

Reported by a source that "some of the people who have gone there, think now some of them should marry the women of the savages of that country; and he tells me that there are already 40 or 50 thus married." Also reported that the other Englishmen, after being put among them, have become savages themselves while the women, whom they took out, also have gone among the savages where they have been received & treated well. A minister who admonished them was "seriously wounded in many places" because "he reprehended them."

Brown
1964: 632-633
[Vol. 2572, folio 10]

Don Pedro de Cunega to Philip III, King of Spain

Letter

22 7br 1612

Marriages

A person (of good credit) reported that "they treate and have a determination to marrie some of ye People that goe thether with the Virginians... fortie or fiftie are already married there." And other English intermingled w/them & women "sent over to live among the Virginians are received & used kindly by them." They wounded a minister after he reprehended them.

Brown
1964: 633-634
[Vol. 2590, folio 66]

Don Alonso de Velasco to Philip III, King of Spain

Letter

30 May 1613

Hardships of Colony

No news from Virginia for several months; great fears are now entertained that the people there may have died from hunger since the Indians were "holding them in such strict confinement that they could not leave their forts without...great danger."

Brown
1964: 638
[Vol. 2590, folio 52]

Don Alonso de Velasco to Philip III, King of Spain

Letter

12 July 1613

Hardships of Colony

No news from Virginia for more than nine months. According to last reports, it is believed that the people must have perished, from disease and starvation; the country is subject... to diseases "while the Indians kept them so closely besieged that they could not come out" of the fort "to search for provisions."

Thomson 1965:210-211
#180

John Chamberlain

Letter

1 Aug. 1613

Pocahontas' kidnapping & ransom

"They have taken a daughter of a king that was their greatest enemy, as she was going afeasting upon a river to visit certain friends, for whose ransom the father offers whatsoever is in his power, and to become their friend, and to bring them where they shall meet with gold mines. They propound unto him three conditions: to deliver all the English fugitives, to render all manner of arms or weapons of theirs that are come to his hands, and to give them 300 quarters of corne. The first two he performed readily, and promiseth the other at their harvest, if his daughter may be well used in the meantime."

Brown
1964: 659-661
[Vol. 2590, folios 118, 119]

Don Diego Sarmiento de Acuña to H.M.

Letter

5 Oct. 1613

Defense & hardships of Colony

Report about five fortifications, named Fort James, Fort Henry (after the prince who died), Fort Charles, Point Comfort and Fort Henry — all surrounded by earth works w/ artillery. Approximately 300 men are there & have nothing to eat other than bread of maize w/ fish and water to drink, contrary to the nature of the English. The Savages & other natives are in "bad relations" with the English, who cannot leave their fort w/o risking their lives; and if the General does go hunting, he takes a guard to protect his person.

MacLean 1860:36

Lord George Carew to Sir Thomas Roe

Letter

June 1616

Pocahontas & John Rolfe and other Indians

Sir Thomas Dale has returned from Virginia, taking with him "divers men and women of that countrye to be educated here" and "one Rolfe, who maried a daughter of Pohetan (the barbarous prince) called Pocahuntus, hathe brought his wife with him into England." The worst of that plantation is now past- there are now good victuals through their industry.

Brown
1964: 789

John Chamberlain to Mrs. Alice Carleton

Letter

22 June 1616

Pocahontas & John Rolfe and other Indians

Sir Thomas Dale brought "some ten or twelve old and younge of that Countrie, among whom the most remarkquable person is Pocahuntas (daughter to Powatan a Kinge or cacique of that Countrie) married to one Rolfe an Englishman."

Thomson 1965:215
#257

John Chamberlain

Letter

18 Jan. 1617

Pocahontas' pending return

"The Virginian woman Pocahuntas, with her father-counsellor, hath been with the King and graciously used, and both she and her assistant well placed at the masque. She is on her return, though sore against her will, if the wind would come about to send them away."

Thomson 1965:216
#259

John Chamberlain

Letter

22 Feb. 1617

Portrait of Pocahontas

"Here is a fine picture of no fair Lady. And yet with her tricking up and high style and titles, you might think her and her worshipful husband to be somebody, if you do not know that the poor company of Virginia, out of their poverty, are fain to allow her four pound a week for her maintenance."

Thomson
1965:216
#262

John Chamberlain

Letter

29 March 1617

Death of Pocahontas

"The Virginian woman whose picture I sent you died this last week at Gravesend as she was returning homeward."

Thomson
1965:225
#411

John Chamberlain

Letter

13 July 1622

1622 Massacre

More news from Virginia: "...ill news that the savages have by surprise slain about 350 of our people there one and other. It was by their own supine negligence, that lived as careless and securely there as if they had been in England, in scattered and straggling houses far asunder, whereby they were so easily subject to the surprise of those naked people, who besides other spoil and booty have possessed themselves of arms and weapons; but the best is they have no skill to use them. Among them that are lost is one Captain Barclay and Captain Thorpe, whme I was well acquainted withal and had been a pensioner." The letter also mentioned that the "disgrace and shame is as much as the loss, for no other nation would have been so grossly overtaken."

VMHB
1899:236-237

Francis Wyatt et al. to the Earl of Southampton

Letter

3 April 1623
James City

English captives & 1622 massacre

Twenty captives from the 1622 massacre at Martin's Hundred held by Opechancanough who wishes peace and ability to plant corn on their own lands at Pamunkey. The English put Comoham, an "actor" in the massacre who was not sent by the Great King, was put in chains as leverage. The English to send home their people and they would return "Mrs. Boys (the chief of the prisoners), appareled like one of their Queens." The rest came not because of threatening speeches according to Robert Poole, interpreter. Terms of negotiation given.

Ferrar Papers
1622-1627: Reel 3: #556

Sir Francis Wyatt & Council

Letter

_ Sept. 1624

Lengthy description of the difficulties in connection with the false rumor of "poisoning" the Indians, due to malice by some parties. Also discussion of its connection to the 1622 massacre.

Mass. Historical Society 1871:11, 95, 98-99, 107-108, 110-113

Capt. Thomas Yong

Letter

13 July 1634 James Towne Cittie

Trade for corn & Interpreter

Capt. Thomas Yong described in his long letter what he observed and heard in Virginia. There was a new fort at the mouth of the James and a "great trade for Indian Corne" between the settlers and the Indians. Captain Mathews is an interpreter and ancient planter. The country is abundant w/ milk, cheese, butter & corne. After the early Starving Time in the history of the colony, the colony now can spare 10,000 bu. of corn to New England for relief. The Palisade is nearly 6 miles long but males above age 14 are destitute regarding all manner of arms and ammunition. Rumors of war are circulating about the Indians "gathering heade" to take advantage to "fall on them."

Mass. Historical Society
1871: 131, 143, 145, 150-151

Mr. Kemp Secretary & The Lords Commissioners

Letter

17 May 1635

Fury of the people

Described Francis Potts' presentation- others feared that the "Gouvernour would bring a second massacre among them." Captain Mathews told the Governor that "the peoples fury is vp against you and to appease it is beyond our power, vnless you please to go for england, there to answer theyr Complaint."

Mass. Historical Society
1871: 131[note]

Captain Samuel Matthews & Sir John Wolstonholme

Letter

25 May 1635

Abuse of power & Indian troubles

Stated that the governor had usurped the power into his own hands; shut out every trade, including that of corn, by complying too far with the Marylanders, what w/ 2000 recent new arrivals into the colony; and that he "made a dangerous peace with the Indians." Contrary to the Council & country's advice, the governor took for his own use "the satisfaction made by the Indians" for the 500 hogs they had killed. If the Indians were to "offer any insult," the colonists would not be able to revenge themselves.

York County:

Source

Name/ Party

Type

Date

Payment/
Action

Servants

Slaves

Details

Thorndale 1997:187-188
[Also in Ferrar Papers 1622-1627, Reel 3: #569.]

Thomas Ward & John Jackson to N. Farrar

Letter

20 May 1625
Martins Hundred

Indian dangers

As surviving tenants of Martin's Hundred, they described their desperate conditions and dangers from the Indians. Milk from a cow, more servants, shoes costing less than 5 pounds and better arrangements for tobo. are needed. Mr. Harwood had taken 6 out of 7 pounds of their tobo. There is no powder or shot to "garde our lyves." One of them can only work the ground while the other served as a guard, "or ellse wee shall be in daunger to be killd of the Indyanse..." They have "worne out all our clothse and shertse" and cannot buy any, and now "will not in dure this kynd of liueing any longer. The letter was signed by "Your slause in Virgenyae."

Thorndale 1997:188-189
[Also in Ferrar Papers 1622-1627, Reel 3: # 569.]

Robert Adams to N. Farrar

Letter

6 June 1625
Martins Hundred

1622 Massacre & terror of Indians

Once lived at Harryhatocke. When the "fear bred by the bluddy masaker heare was blown over" in early 1623, he was ordered by the Governor to go to Martins Hundred to strengthen the settlement. He and his wife got there the same day a woman servant was killed by the Indians and he was "assaulted by them shott wth a bullet in the leg." His wife risked her own life getting to the armed Mr. Harwood at his storehouse in the plantation, but he refused to open the door "out of too much feare and neclect." Although the Indians were ultimately driven away, he was busy constructing a "pale or pallisadoe about my house" and described the need for powder. His letter also referred to the poor management of Mr. Harwood as well as Mr. Carles' neglect regarding the protection of the plantation and its operations.



Abstracts: County Records

Charles City County:

Source

Name/ Party

Type

Date

Payment/
Action

Servants

Slaves

Details

Hotten
1983:190

List of the Dead

Enumeration

16 Feb. 1623

List of the dead at West & Sherlow Hhundred

"2 Indians, one Negar, and Christopher Harding, kild..."

Hotten
1983:192-3

List of the Dead

Enumeration

16 Feb. 1623

List of the dead At Martin's Hundred

John Pattison, ux Pattison and Edward Windor killed.

Hotten
1983:209

List of the Dead

Enumeration

1624

List of the dead at West & Sherley & Sherley Hundred

James Rolfe Liuetennt. Gibb's man, John Michaell and Francis, Capt. Madison's man} slaine by the Indians.

Hotten 1983:215

List of the Dead

Enumeration

1624

List of the dead at Chaplins Choise

Henery Wilson, Nicholas Sutton, Nicholas Baldwin were killed by the Indians.

Fleet, 1945A:10

Indian & Capt. Wm. Rothwell

Employment

17 Sept. 1655
Westover

10,000 lbs. tobo. bond

Allowed to employ Indian to kill wolves & do other service; they are to do no harm to the English & their estates.

Fleet 1945A:41

Indians & James Reyner

Payment for military service

25 June 1656
Westover

700 lbs. tobo to cure wound.

Reyner was wounded during late service agst. Indians. Thomas Culmer is to attempt a cure.

Fleet 1945A:46

Indian & Capt. David Peibils

Employment

25 June 1656
Westover

Permitted to retain & keep Indian according to law.

Fleet 1945A:47

Indians & King of Weynoke and Militia

Intelligence
& raising militia

25 July 1656 at Buckland

Militia

Strange northern Indians called Mastehocks have arrived to fight the Richohockans. Reports of a sudden invasion intended and the killing of hogs. In case of war, militia and arms to be raised immediately.

Fleet 1945A:49

Indian & John Dibdall

Keeping Indian

1 Sept. 1656
Westover

Allowed to keep this Indian according to law.

Fleet 1945A:58

Indian & John Banister

To have Indian

27 Oct. 1656 Westover

Service

To have Indian in his service.

Fleet 1945A:58

Indian & Capt. Daniel Llewellyn

To have Indian

27 Oct. 1656
Westover

Service

To have Indian in his service.

Fleet 1945A:58

Indians & Major Abra. Wood

To have Indians

27 Oct. 1656 Westover

Service

To have two Indians.

Fleet 1945A:58

Indian & Capt. Robert Wynne

To keep Indian

27 Oct. 1656 Westover

Service

To keep an Indian.

Fleet 1941A:14

Indian & John Pratt

Employment

20 March 1657 James City

Pratt ordered to employ an Indian under the hands of Mr. Drewe and Mr. Wyatt.

Fleet 1945A:79

"Comon Enemy"

Order

24 June 1657
Merchants Hope

Defense

Every company of this regiment to provide & prepare 10 men "victualld and armed" for offence and defense agst. the Common enemy & expeditions.

Fleet 1945A:82

Indian & George Potter

Employment

3 Aug. 1657 Merchants Hope

Permitted to employ an Indian according to law.

Fleet 1945A:87

Indian & Thomas Drewe

Employment

3 8br. 1657 Merchants Hope

Permitted to employ and keep an Indian.

Fleet 1941A:64

Indian & Capt. Edward Hill

Employment

3 Feb. 1659 Merchants Hope

Permitted to keep an Indian.

Fleet 1941A:43

Indian & John Howell

Employment

3 Aug. 1659 Westover

Allowed to employ Indian.

Fleet 1941A:43

Indian & John Drayton

Employment

3 Aug. 1659 Westover

Allowed to employ Indian.

Fleet 1941A:43

Indian & Richard Parker

Violation of
law

3 Aug. 1659
Westover

2,000 lbs. tobo. & costs.

Parker had given a gun to an Indian contrary to law. 1,000 lbs.. penalty to county commissioners. Also 1,000 lbs. of tobo. penalty to Lt. John Howell, informant, and costs of suit.

Fleet 1941A:46

Indian & John Holmwood

Employment

3 Aug. 1659 Westover

Permitted to employ an Indian according to law.

McIlwaine 1914:4

John Beauchamp & Indian boy

Petition

13 March 1659/60
James City

Indian boy

Beauchamp, merchant, wants to bring his Indian boy to England. If he can show consent of the Indian boy's parents to do so to the county court in Charles Cittie County, then his request shall be granted.

Fleet 1941A:97-99

Militia & Indians

Court

12 June 1661 James City

Defense.
Penalty for false rumors: 5,000 lbs. tobo. & 1 year imprison-ment

Unsettled militia/uncertainties of alarms and want of fixed arms caused fears and terrors among inhabitants along with rumors of Indians. Issued 8 points dealing with problem.

Fleet 1941B:5

Indians

License

14 Sept. 1661
Westover

Licenses to keep Indians revoked.

Fleet 1941B:48

Thomas Busby & Wm. Rollinson

Deed

4 March 1661/2 [sic]

Sale

Busby of Surry County sold an Indian boy, aged about 5, to Rollinson.

Fleet 1941B:40

Theodrick Bland Esqr. & Maj. Gen. Manwaring Hammond

Judgement

3 Feb. 1662 Westover

Estate

The service of an Indian girl sold to Hoe per contract under hands of Rees Hughes, agent for Hammond.

Fleet 1941B:42

John Monke, 35

Deposition

4 Feb. 1662/3 Westover

Witness

Elizabeth, an Indian woman

While at house of Capt. John Wall, he saw Elizabeth strike Mrs. Wall.

Fleet 1941B:42

Henry Tame, 30

Deposition

4 Feb. 1662/3 Westover

Witness

Elizabeth, Indian

At house of Capt. John Wall & family: Elizabeth was "so violent." She bit Mrs. Wall's breast and thrust her head into a red-hot oven ready for bread.

Fleet 1941B:43

Elizabeth, a Christian Indian

Verdict

4 Feb. 1662/3
Westover

More service

Elizabeth, Indian

Elizabeth has "violently and disobediently resisted and assaulted" her mistress, Mrs. Wall, with "blows and bitings." Additional service as per act provided for such cases for her "insolent resistance and opposicon." [Elizabeth is not "Elizabeth Christianna" as incorrectly cited in the book. The original record revealed the error.]

Fleet 1941B:51

Indian youth & Rice Hoe

Court

20 April 1663
Westover

Complaint

Indian complains of illegal detention by Hoe. To dwell with Mr. Theo: Bland 'till settlement.

Fleet 1941B:56

Thomas, Indian & Rice Hoe

Court

3 June 1663 Westover

Complaint

Case for illegal detention deferred to next court.

Fleet 1941B:62

Thomas, Indian & Rice Hoe

Court

3 Aug. 1663 Westover

Complaint

Served 3
years.

Hoe to provide Thomas two new canvas shirts & one pair of new canvas drawers; and pay all costs of suit.

Fleet
1941B:79

John Compton

Petition

3 Feb. 1663/4 Westover

Exempt from taxes & public services.

Due to great age, industry, and "great hurts losse of blood and the consequent debility"...occasioned "by his service in the last war with the Indians," Compton is to be free of taxes & services except for parish dues.

Fleet 1942:1

Indian & Thomas Tomlinson

Order

3 Aug. 1664 Westover

Bond re gun & Richard Pace, security, 1,000 lbs. tobo.

Tomlinson to keep gun taken from an Indian by him, and Pace to provide security. Also to produce gun if cause requires it.

Fleet 1942:17

Indians & Thomas Marston vs. George Harris

Court

9 Aug. 1664
Green Spring

Suit

Non-appearance in court due to late rumors of the Indians. Requested rehearing in next court.

Fleet 1942:57

Indian boy & Mary Bird, 23, servant

Deposition

10 Oct. 1665
court

Witness

Thomas Hooper, a Gerrard &
Indian boy

3 servants of Capt. Edw. Hill drove hogs of Mr. Llewellyn's out of the yard at Shirley Hundred. Dogs killed one barrow by the water-it was then dressed by the servants. They and other servants "did eate it."

Fleet 1942:55

Indians & soldiers

Service

10 Nov. 1665
Westover

Pay for 6 days work

Neighbors of soldiers to pay 6 days work for soldiers pressed or employed agst. Indians.

Fleet 1942:79

Indian & Wm. Irby

Order

Court orders 1672-1674

Security

To entertain an Indian.

Fleet 1942:79

Indian & John Sturdivant

Order

Court orders
1672-1674

Security

To entertain an Indian.

Fleet 1942:82

Thomas Hamlin vs. William Irby

Court

Court orders
1672-1674

Complaint

To appear on complaint of Wm. Irby about Indian.

Ayres 1968:11

Indian & Edward Richards

Court

13 Sept. 1677 Westover

Gun issue

Presented gun in court-pretends he took it from an Indian upon his land. To keep gun until further hearing from Govenor and Council.

Ayres 1968:47

Mr. William Randolph, John Lawrence & Tero, Indian

Judgement

14 Feb.1677/8
Westover

Witness

Reference to Lawrence's non-appearance as a witness in Randolph vs. Tero, an Indian.

Ayres 1968:57

Mr. Henry Batte

Register

3 June 1678
Westover

Two Indian children: George, aged 6 and Bess, aged 5.

Ayres 1968:69

Francis Leadbetter

Informant

15 Aug. 1678 Westover

Sale

Said Henry Newcomb bought 1 horse, 1 mare from the Indians- the latter exchanged with Peter Rowland. Newcomb ordered to appear in next court.

Ayres 1968:77

Henry Newsom

Register

3 Dec. 1678
Westover

Indian boy

Slave for life, aged 7.

Ayres 1968:93

John Smith

Informant

18 Feb. 1678/9
court

Verdict

Said Henry Burton & Ed. Gilley entertained & dealt with the Indians. Verdict: "Not guilty."

Ayres 1968:119

Mr. Henry Batt

Guardianship

3 Dec. 1679
Westover

Estate

Henry Odum, admr. of John Peterson (dec'd.) was removed & replaced by Batt who wants court to remove liability. Mill is the largest estate & subject to attacks by Indians and fire. Batt will only then accept adm. & guardianship of orphan.

Weisiger 1992:13-14

Joseph Bradley

Court

7 March 1687
court

Accidental killing of Indian. Bail to be first given-then given liberty.

Wants relief from strict confinement in prison; killing of Indian man was "accidentally done & no malice forethought."

Weisiger 1992:15

Solomon Crooke

Register

3 April 1688 Westover

Matt, Indian, aged 10.

Weisiger 1992:17

Owen Row

Claim

13 April 1688 Westover

An Indian

Indian slave of Wm. Harrison's.

Weisiger 1992:17

Clerk and James Blancks

Certificate

13 April 1688 Westover

Certificate

Blanks lost horse in journey agst. Indians last July.

Weisiger 1992:24

David Williamson

Register

3 Aug. 1688 Westover

Robin, Indian, aged 7.

Weisiger1992:28

Thomas Harnison

Register

3 Oct. 1688
Westover

Ned

Indian aged 8.

Weisiger 1992:33

Capt. Daniel Llewellyn

Payment

4 Oct. 1688
Westover

From Levy

Paid 133 lbs. for inquest on Mrs. Shipley's Indian.

Weisiger 1992:45

Zacheus Ellis vs. Francis Reeves

Suit

3 April 1689
Westover

Claims

2 men & Indian boy

Ellis claimed that Reeves owed him 85 days wages per Ellis' 2 men & 16 days wages per Ellis' Indian boy. Reeves' appeals to next court.

Weisiger 1992:53

James Denson

Register

5 Aug. 1689
Westover

Jenny

Indian aged 5.

Weisiger 1992:61

John Mattux

Register

3 Oct. 1689
Westover

Besse

Indian aged 6.

Weisiger 1992:69

Roger, Indian &
Richard Bradford

Runaway

3 Dec. 1689
Westover

To serve 1 mo. for 10s & more time per law.

Roger was absent 6 months. Master spent 10s on recovery.

Weisiger 1992:84

Ralph Jackson

Register

4 Aug. 1690 Westover

Jenny, Indian, aged 6.

Weisiger 1992:84

Joseph Pattison

Register

4 Aug. 1690 Westover

Jack

Indian aged 8.

Weisiger 1992: 85

John Williams

Petition

4 Aug. 1690
Westover

Case dismissed

Said his Indian woman is guilty of "sin of fornication" & wants "benefit of the law." Case is not w/in their law.

Weisiger 1992:101

John Royston

Insolvency

3 Feb. 1690 Westover

Tax

Jeffrey, Indian boy, is insolvent.

Weisiger 1992:95

John Evans

Register

8 Dec. 1690
Westover

Thomas Mayo, Indian, aged 14.

Weisiger 1992:107

Solomon Crooke

Register

3 Aug. 1691 Westover

Jacke

Indian aged 6.

Weisiger 1992: 107

Rineer Anderson, dec'd.

Court

3 Aug. 1691
Westover

Estate

Robert, Indian, aged 10.

Weisiger 1992:114

William Jones

Court

10 Nov. 1691 Westover

Summons

Jones, a trader in Appomattux, is summoned to show why he is not listed as a tithable.

Weisiger 1992:120

John Fontain

Register

3 Feb. 1691 Westover

Joan, Indian, aged 7.

Weisiger 1992:125

James Parham

Court

24 March 1691 Westover

Certificate

An Indian
woman

Certificate from Capt. Batt returned. Indian belongs to Wm Lux of Isle of Wight.

Weisiger 1992:201

Peter Perry

Document

9 Jan. 1692

Receipt

Acknowledged delivery of 4 "shotes" through Capt. Busby's Indian- 393 lbs. in all.

Weisiger 1992:128

James Howard

Register

3 June 1692 Westover

Jenny

Indian aged 6.

Weisiger 1992:128

John Evans

Register

3 June 1692 Westover

Doll

Indian aged 10.

Weisiger 1992:130

William Wilkins

Register

3 Aug. 1692
Westover

Indians named Hannah, aged 8; Jack, aged 12; and Ned, aged 10.

Weisiger 1992:131

Thomas Chapell

Register

3 Aug. 1692
Westover

Jack, Indian, aged 7.

Weisiger 1992:131

Mingo, Negro & Thomas Harnison

Court

3 Aug. 1692
Westover

Complaint. Mingo is not free.

Once belonged to James Blamore whose will states that 4 yrs. after his death, Mingo and an Indian boy "to be free if the law will admit." Otherwise Mingo goes to exors (Harnison). Court notes law barring Negroes their freedom.

Weisiger 1992:134

Benjamin Foster

Register

15 Sept. 1692 Westover

Robin, Indian, aged 5.

Weisiger 1992:137

Thomas Harnison

Register

3 Oct. 1692 Westover

Jenny, Indian, aged 11.

Weisiger 1992:148

John Parrish

Claim

16 Feb. 1692 [sic] Westover

Certificate

Certificate dated 10 May 1689 from Maj. Stith, for Hector, Indian, who was taken up 5 miles away from his master Samuel Eale.

Weisiger 1992:150

John Williams

Court

13 April 1693
Westover

Summons

Complaint of Indian woman belonging to Williams.

Weisiger 1992:155

Samuel Tatem

Register

5 June 1693 Westover

Mary, Indian, aged 7.

Weisiger 1992:156

James Jones

Register

3 Aug. 1693 Westover

Indians named as Sue, aged 7, and Sarah, aged 4.

Weisiger 1992:158

Franck, Indian & John Williams

Order

3 Aug. 1693 Westover

Ordered to pay Indian woman Franck accustomed corn & clothes, with costs.

Weisiger 1992:163

John Pybus

Register

4 Dec. 1693 Westover

Thom, Indian, aged 10.

Weisiger 1992:163

John Heath

Register

4 Dec. 1693 Westover

Jack, Indian, aged 7.

Weisiger 1992:169

Joseph Patison

Register

5 Feb. 1693 [sic] Westover

Tom, Indian, aged 4.

Weisiger 1992:174

___ Howard

Register

3 April 1694
Westover

Hannah, Indian, aged 5.

Weisiger 1992:176

Daniel Sturdevant

Register

4 June 1694
Westover

Peter, Indian, aged 5.

Weisiger 1992:176

Robert Hix

Register

4 June 1694
Westover

Jenny, Indian, aged 8.

Weisiger 1992:180

John Lewis

Register

3 Aug. 1694 Westover

Sarah, Indian, aged 12.

Weisiger 1992:180

Mathew Parham

Register

3 Aug. 1694 Westover

Dick, Indian, aged 7.

Weisiger 1992:180

John Winingham

Register

3 Aug. 1694 Westover

Jack, Indian, aged 7. Robin, Indian, aged 4.

Weisiger 1992:181

Thomas Thrower

Register

3 Aug. 1694 Westover

Will, Indian, aged 5.

Weisiger 1992:193

Richard Denis

Payment

9 Nov. 1694 court

From Levy

Paid 100 lbs. tobo. for his Indian.

Isle of Wight County:

Source

Name/ Party

Type

Date

Payment/
Action

Servants

Slaves

Details

Hotten 1983:194

List of the Dead

Enumeration 16 Feb. 1623 List of the dead at Warwick's Squarak


Hotten 1983:243

List of the Dead

Enumeration 1624 List of the dead in Wariscoyack

Servants of Mr. Bennett's men, slain by the Indians}5.
Isle of Wight Co. 2:111

Thomas Harris

Will 31 March 1672


Some of his lands are at the "Indian Towne."

James City County:

Source

Name/ Party

Type

Date

Payment/
Action

Servants

Slaves

Details

Brown
1964: 115

East India Company

Court minute

4 Sept. 1607

£3, 5s

Beads & moth-eaten cloth sold to Gov. Sir Thomas Smythe...for the Virginia voyage.

Brown
1964: 178

Henry Percy, Earl of Northumber-land

Memorandum

1607-1608

3s

"For the rings and other pieces of copper given to the Virginia Prince 3s"

Gray
1937 (1609):
[between C3-D]

Robert Gray

Manuscript: "A Good Spede to Virginia"

28 April 1609

It is believed that "these Savages have no particular propertie in any part or parcell of that countrey, but only a generall residencie there, as wild beasts have in the forest..."

Strachey
1953 (1612):
Appendix A

William Strachey

Dictionary

1612

Indian Language

Published as "A Short Dictionary, added unto the former Discourses, of the Indian Language, used within the Chessiopioch Bay; more perticularly about the Tract and amongst the Inhabitantaunts of the first River, called by them Powhaton, and by us, the Kings River, whein as yet our Townes, and Fortes, ar seated. By which, such who shall by Imployed thether may know the readyer how to confer, and how to truck and Trade with the People."

Brown
1964:1005

John Smith of Nibley et al. to Sir George Yeardley & George Thorpe's Virginian Indian boy

Indenture & Patent

3 Feb. 1618/19

Patent

John Smith et al. to Gov. Yeardley, 18 Feb. 1619: "Since your departure, we have procured our patent for plantation in Virginia (a copy whereof we herewith send unto you, written by the Virginian boy of me..." [of George Thorpe's]...)"

Thorndale
1995:165, 169

Indians

Census

1619

"Indians in the service of seu[er]all planters."

Ferrar 1936:112-113

Nicholas Ferrar

Will

23 March 1619

Bequest

Will cites £300 for the education of ten "Infidel children in the college now being erected."

McIlwaine 1915:5

Court, seamen & Opochancano

Order

30 July 1619
James City

Complaints & trade

Complaint lodged agst. Capt. Martin for certain outrages which could endanger the Colony. Ensign Harrison affirmed to Thomas Davis of Paspaheighs, Gent. that he had been told under Martin's orders to take the shallop, that they would have made a "harde voiage," if they had not met w/ a canoe coming out of a creek. When the Indians refused to sell their corn, armed men entered their canoe and took the corn by force, measuring it w/ a basket they had into their shallop. They gave them "satisfaction" in "Copper, beades, and other trucking Stuffe." Opochancano made complaint to the Governor about this outrage. Concerned for the safety of the colony as well as the outrage being committed agst. the Indians, the Governor decreed that that Martin should have obtained "leave" to enter the bay to trade and ordered him to take "leave" and give good security to ensure that his men will not commit "no such outrage any more."

McIlwaine 1915:9

Court & Indians

Order

2 Aug. 1619 court

Act

The English shall not make injury or oppression agst. the Indians, thus disturbing the peace and potentially revive "antient quarrels." The Chiccohomini are "not to be excepted out of this Lawe" until further orders from England, or that they provoke us by some new injury.

McIlwaine 1915:10

Court

Order

2 Aug. 1619 court

Assimilation of Indians

Desirable that the "better disposed" Indians learn to converse w/ our people, live & labor among them and convert to Christianity. Indians who voluntarily come to well-peopled places to do service such as killing of deer, fishing, beating corn and other helpful work, then five or six of them can be admitted to each place and no more w/ the Governor's consent. Although "many proove good," a guard should be kept at night since they generally "are the most trecherous people" who quickly disappear when "they have done a villainy." It is also thought fit to provide them a separate house for them to lodge in by themselves. No lone inhabitant is to "entertaine them." Lastly, each town, city, borough or plantation shall take in Indian children to learn Christianity and "civile course of life." The most "towardly boyes in witt & graces of nature" are to be brought up "in the firste Elements of litterature" and thus be fitted for college intended for them.

McIlwaine 1915: 12

Court & Indians

Order

4 Aug. 1619 court

Trade

Every man is free to trade with the Indians but not servants. The offender shall risk whipping or payment "of an Angell" -one fourth each to the Provost Marshall, the discoverer, and "the other moyty" to the public use of the local incorporation.

McIlwaine 1915:13

Court & Indians

Order

4 Aug. 1619 court

Arms

No man is to give Indians any "piece shott, or poulder, or any other armes offensive or defensive." Otherwise, he will be considered a traitor to the Colony and be hanged w/ proof and no redemption.

McIlwaine 1915:13

Court & Indians

Order

4 Aug. 1619 court

Canines & hoes

No inhabitant shall give greater "howes" or any English dog of quality, such as "Mastive, Greyhound, Blood hounde land, or water Spaniel" or any other English dog to the Indians. Punishment is the forfeiture of 5 lbs. sterling for the public use in the local incorporation.

McIlwaine 1915:13

Court & Indians

Order

4 Aug. 1619 court

Indian towns

None of the English are to "purposely goe to any Indian townes, habitations, or places of resort," w/o leave from the Governor or commander of the person's area. Forty shillings towards the local incorporation is the penalty if this decrees is not followed.

McIlwaine 1915:13

Court & Indians

Order

4 Aug. 1619 court

Canoes

Anyone who takes boats, oares or "canoas" w/o leave of his neighbors shall be considered a felon. No one is to take away by violence or stealth any of the Indian canoes or other things. If he does, he shall pay "valuable restitution" to the Indians. He also shall forfeit, if a freeholder, 5 lbs. and if a servant, 40s, or be whipped. Furthermore, anything that is under the value of 13d will be labeled as "Petty larceny."

McIlwaine 1915:14

Court & Indians

Order

4 Aug. 1619 court

Trade in the Bay

No one is to trade in the Bay in any ship w/o license from the Governor and security that he or his company shall not "force or wrong" the Indians. Otherwise, they shall face censure upon their return from the Governor and Council of Estate.

McIlwaine 1915:14-15

Court, Capt. Henry Spelman, Robert Poole & Opochancano

Order

4 Aug. 1619 court

Complaint

Robert Poole, interpreter, vs. Henry Spelman: Spelman spoke "very unreverently & maliciously agst. the Governor" at Poole's meeting (& thus the Governor's honor, dignity, person and Colony be brought in contempt) and mischief by Indians thus might ensue. Spelman confessed to a few of the charges but denied the majority of the complaints. The only exception what that he had informed Opochancano that w/in a year, there will be a more powerful Gov. in a year, who shall replace this one. Since Opochancano and other Indians thus appeared to hold the Gov. in "much disesteem," the Colony may be in "danger of their Slippry designes." Instead of possibly putting Spelman to death according to a law, the General Assembly decided that Spelman was to be demoted from Captain and perform seven years service to the Indians as the Governor's interpreter.

The Antient Planters
1874 (1624):72

Court

Narrative

1623

Defense & Housing

Construction of two small forts was near the mouth of the river at Kicoughtun, with two bark-covered houses built by Indians as well as a few thatched cabins of the settlers. Other Indian houses that were not useful were burnt while twelve or fourteen Indians were killed. The surviving settlers consumed as much corn as they found growing "of their plantinge" and at harvest, reaped 150 bu. of corn. The corn, ordered by Lord La Ware, was sent to Jamestown.

The Antient Planters
1874 (1624):73

Court

Narrative

1623

Indian troubles

Men skilled at finding mines were killed by the Indians while eating meat and other victuals at the invitation of the Indians. As a result, some Indians were killed while their houses were burned as revenge.

McIlwaine 1915:33

Court

Narrative

1623

Defense

Only four pieces of ordinance were mounted for defense agst. the "Salvages." Soon after, the settlers were seated at Charles Hundred and Sir Thomas Dale went to the Pamonkey River to form either a friendship pact or to make war w/ them. While they saw Dale's intent was peace, they agreed out of fear rather than love. In spite of "great want and scarcity" in the settlement, they caught and executed those who mutinied and would have done harm.

McIlwaine 1915:33

Court

Narrative

1623

Defense & departure of Dale

Sir Thomas Dale impaled some necks of land for defense agst. the "Salvages" and for fishing for the settlers relief. He also made "spoile of the Keschiacks and Wariscoyacks" before his departure from Virginia. His successor was Capt. George Yardley who held the helm of government.

McIlwaine 1915:33

Court

Narrative

1623

At Christmas then following, the Indians of Chiquohomini complained of various abuses and derided our demands. They had agreed w/ Sir Thomas Dale to pay a yearly tribute-i.e., a bushel of corn for every bowman and in exchange, receive one piece of copper and one iron tomahawk. Each of the eight chiefs were to receive a suit of red cloth, "which clothes and truckinge stuffe" the English "esteemed of more worth then their corn." These abuses led Yardley to take a company of eighty-four men to revenge themselves "upoon those contemptous Indians." As a result, a "more firm league" was concluded and peace was possible for two years. Our people, including women & children, could move freely from town to town w/o arms and lodge in Indians' houses, where they were "every way kindly intreated and noe way molested."

McIlwaine 1915:36-37

Court

Narrative

1623

1622 Massacre

Indians had shown themselves "insatiable and covetous" while "we" were "punished for our greedy desires of present gaine and profit." On March 22, 1622, as we entertained them "friendly" in "our houses," they suddenly took opportunities and "fell upon us, killing and murdering very many of our people." Houses and plantations were destroyed while other accomplishments in the Colony were seriously damaged. "This deadly stroake being given to the great amazement and ruine of our State," and led the Governor & Council to act at top speed to take the rest of the Colony towards safety from further reprisals of the Indians. Survivors were then held at fewer strongholds but the resulting harvest was "slender." We had hoped for relief by trading w/ the more "remote" Indians but supplies had miscarried enroute from England. The Indians instead were "our most treacherus ennemies, cunninglye circumeventing and cruellie murderinge such as were employed abroade to gett relief from them," and led to "great want and scarcity." The Governor & Council and others have since conducted revenge on the Indians, started to restore the Colony and now hope to "clean drive" the Indians "from these partes."

McIlwaine 1915:37

Court

Inquiry

1623

Defense

Inquiries made by the Governor and Council: 1) what places are the best in terms of fortification or maintenance agst. the Indians or enemies by sea and 2) how the Colony now stands w/ respect to the "Savadges."

Hotten 1983:191

List of the Dead

Enumeration

16 Feb. 1623

At James Cittie

William Spence and Mrs. Spence "lost." [Note: They were in captivity.]

Hotten
1983:190

List of the Dead

Enumeration

16 Feb. 1623

List of the dead at the Neck of Land

"Thomas Fernley kid [killed]."

McIlwaine 1915:38

Court

Order

2 March 1623
court

Defense

The best solution for the Colony's defense is to run "a pale from Martins hundred to Chiskiacke wch is not above sixe miles" along with "planting" on both rivers, the Pamunkey river being more defensible. However, the relationship between the Colony and the Indians are "irreconciliable." The nimble-heeled Indians take advantage of the forests and carry out sudden ambushes and incursions. While none of the Englishmen have been killed since the massacre, they could not have a "safe range of the Countrye" for cattle, game, etc. and have to keep constant watch agst. the Indians. To achieve their security, there is a need for a "runninge armye continually a foote" which would prevent Indians from coming near them and enable them to put the arrivals here for the winter w/ a year's supply of cattle and provisions.

Neill
1869: 407-411

Court

Narrative

1623/4

Starving Time

Each man was permitted only 8 oz. of meal and half a pinte of pease for a day, although "mouldy, rotten, full of Cobwebs and Maggots." Starvation forced many to flee "for relief to the Savage Enemy, who being taken againe were putt to sundry deaths as by hanginge, shootinge and breakinge uppon the wheele & others were forced by famine to filch for their bellies."    "...many...being weery of life, digged holes in the earth and hidd themselves till they famished." Moreover, after consumption of Doggs, Catts, ratts, Snakes, Toad-stooles, horesehides and wtnott" and cannibalism, the "happyest day that euer some of them hoped to see," was "when the Indians had killed a mare..." The settlers wished, while the mare was being boiled, that Sir Tho:Smith was "uppon her back in the kettle."

McIlwaine 1979B:48

Court, Ensign Thomas Savage & Capt. William Eppes

Order

7 March 1624 court

200 lbs. Sterling per bond

Ensign Thomas Savage is to be an interpreter for the good of the plantation at Accomack under conditions set by Capt. William Eppes, or to enter into bond for 200 lbs. sterling & security to Eppes and not have any conference or familiarity w/ the Indians of those parts.

McIlwaine 1979B:8

Court & Capt. Epps

Order

7 March 1624 court

Trade

Anyone who trades w/ the Indians for corn above the Eastern Shore w/o special license from the Governor & Council shall be sent to "James Cyttie" by Capt. Epps for censure and seizure of the corn by measure. If there is any "extreeme" need of corn on that plantation, Epps will be removed like the example with Capt. Hamer.

McIlwaine, 1979B:28

Robert Poole, Gent., et al. and Apochankeno, Coos, Chacrow, Kissacomas (?), Morassane, Nemetenew and other Indians

Deposition

1 Nov. 1624 court

Witness to arms training

During the time of Sir. Thomas Dale, Poole first lived w/ Apochankeno who showed him certain trees where certain bullets had been shot by the Indians who had been personally taught w/ "a small peternell" by Capt. John Smith. Sir Thomas Dale also gave unto Kissacomas (?) a snaphance. The powder & shot was given to him through Poole and Kissacomas (?) often shot fowl & deer. After Sir Thomas Dale's term, an Indian named Coos was taught to shoot w/ a "peece" by John Powell, a servant of Capt. Webb per Webb's "appointment." Another Indian, Chacrow, living w/ Lieut. Skarse, Capt. William Powell and Capt. William Pierce, learned to shoot w/ a "peece." Under Sir Samuel Argall's government, the Indians had killed 6 Englishmen and carried to Pamunkey their pieces & shot where they were used by Morassane and Nemetenew. Poole further testified that Sir George Yardley sent him to "steel a wye the feathers of the locks of those peeces" so that they would be dysfunctional and end up being brought by Apochankeno to him for mending. However, once received, these pieces were kept. Yardley forbade one Indian, employed to shoot by William Pery, to have a piece and had it taken away. Furthermore, he never gave pieces to any Indian.

McIlwaine 1979B:28

Edward Grindon & Nanticos

Deposition

1 Nov. 1624 court

Witness to arms training

Nanticos, an Indian, was the first he knew to be taught to shoot a piece, but by whom he did not know. Another Indian, Coss, was taught to shoot w/ a piece by Capt. Webb at Kickatan during the time of Sir Thomas Dale. Grindon also knew that Shacrow, who lived w/ Lt. Skarse at Jamestown, did use & shoot a piece and so did Kiffacomas (?) who would come to Jamestown to obtain powder & shot during Dale's time as well. However, Grindon never remembered Yardley ever giving a piece to any Indian.

McIlwaine
1979B:36

John Fisher & Apochankeno

Order

13 Dec. 1624
court

Payment

Fisher is to be paid 90 lbs. tobo. For 5 weeks worth of work about Apochankeno's house.

McIlwaine 1979B:51

Thomas Pawlett, Gent., Symon Turgis,
Rise Hoe, William Bayley, & Indian

Deposition

4 April 1625
Court

Witnesses

Andrew Dudley

They were living at Sherly Hundred when servant Dudley was "slayne by the Indyans" on 18 March 1623 and had viewed his body after the "enymie was fowle vppon."

McIlwaine 1979B:80

Joseph Chard & ffrancis Michell

Deposition

12 Dec. 1625 court

1622 Massacre

Within three or four days after the massacre, Joseph Chard was in possession of the houses but was forced to leave w/ the others. The houses burned shortly afterwards by the "Indyans" and thus "ffrancis Michell" never possessed the houses.

McIlwaine 1979B:128

George Graves & Robert Lynsey

Deposition

8 Jan. 1626 James City

Inventory

Graves stated that the inventory in court is the true & perfect inventory of Robert Lynsey who was "last spring carried by ye Indians to Pamunky."

McIlwaine 1979B:128

John Jaxson & Robert Lynsey

Deposition

8 Jan. 1626 James City

Goods

Last April, he and Lynsey went from Martins Hundred w/ certain Indians to Pamunky. Jaxson allowed to go home but Lynsey was detained there and told Jaxson that whatever goods he had at home were to go to Sara Snowe, dau of Ellenor Graves if he never came back. Indians also would not let Lynsey give the key to his chest to Jaxson.

McIlwaine 1979B:129

Thomas Harris, Luke Boise, Capt. John Martin & Indians

Deposition

9 Jan. 1626 James City

Cow

Harris sworn that a cow, named "brooken leggs", was in the possession of Luke Boise and killed by the Indians at "Necke of Land." It was one of eight cows once owned by Capt. John Martin.

McIlwaine 1979B:36

Court

Plan

13 Jan. 1626 court

Defense

A sufficient party to be seated at Kiskyacke, to serve as a retreat in case of being overpowered by the "forreine enemy" and to "annoy ye Indians."

McIlwaine 1979B:138

Christopher Barker & Capt. Epes

Deposition

5 Feb. 1626
court

1622 Massacre

Servants

Capt. William Epes received the servants of Capt. John Ward and had nothing after the massacre other than "a bed & a rugg." The houses & goods in them were burned four days later.

McIlwaine 1979B:139

William Munn

Deposition

5 Feb. 1626
court

1622 Massacre

There were no tobacco crops reaped the year after the massacre, and only half an acre of corn was about the house.

McIlwaine 1979B:106

Assembly

Act

7-8 Aug. 1626 court

Defense

No man can go abroad for fowling, fishing or similar activities w/o a sufficient party of well-armed men. Nor can any man in the Colony go out to his "woorke & labor" w/o arms and a sentinel to watch over him.

McIlwaine 1979B:483

Court

Order

26 Aug. 1626 court

Proclamation

No one is to go abroad but in parties or work w/o a continual watch to be kept at night throughout the Colony. Also powder not to be spent during drinking events.

McIlwaine 1979B:111

William Claybourne

Proposition

4 Sept. 1626
court

Guides

Claybourne's proposal regarding the safe keeping of Indians he planned to use as guides who are "always ready to be ymployed," and other services is accepted. No other man can do the same-only Claybourne's "invention" will be tested presently w/ one Indian.

McIlwaine 1979B:116

Capt. William Epps & Weanoke
Indian

Court

10 Oct. 1626 court

Weanoke Indian & Bond 500 lbs. tobo.

A Weanoke Indian, taken at Sherly Hundred in the spring, has since been w/ Capt. Epps who shall bring the Indian from Eastern Shore to Jamestown for the Governor to be employed in any service. Permission granted to Epps to either take Indian w/ him to England next spring or deliver him up to the Governor.

McIlwaine 1979B:120

Assembly

Order

13 Oct. 1626
James City

Defense & Fine of 100 wt. tobo. or more.

All dwelling houses through the Colony is to be "palizadoed or paled about" against the Indians by 1st of May. Fines in tobo. if this is not carried out.

McIlwaine 1979B:147

Court

Plan

3 April 1627 court

Defense

From information shared by other Indians, our Indian enemies are planning to make "a general assault vppon of all the plantations this Spring." Reference to earlier proclamation to "palizadoing the houses." Men are to keep guard, keep sentinel on their workmen and watch at night. Fort gates must be fast and no man shall "stragle abroad" alone to prevent dangers.

McIlwaine 1979B:483

Court

Order

12 April 1627 court

Proclamation

Proclamation: To be careful of the Indians. The English have discovered their intentions to "go to warr next spring."

McIlwaine 1979B:151

Court

Plan

4 July 1627 James City

Attack

All parties from all plantations to go "vppon the Indians &
cutt downe their corne" on 1 Aug. Necke of Land & Colledge vs. Tanx Powhatans; Sherley Hundred, Jordaines Jurney, Chaplaines Choise & Perseys Hundred vs. towns of the Weianoacks and Appamatucks; James Citty vs. the Chicahominies & Tappahannaes; Warwicke-River, Warosquoiacke & Newport News vs. Warosquoyacks; and Elizabeth Citty vs. Nansamungs & Chesapeiacks.   [Various parties to be led under listed names of men.]

McIlwaine 1979B:151

Court

Plan

4 July 1627 James City

Attack

Lt. Peppet to go in ship Virgin into the Pamunky River and put Indians "in expectation of our comeing thither." And beginning in Oct. next, a number of men from all the plantations to go to Pamunkey or other parts to "take & spoile as much corne as they shall light on" and other forms of harm or damage to the Indians.

McIlwaine 1979B:153

Edward Albourne & John Throgmo[r]ton

Deposition

17 Sept. 1627 James City

Will

Albourne testified that Throgmorton was wounded & shot in the body by the Indians on 23 June last. Before his death, he made bequests to certain people concerning his goods, house and servants.

McIlwaine 1979B:155

Court & Capt. Sampson

Court

11 Oct. 1627 court

Carib Indians

Carib Indians: Capt. Sampson had brought into the colony some Indians from the Carib Islands, who have since run away, hid in the woods, joined Indians here, stole goods and likely killed some people according to some Carib Indians who confessed to the same. After some deliberation, it is ordered that these Carib Indians shall be hanged "till they be dead."

McIlwaine 1979B:155

Court & Capt. Mathews

Court

12 Oct. 1627 James City

Voyage

Capt. Mathews is to do his best to procure volunteers throughout the Colony to go to Pamunkey or other Indian enemies. Commission shall then be granted to Mathews for voyage.

McIlwaine 1979B:174

Court

Opinion

18 ___1628 James City

Plan

It is the court's opinion to proceed concerning the same course about the Indians, which had been held back until there was "better opportunity to sett vppon them."

McIlwaine 1979B:184-185

Court & Indians

Order

Last day Jan. 1628
James City

Defense & Treaty

Severe punishment for those who do not follow the rules. Treaty w/ the Indians continued since last August to be disannulled since people are neglecting to keep their guard against Indians and the Indians themselves have become "extreamly false and...offered some Iniuries in dyvers of our plantacons." To prevent a second massacre, Indians are to be viewed as enemies after 20th of Feb. and people must not only guard themselves but also not "Ply or Converse" with them. Captains & commanders of these plantations are ordered to make sure no persons or planters work w/o a constant force of men or go abroad w/o sufficient parties. Mr. Secretary also given commission to go to the Susquesahanos.

McIlwaine 1979B:189

Court & Indians

Plan

4 March 1628 James City

Warning

To spread word of plan. A particular Indian came voluntarily and suddenly among us just after our breaking off the former treaty of peace. Reference to the weaknesses of the straggling plantations. Since they have not begun w/ us or killed any of our men first, he shall be "delivered vpp to the hands of his Countrymen. ' He is to inform them that we are resolved to break off the treat of peace since they have been so false unto us in the conditions cited therein. They frequent our plantations, pressed upon our house contrary to the first and principal Article, kill our hogs & cattle, and do "iniuries" to our men hunting in the woods.

McIlwaine 1979B:484

Gov. & Commissioners

Commission

20 March 1628 court

Trade

Gov. signed "Comcons" to trade w/ the Indians in the bay & rivers.

McIlwaine 1979B:172

English captives & Indians

Court

24 April 1628 James City

Plan

Indians at Pasbehayes sent a piece of bark with writing from English captives held at Pamunky. Plan regarding rescue of these captives was discussed. Need to learn where the Indians plant their corn and "make them somewhat secure of us" in order to live more quietly. Opportunity for revenge for their treachery but no peace or dishonorable treaty is to be made w/ them, nor shall any of them come to our plantations.

McIlwaine 1979B:483

Court

Order

30 April 1628 court

Proclamation

Powder not to be spent at meetings, drinkings, marriages & entertainment because "a warr is expected with Indns. next spring" like it happened last summer.

McIlwaine 1979B:484

English captives & Indians

Order

12 Aug. 1628 court

Proclamation

Several Englishmen taken prisoners by the Indians. Peace is to be made until these Englishmen are delivered. It is to be known that the Indians are not to be taken as friends but care must be taken as if they are enemies in actual war.

McIlwaine 1979B:198

Court & Indians

Message

1629
James City

Compensation

In view of the massacre of Mr. Pooly & 4 men w/ him and the fact that an Indian came among us contrary to agreement. Sent him back w/o harm to the great King w/ our strict warning, etc. From now on, Indians come to the Governor or commander — they had been instructed to come to an appointed place at Pasbyhey. Even though the Indians have not followed the rules, we have not yet "offered them any violence but haue vsed them well and Courteously notwthstading all wch they ha[ve] killed five of our men." We demand satisfaction from their King for the theft of hoes, killing of hogs and other damage. If he refuses, then we shall avenge the deaths of the five men and repair "wrongs." In addition, Robert __ is to be an interpreter in court between the Indians "until next Christmas (?)" for
1,000 lbs. tobo.

McIlwaine 1979B:484

Gov. & Commissioners

Order

July (or 6 Nov.) 1629

Plans

Gov. gave Comcons. to go agst. the Indians according to order of court 9th instant & "utterly destroy them." The commander also has power in punishing them, etc. as the King's Comcon. shall give him.

McIlwaine 1915:52-53

Court

Order

16 Oct. 1629
court

Plans & Defense

The commanders of several plantations are given authority by the governor to employ men agst. the Indians if they assault the English or to clear the woods in order to see Indians more clearly if they come near the plantations. Several marches are also to be conducted for the months of November, December, March, June, July or August. The plantations are to "doe all manner of spoile and offence to the Indians that may be possibly bee effected." The plantations at Accawmacke shall assist them agst. the Pamunky Indians in the summer w/ "every fit man out of the inhabitants."

McIlwaine 1915:53

Court

Order

16 Oct. 1629
court

Maintenance of Indians

Three Indians who reside here are to be maintained by the "general charge of the whole colony."

McIlwaine 1979B:480

Court & Indians

Document

9 Jan. 1632
court

Minutes

"...mischiefs done by said Indians & every 20th man sent to Ply wth 'em."

McIlwaine 1979B:480

Governor &
Chickahominy Indians

Court

14 June 1632 court

Minutes

"Govr. to Ply with Chickahominy Indians."

McIlwaine 1979:480

Pamunky & Chickahominy Indians

Court

30 7ber 1632 court

Minutes

A "peace" w/ "pamunkys" and "Chicka. Indians but a pcl issues not to Ply wth or trust them."

McIlwaine 1979B:480

Indians & Englishmen

Court

5 June 1633
court

Minutes

"Two men ordd to serve ye Governor each a month for
dealing & Pling wth Indians & to give each witness against them a daies work."

McIlwaine 1979B:480

Governor

Exchange

31 Aug. 1633
court

Land

500 acres of land at Archers Hope is given by the Governor in exchange for 500 acres at Powhatan's Swamp, near Powhatan's Tree.

McIlwaine 1979B:481

Court

Order

1634
court

Minutes

Lieutenants to be appointed the same as in England & in a more "especial manner to take care of ye warr agt Indians."

McIlwaine 1979B:484

Indians

Order

July 1634
court [?]

War

Several "Com's" to go to war w/ the Indians, "our irreconcilable enemies in July 1634."

McIlwaine 1979B:481

Court

Order

29 April 1635 court

Minutes

During vacancy of the governor, the secretary...should manage "ye affairs of the Indians."

McIlwaine 1979B:483

Nicholas ffarrar

Will

8 April 1640
James City

Minutes

Will in London: Gave a stock of £300 sterling- the interest to be pd to anyone who would bring up 3 Indian children in learning & Christianity.

McIlwaine 1979B:478

Arthur Price &
Indian

Court

23 June 1640
court

Complaint

Price complained and believed that the Indian, who once lived w/ Mr. Anthony Panton, is the one who stole his gun, pair of breeches & shirt. Price has right to detain in his custody the next Indian who comes to his house & inform the Indian his knowledge of that Indian who stole these items — until they be brought back by that Indian.

McIlwaine 1979B:478

John Burton & Indian

Court

23 June 1640
court

Complaint

Burton killed an Indian he thought was the one who stole his goods, but this was not the case. Since much danger may arise to Burton or the other English from some revenge for the death of this particular Indian, Burton shall remove his habitation out of this county where he now liveth and pay a fine 20 lbs. sterling to stay committed and security for good behavior.

McIlwaine 1979B:478

John Burton & Indian

Petition

23 June 1640
court

Fine

Burton fined 20 lbs. sterling last Saturday for his contempt in killing of an Indian. Petition for remission to the board- "some of his great men" interceded to the board on Burton's behalf and stated that they are satisfied concerning the same. Court therefore remitted fine, provided he enters recognizance for good behavior.
[Note: footnote #58 indicated that the Indian leader might be Opechancanough.]

McIlwaine 1979B:478

Accomack Indians & Philip Taylor

Order

15 Dec. 1640
court

Patent

Patent granted to Accomack Indians for 1500 acres of land lying upon the easternmost shore of the seaboard side. A new survey to be done, including Taylor's 200 acres, which is not to be infringed. After survey is completed, patent is to be made for the Indians.

McIlwaine 1979B:477

Nicholas ffarrar, Mr. George Menefie, Esqr., Capt. William Perry & Indian
boy

Court

31 March 1641 court

Education & maintenance

An Indian boy of the county of Tappahannock was presented by Mr. George Menefie to court. For ten years he was brought up among the English by Capt. William Perry (dec'd.) and Menefie, and is well instructed in the principles of religion, reading and writing per instructions of Nicholas ffarrar of London's will. Menefie wishes to obtain certificate for the better support of Indian boy & instruction. Court granted 8 lbs. per annum for allowance and 24 lbs. for maintenance of youth on 10 June 1640 at James City.

McIlwaine 1915:70

Court

Order

1 July 1642
James City

Peace

General Assembly: The settling of peace w/ friendship w/ the Indians "by mutual capitulation and articles" are agreed, concluded and put in writing after much editorial work.

McIlwaine 1979B:499

Court

Trade

6 Oct. 1642
court

Comission

Commission granted to trade in the bay.

McIlwaine 1979B:500

Court & Indian boy

Permission

10 Oct. 1642
court

Education

Permission to keep an Indian boy and instructing him in the Christian religion.

McIlwaine 1979B:500

Court

Order

1 June 1643
court

Trade

General order: persons cannot trade w/ the Indians w/o commission.

McIlwaine 1979B:501

Court

Order

30 April 1644 court

Order

Particular directions given for marching against the Indians.

McIlwaine 1979B:501

Court

Order

May 1644
court

Estates

Matters concerning the cattle & goods and servants of persons lately slain by the Indians.

McIlwaine 1979B:501

Court

Order

June 1644
court

March

Provisions for various marches against the Indians.

McIlwaine 1979B:501

Court

Opinion

June 1644
court

March

Claiborne's opinion is different from the others regarding the "propriety of War upon the Indians between the Rappahannock and Potomac.'

McIlwaine 1979B:501

Court

Plan

June 1644
court

Prisoners

Many prisoners taken among the Indians. Need to decide what course should be persued.

McIlwaine 1979B:501

Court

Army

29 June-4 Aug. 1644

Militia

"Pticulars of the return of the Pamunky army and about raising another army."

McIlwaine 1979B:502

Court

Order

6 July 1644
court

March

Claiborne, general of the Pamunkey march, requested provisions.

McIlwaine 1979B:502

Court

Session

10 Aug.1644 court

March

Meeting of "lieutenants and deputy lieutenants and 50
soldiers levied to march against the Chickahomonies."

McIlwaine 1979B:502

Court

Order

3 Sept. 1644 court

Attack

"Authority" to go "against the corn" of the Indians.

McIlwaine 1979B:502

Court

Order

23 Oct. 1644
court

March

More soldiers to be levied and prepared to go agst. the Indians.

McIlwaine 1979B:502

Court

Order

3 Dec. 1644
court

Attack

Lt. Nicholas Stillwell is permitted to "go against the Indians."

McIlwaine 1979B:502

Court

Order

20 Jan. 1644 [sic] court

Defense

Men, powder and shot to be sent to "middle plantation" to defend the forest.

McIlwaine 1979B:563

Capt. Claiborne, court, Pamunkey and Rappahannock Indians

Order

Feb. 1644/5
court

March

Court made further arrangements for Capt. Claiborne to conduct another march against the Pamunkeys on York River. He is to "treat the Rappahannocks or any other Indians not in amity with Opechancanough" with respect to "serving the country against the Pamunkeys."

McIlwaine 1979B:564-565

Sir William Berkeley, Kemp & Indians, et al.

Order

7 June-9 Aug. 1645 court

Indians shipped overseas

Upon his return from England, Sir William Berkeley took up the work laid out by Kemp; "prosecuted the expedition against the Indians, designated for the 10th of July; and took several prisoners. On 9 August, it was decided that all prisoners over the age of eleven shall be shipped to the Western Island on Sir William Berkeley's ship. This is to prevent their return and strengthen "their respective tribes." In addition, Lt. Nicholas Stillwell, "an active and intrepid forest ranger," is to have increased forces against the "savage enemy." Berkeley also declined to help Maryland's request for help, citing his own "daily opposition by the Indians" which made such assistance impossible.

McIlwaine 1915:90

Court & Tottopottomoy

Order

1653

Claim

During last Assembly, the land in York River desired by Tottopottomoy, was discussed further and is to remain in force as formerly. He is to live on the same but if he leave it, then the land is to "devolve" to Col. Willaim Clayborne according to an order of court. Clayborne to make clear which of the two choices of land he preferred in the next court, and Capt. John West w/ Mr. William Hockaday are to give a "safe conduct" to Tottopottomoy and his Indians for "their coming to towne and his returne home." In addition, the commissioners of York are required to remove persons who are seated upon the land of the Pamunkey or Chickahominy Indians according to a late Act of Assembly to that purpose. Col. John Fludd also go to Tottopottomoy to "examine" the business proceedings and deliver it upon oath.

McIlwaine 1915:91

Court

Order

1653

Indemnity

An act of "indempnitie" shall be granted to all who have "lent gunns to the Indians." Any offender w/ proof hereafter shall suffer "severely" according to aforesaid act.

McIlwaine 1979B:503

Court & Totapotamoy, Indian

Order

7 June 1654 court

Complaint

Totapotamoy complained that his brother was slain by an Englishman.

McIlwaine 1979B:504

Court

Order

3 Oct. 1654 court

Complaints

Complaints "Orders upon complaints by the indians."

McIlwaine 1979B:504

Court

Order

6 June 1656 court

Land

Land is not deserted until three years after removal of Indians.

McIlwaine 1979B:505

Court

Order

8 Oct. 1656 court

Hunting

"Where Indians may hunt."

McIlwaine 1979B:505

Samuel Mathews, Gov. &
Indians

Order

27 April 1657 court

Complaint

Complaint lodged against the "Nessan (?) Indians." Soldiers to be raised.

McIlwaine 1979B:505

Court

Order

6 June 1657 court

Case

An Indian

Case of Indian servant.

McIlwaine 1979B:505

Court

Order

7 Oct. 1657
court

Sale

Case concerning the sale of powder to Indians. Party bound over.

McIlwaine 1979B:505

Court

Order

12 Oct. 1657 court

Servant

Indians who are detaining a servant are to be arrested.

McIlwaine 1979B:505

Court

Order

13 Oct. 1657 court

Hunting

Orders permitting persons who want to keep Indians for hunting.

McIlwaine 1979B:506

Court

Order

17 March 1657/8 court

Protection

Destruction of our friends, the Indians, are to be prevented.

Hening (II) 1823:34

Harquip, Mangai of the Chickahomini

Petition

23 March 1660/1
James City

Lands

Harquip, Mangai of the Chickahomini Indians, wanted to have all the lands from Mr. Malory's boundaries to the head of the Mattaponi River and into woods per patent. He also desired that no Englishman will disturb or purchase the same unless the majority of the "great men" shall "freely and voluntarily" give consent in the quarter court or assembly.

Hening (II) 1823:35
[Also in McIlwaine
1914:12.]

Major General Manwaring Hamond & Chickahomini Indians

Petition

23 March 1660/1
James City

Lands

A grant has been given to the Chickahomini Indians for certain lands, upon which Major General Manwaring Hamond claims a two-thousand acre devident by patent. He is ordered to purchase the same of the Indians or to procure their consent for the preservation of the "countrey's honour and reputation."

McIlwaine
1914:19

Edward Dennis & Indian town of Chickahomini

Order

23 March 1660/1
James City

Warrant for Dennis

Dennis seated himself in the Indian town of Chickahomini w/o title or claim. Warrant issued by governor for him to appear in court to hear his case of "continuance or removal."

Hening (II) 1823: 39

Chesskoiack Indians

Court

23 March 1660/1 James City

Lands

For the benefit of the country by the Chesskoiack Indians who are "kindly used by us." They are "sensible that with the few gunns they have amongst them, "and that "they cannot prejudice us being a small inconsiderable nation." They shall "quietly hold and enjoy the land" that they live on and have the free use of the guns they now have, notwithstanding any order or order to the contrary. This is to show other Indians "how kind wee are to such who are obedient to our laws."

Hening (II) 1823:39

Harquip, Mangoi of the Chickahomini Indians et al.

Court

23 March 1660/1 James City

Lands

On behalf of himself and other Indians, Harquip on 4 April 1661 acknowledged the sale of a parcel of land located between the cliffs to the little creek by Mr. Philip Mallory. It had been surveyed twice by Lt. Col. Abrahall & James Cole and George Morris containing 743 acres for Mr. Mallory.

McIlwaine 1914:16

King of Mattaponi Indians

Court

23 March 1661/2
James City

Complaint

The King of the Mattaponi Indians made complaint about the burning of his "English house." Lt. Col. Goodridge is to appear in the next quarter court to answer the charge and that the King of the Mattaponi will also be present.

McIlwaine 1914:16

King of Wainoke, Mettapin & Eliz. Short

Court

23 March 1661/2
James City

Freedom

The King of the Wainoke Indians did not have the power to sell Mettapin, a Powhatan Indian, to Elizabeth Short, since he was "of another nation." Mettapin is to be free- the court noted that Mettapin could speak the English tongue perfectly and desired baptism.

McIlwaine 1914:16

Court

Order

23 March 1661/2
James City

Lands

The governor is to grant a commission to look into the matter regarding several claims "made to any part of our neighbouring Indians land." The commission shall confirm just cases while removing other persons who do not. All appeals shall be open for all persons who feel "agreived" by such proceedings.

McIlwaine 1979B:493

Attamahune, great king of Noncottecoe

Deed

27 July 1662 court

Land

Attamahune's deed for a tract of land.

McIlwaine 1979B:508

Court

Order

25 March 1663/4 court

Complaints

Complaints of Pamunkey Indians.

Hening (II)
1823:202-203

Court

Order

13 Sept. 1663 court

Theft by Indians

On the south side of the James River, the Indians have been stealing hogs, tobacco, and the corn out of the fields as well as robbing hedges at night. Neighboring Indians are also "taxed therewith." They said that it is the Tuscarora Indians who are skulking about the English plantations and conducting "underhand dealings" with the English. For these reasons, these Indians cannot come to the English plantations w/o badges, and if found in the house of an Englishman, the Englishman shall pay the penalty of the same value as given to Indians. Half of each party's payment will be given to the informer.

McIlwaine 1979B:508

Court

Order

26 Sept. 1664 court

Lands

Many Indians as possible to be located in one place and enough land laid off for them.

McIlwaine 1979B:508

Court

Order

28 Sept. 1664 court

Compensation

The value of guns taken from the Indians is to be paid to them.

McIlwaine 1979B:509

Court

Order

24 Nov. 1664 court

Interpreter

An interpreter is to live near the Pamunkey Indians.

McIlwaine 1979B:509

Court

Order

12 Oct. 1665 court

Patent

Indian is allowed to patent for land.

McIlwaine 1979B:509

Court

Order

19 Oct. 1665 court

Release

Indians on a pirate's ship are declared free.

McIlwaine 1979B:485

Whiteing & Indians

Order

19 Oct. 1665 court

Release

Whiteing brought in Indians who were taken in a Spanish ship. They are declared free and to have their liberties.

McIlwaine 1979B:509

Court

Order

20 Oct. 1665 court

Complaint

Complaint made by the Queen of Pamunky.

McIlwaine 1979B:510

Court

Order

28 March 1666 court

Survey of lands

No land can be surveyed w/in five miles of an Indian town.

McIlwaine 1979B:510

Court

Order

10 July 1666 court

War

Murders by Indians, contrary to treaty of peace, means war of extermination against them.

McIlwaine 1979B:488

Court

Plan

10 July 1666 James City

Attack

For the last four years, many inhabitants have been killed by the Indians-contrary to the articles of peace. Our demands for satisfaction have not been answered. For their breaches of the peace, revenge, and prevent future mischiefs, the towns of Monzation, Nansimond and Port Tobacco w/ the whole nation of Doegs & Potomacks are to be utterly destroyed, if possible. Their women, children & goods shall be taken & disposed of according to Governor's instructions. War to be managed by officers and men as the Governor shall think fit.

McIlwaine 1914: 37

Court

Order

31 Oct. 1666 court

Proposition

Proposition concerning Indians, criminals and attorneys.

McIlwaine 1979B:510

Court

Order

17 April 1668 court

Confirmation

Confirmation of land granted to Pamunky Indians on the north of James River.

McIlwaine 1979B:513

Court

Order

24 Sept. 1668
court

Lands

"Lands delivered up" by Indians "granted over other side."

McIlwaine 1979B:513

Court

Order

23 April 1669 court

Servitude

Indian is brought in to be free after serving five years.

McIlwaine 1979B:230

Henry Newcomb, William Woodward, John Devorax & John King

Court

14 8br. 1670 court

Interpreters

These four men were sworn in court to be interpreters between the Indians & Col. Scarburgh.

McIlwaine 1979B:517

Court

Order

13 Oct. 1670 court

Horse

Horse, saddle & bridle to be given back to Indian.

McIlwaine 1979B:517

Court

Order

13 Oct. 1670 court

Servitude

Indian servant is to be free after serving six years.

McIlwaine 1979B:233

Gawin, Indian & Mr. Thomas Bushrod

Order

18 Oct. 1670 court

Servitude for 6 more years

Gawin

Gawin, servant to Bushrod, is to serve his master for six more years before he is set free.

McIlwaine 1979B:238

Lt. Col. George Jordan vs. Col. Edmond
Scarburgh

Order

25 Oct. 1670 court

Complaint

Upon examination and trial of certain misdemeanors shown by Jordan about the Indians and other charges, the Gov. & Council ordered that Scarburgh is to be suspended from all offices, military & civil, until his future obedience and fidelity is assured & restored by Gov.

McIlwaine 1979B:353

Chingoskin Indians & Thomas Harmonson

Order

24 Oct. 1673 court

Survey

Surveyor in Accomack to survey 650 acres of land belonging to the Chingoskin Indians. If Harmonson has run w/in their bounds, the Indians to have possession and Harmonson is to be turned out.

McIlwaine 1979B:361

Col. Abrahall

Order

8 Nov. 1673 court

Investigation

Abrahall is required to look into the death of the Englishman and the Indian lately killed in the premises and make report. Concerned parties also to be present.

McIlwaine 1979B:518

Court

Order

8 Nov. 1673 court

"Justice done to an indian."

McIlwaine 1979B:365

Court & Notoway Indians

Petition

4 April 1674
court

Trespass

The English who have seated w/in the bounds of the Indians' lands mentioned in an Act of Assembly are to "Come offe." No surveyor is to survey any more land w/ their bounds as aforesaid and sheriffs of several counties are to give public notice & prevent such actions.

McIlwaine 1979B:369

Accomack Indians, Mr. Savage & Mr. Harmonson

Order

7 April 1674 court

Patent

Examination of evidence re Indians' claims vs. bounds
of Mr. Savage and Mr. Harmonson by four named men. Theyare to send report back to court.

McIlwaine 1979B:370

Court

Order

7 April 1674 court

Indian lands out of "Great care of the Peace and Safety of this Colony," is enacted an act to prevent encroachments upon bounds so assigned, and that it should "not be in the power of any Indian" to "fell or alienate" any of the lands w/in bounds. Such bargains are by act declared null & void. Heard that several persons have eluded the act by taking lease from the Pomunki and Chickahominy Indians. Ordered that no person take any lease from Indians and seat any lands until cases are determined in next Assembly what course should be taken. This is to prevent any "illegal disturbances of the Indians." Sheriffs in all counties to give public notice to that effect.

McIlwaine 1979B:380

Court

Jury

25 Sept. 1674 court

Verdict:
"guilty."

Harry, an Indian, was tried in court for stabbing a person. He is to be hanged by the neck until dead.

McIlwaine 1979B:518

Court

Order

25 Sept. 1674 court

Minutes

Indian to be put to death per sentence.

McIlwaine 1979B:381

Court & Accomack Indians, et al.

Order

28 Sept. 1674 court

Land boundaries

These Indians "have always beene in peace with us" and thus is necessary that they are secured in their possessions. Titles of Savage and Indians to be examined and portion of Savage's land to be given to Indians who shall give Savage and his heirs "one yeare of Indian Corne yearly for Acknowledgement." While Harmonson was acquitted from court, Kendall, who had possessed part of Savage's land, is to give good security. He will no longer threaten, disturb or frighten the Indians.

McIlwaine 1979B:384

Court & Major General Wood

Order

29 Sept. 1674 court

Public notice

Sheriffs who border these Indians were ordered to make public the court's order but failed to do so. Major General Wood is ordered to make inquiry to the same and report back to court.

McIlwaine 1979B:400

Nanzaticoe Indians & Thomas Prosseer

Petition

21 Nov. 1674
court

Lands

The Nanzaticoe Indians have deserted their lands laid out for them by Public Authority and have not lived there last two years. Prosser can have the liberty to seat his land within the said bounds if his petition is true.

McIlwaine 1979B:401

Bartholomew Austin & Guardians of Conquest
Wyatt

Order

3 March 1674/5 James City

Suit re lands

The named guardians of Conquest Wyatt vs. Austin: The lease let by the Cheskyake Indians to Austin was found to be good and 150 acres of land is to be laid out by the surveyor.

McIlwaine 1914:64

Court

Act

7 March 1675 James City

Defense

"An act for the Safeguard and defence of the Country against the Indians" was discussed along w/ the distribution of 3051 pounds of ammunition for certain forts.

McIlwaine 1914:64

Court

Order

7 March 1675 James City

Protection

Sir William Berkeley is to be protected w/ a standing guard of twenty-four men who shall be paid at the rate of 1,500 lbs. tobo. w/ cask per annum by the public. 24,000 lbs. shall be paid Berkeley if he is willing to accommodate them at Green Spring w/ provisions.

McIlwaine 1914:64

Peracuta & Appomattuck Indians

Petition

7 March 1675 James City

License

The Appomattuck Indians requested that Peracuta, King of the Appomattuck, be given license to plant and clear any land that is not taken up by the English. They also asked that "their old Towne" be "not fired by the English" and that the English not fire into the woods "to the prejudice of those Indians." They wish to fish and gather rushes on the heads of rivers w/o any disturbance, provided that they come unarmed and in a peaceful manner. Lastly, they wished to have liberty grant "to all other, who are ready to give hostages."

McIlwaine 1979B:518

Court

Order

7 Oct. 1675
court

Complaint

Complaint of an Indian against his master.

McIlwaine 197B:425

Benjamin, Indian & Charles Dunn

Order

8 Oct. 1675
court

Complaint

Benjamin the Indian is to return to his master Dunn, but
Dunn must appear in next court to answer Benjamin's complaint.

McIlwaine 1979B:425

George & Chickahominy Indians

Order

8 Oct. 1675
court

Estate

Ordered that Interpreter George to the Indians that belong to the Great Munguy & "Charge them to Admitt the Said Munguy into the Same degree he vuse? to be in & Restore him his Estate." If they deny the same, the English shall take it amiss since Munguy has "always" been a "faithful friend to the English."

McIlwaine 1979B:426

John Rawlins & Indian woman

Jury

9 Oct. 1675
court

Murder

John Rawlins, accused of murdering an Indian woman, was acquitted by proclamation since the Jury found "Ignoramus."

McIlwaine 1914:70

Chesecake Indians & Court

Order

20 Feb. 1676 Green Spring

Peace

The Chesecake Indians may "quietly and safely return to, and abide in their townes, and haue and Inioy equall liberty," w/ all other neighboring friende Indians" as long as they conduct themselves submissively and peaceably.

McIlwaine 1979B:450

Mrs. Sarah Kirkman, dau ffrances & Indians

Petition

21 March 1675/6
court

Lands

They cannot seat lands in Potomock, which belonged to her decd husband Mr. Ffrancis Kirkman, because of "Reason of the Warr with ye Indians." She was given seven years' liberty to seat lands.

McIlwaine 1914:107

Court

Order

N.D. [c. 1676?]

Resolutions

Peace to be made w/ the Indians to the best advantage, w/ the exception of the Doegs- the Indians who make peace to be brought in at a convenient time. After they make peace, no one can keep, directly or indirectly, any Indian to hunt or otherwise. Furthermore, 1000 men should be raised for the Indian wars out of the respective counties in this country. Each county is to pay for their soldiers and provisions- this Act was once nullified by the violence of Nathaniel Bacon, but now the Act be provided again to enable payment to soldiers which is "leavyed against the Indians & for their Provision, &c."

McIlwaine 1914:107-108

Inhabitants of James City County to King Charles II

Petition

6 Feb. 1676?

Trade

They formerly had free access "of the Indians amongst us by their painting, & disfiguring themselves not to be knowne" which caused "agrievance." They now desire that there be peace made w/ their neighboring Indians, have clear boundaries and that the Indians who come among them be required to wear badges as formerly provided by the 4th Act of Assembly in September 1663. They also wish to advance themselves by trading w/ the Indians, but restraint is needed w/ respect to powder, shot and ammunition to the Indians per Act of Assembly in 1665- since the Indians "have bin therewith better p'vided than ourselves." [10 issues enumerated in document.]

McIlwaine 1914:107-108

Inhabitants of James City County to King Charles II

Petition

6 Feb. 1676?

One of the above mentioned 10 issues concerned "several Indian slaves" who were taken by the charge & expense of the whole Cuntry, in the late Indian Warrs, but is in the hands of severall private Psons." Proposal: these Indians should be used only for public, not private, profit.

McIlwaine 1914:69

Court

Order

20 Feb. 1676 Green Spring

War

Each county shall pay for provisions, arms, ammunition, horses, horse furniture, and other necessaries that are raised in their county for the Indian warr.

McIlwaine 1914:69

Court

Order

20 Feb. 1676 Green Spring

Indian prisoners

Soldiers, who have taken or shall take any enemy Indian prisoners or Indian plunder or goods, shall be under "a lawful Comand" that they keep all "such Indian Slaues, or other Indian goods," as they have taken or shall take, to their proper use. This is for "their better Encouragment to such service."

McIlwaine 1914:89-90

Queen of Pamunky

Petition

20 Feb. 1676 Green Spring

List of proposals

The Queen of Pamunky made a number of petitions: 1) that her lands restored to her, provided that she shall comply w/ the Acts of Assembly made last March and other injunctions as these arise by the Grand Assembly; 2) that her Indians may not be entertained or employed by the English; 3) that the goods be restored to her which she had left at her "Towne" when "shee fledd" and were taken away by the English; 4) that not too many of her Indians be required on service at once; 5) that any of her Indians who are now employed in the English service may have the plunder they get from other Indians; 6) that liberty be given to gather bark from trees on any man's land to build cabins; 7) that they be given permission to hunt on the frontier lands and plantations; 8) that they be given liberty to fish at Powhite; 9) that her Indians not be abused by the English; and 10) that liberty also be given to redeem her Indians and goods.

Responses of the court: 1) provided that she complay w/ the Acts of Assembly made last March & other injunctions, it is thought "reasonable" that her lands be restored; 2) no Englishman shall under any pretense employ any of her Indians to hunt or entertain them in their houses above one night w/o certificate from her or by pcuremt since the penality is 30 lbs. tobo. for each night any Indian is entertained; 3) what goods can be found shall be restored and she is obligated to deliver all the horses and goods taken that she or any of her Indians took from the English; 4) no more than one-third of her Indians shall be required regarding service; 5) all Indians employed in the country's service shall have what plunder they can get from other Indians except for horses, arms & ammunition- these are to be returned to the Governor or some other authority; 6) she shall first have leave from the owners of such land to gather the bark; 7) she can hunt on the frontier lands once she has delivered her hostages according to Act, & her other Indians can hunt or walk the same, but not painted; 8) she and her Indians can fish in all "convenient places" as long as they first give notice to Capt. William Bird or others in the area; 9) if the English abuse them, they are to have recourse to the Justice of the Peace whose warrant may command the offender or offenders to court and redress the injury; and 10) if she can, she can have the liberty to redem her Indians and goods, and if she cannot, then the court shall determine the matter.

McIlwaine 1914:115

Queen of Pamunkie

Petition

10 Oct. 1677 court

Lands

The Queen of Pamunkie petitioned to have confirmation of the lands she sold to several of the English for certain payments "in part thereof." Since this is not consistant w/ the Laws of the country or beneficial for the public good & safety, the English purchasers are required to come to court to make good their claims. Those w/ no valid claims shall lose the benefits or payments in connection w/ such claims. Until then, the Queen is not to be molested or have proceedings against her in any way.

McIlwaine 1979B:520

Court

Plan

27 Nov. 1678 court

Sentence & plan

Sentence given for a violent assault upon an Indian. If Indian invasions continue, then war is to be "vigorously" carried out.

McIlwaine 1979B:520

Court

Order

23 Jan. 1679/80 court

Indian problems

Concerning murders committed by Indians and existence of prisoners. Provisions need to be provided for the future.

McIlwaine
1925:40

Court & Indians

Order

13 March 1682
court

Indians shall not come to "Town" at the expense of the counties, except for emergencies.

McIlwaine
1925:488-489

Court & Indians

Court

10 May 1682
court

The present state of the country is extremely poor and forces kept in pay to prevent sudden mischiefs. The people propose that the Indian's trade should be confined under the Governor's direction to two persons of integrity and ability for five years. No Indians should be slaves that "the Bounds of the Country may not be encroacht on as had been attempted by the Md. and N.C. governors."

McIlwaine 1979A:41

Court

Order

8 Xbris 1682
court

Acts

"An Act declaring Indian women servants tythable" and "An Act repealing a former Law making Indians and others free."

McIlwaine
1925:53

Court, Mattapony Towne & Chickahominy Fort

Order

21 Nov. 1683
James City

Indian forts

The Senecas have made "great Spoiles" on the "stocks" of this Government, "riffled" a number of houses, reduced and took the Mattapony Indian Town. At present, they are besieging the Chickahominy Fort. Col. Wm. Byrd is to to either the "Chicahominy or Rappa: Indian Fort" to treat w/ them.

McIlwaine 1914:205

Court

Order

1 May 1684 court

Defense

Question concerns whether the militia officers & soldiers should perform their duties to the utmost w/o pay. Court decreed that they should defend their county to their "utmost power and strength" w/o any allowance from the public for the same.

McIlwaine 1914:233-234

Lord Effingham

Order

16 May 1684
court

Instructions

The issues concerning Indian affairs are the most important concerning the security of the country. Since they were not satisfied w/ his "last well grounded Resolution," they are now instructed to conduct a conference w/ the Council as he shall appoint and that they also nominate to him the names of some members to the house. There is to be no further delay since Indian matters must be quickly resolved. Names are given to Effingham as requested.

McIlwaine 1914:234

Court

Order

19 May 1684 court

Amendment to bill

Words "vizt either in burning or forcible entring into our houses or by killing maiming or Carrying away any of ye Inhabitants" are to be inserted between lines 14 and 15 in the bill concerning defense of the country. Bill read three times in court, assented and now sent up to the Governor & Council.

McIlwaine
1925:79

Gov. & Council, George Smith & Successor to the Queen of
Pomunkey

Order

1 July 1686
at house of Col. Nathaniel Bacon

Succession & loss of Indians

George Smith, interpreter to the Pomunkey Indians, stated that the Queen of Pomunkey was "lately dead" and the Indians wanted her neice to be the next ruler. The Queen's neice and great men are to come to the Governor at James City. The "Indian Harries wife, being a Pomunkey Indian," is to attend as well to state what she knows of the fate of her husband
and other Indians lost "from Col. Byrd's." Smith also to find out what happened to these Indians.

McIlwaine
1925:134-135

Gov. & Council & Chickahominy Indians

Act

24 Oct. 1690
court

Lands

Several persons have purchased & taken leave of Chickhominy Indians to live on the land at Pamunkey Neck. Land was given to the Chickahominies by the Order of Assembly in 1660. These persons are to leave, remove their stocks, etc. Otherwise, their houses built w/in the last three years shall be burnt after the last of January.

McIlwaine
1925:146-147

William Duckingfield, Tuskaroo & Maherin Indians & Daniel Pugh

Complaint & Deposition

26 Jan. 1690/1
York Courthouse

Illegal shipping of Indians

Deposition of William Duckingfield: A Maherin Indian informed the Tuskaroo Indians that their two missing men were not killed by the English but that a Daniel Pugh of Nansimond County had sent four of them to Barbadoes and "other Islands." The Tuskaroo threaten revenge but agree to have Duckingfield talk to the Governor on their behalf to prevent the English warring on them if attacked by them. They shall see the Governor themselves in warmer weather. Pugh is ordered to come to court to answer complaint.

McIlwaine
1925:157-158

Thomas Tyler, Indians & Daniel Pugh

Deposition

19 Feb. 1690/1
James City

Indians on ship

Thomas Tyler, Master of the Brigantine Swallow of Barbadoes:
He carried out two Indians last year as per instructions and bill of Lading signed to Daniel Pugh of Nansimond County for these Indians. Pugh has absconded and sheriff is to find & take him into custody.

McIlwaine 1914:343

Appamatack Indian Queene

Petition

24 April 1691 court

To dwell among the English

The "Appamatack Indian Queene" petitioned on the behalf of her people and herself to suffer to dwell "among the English." This request was referred to the Governor & Council, read and then sent to "the Committee of grievances & propositions."

McIlwaine 1914:343

Nicholas Witherington

Petition

24 April 1691 court

Claim

Witherington's claim for 980 lbs. tobo. regarding "ferriage of Indians over James River" is read in court and referred to the Committee for Public Claims.

McIlwaine 1914:343

Thomas Busbey

Petition

24 April 1691 court

Payment

Busbey's request for "allowance as interpreter to the Southern Indians to be levyed" so that no deduction is made for cask. Read in court and referred to the Committee of Propositions.

McIlwaine 1914:343

Chicohomimy Indians

Petition

24 April 1691 court

Lands

The Chicohominy Indians' petition to continue living on the land "of Mr. Ben. Arnold" is read in court and also given to the Committee of Propositions.

McIlwaine 1914:
349, 353-354

Court & Indians

Order

5, 7 & 9 May 1691 court

Bill

A bill concerning free trade with the Indians is read in court for the second and third time, and passed.

McIlwaine 1979A:141

Court

Order

8 & 9 May 1691 court

Bill

"A Bill for a ffree trade with Indians."

McIlwaine 1914:359

Court

Order

14 May 1691 court

Bill

Bill concerning free trade w/ Indians was sent to the Council for concurrence and then received w/ a proposal of a clause to be added. The bill w/ the clause sent back to the Council, who agreed to it.

McIlwaine 1979A:144

Court

Order

14 May 1691 court

Bill

"A Bill for a free trade with ye Indians, to which they adhered with ye Several additions."

McIlwaine 1979A:179

Court

Order

16 March 1692 court

Trade

Clerk of the General Assembly is ordered "to carry the following Answer to the Address about the Instruction for the Free trade with the Indians to the house of Burgesses." He is also to carry the answer to the above address.

McIlwaine 1979A:181-183

Court

Order

23, 24 & 28 March 1692 court

Bill re hogs

A Bill which concerned hogs belonging to the Indians was read in court three times, and agreed to, "as Sent."

McIlwaine 1914:426

Committee

Order

16 March 1692/3 court

Propositions

1) No persons shall be admitted to go out to trade but only at certain times and places in every county for the Indians to bring in their "trucke." This became the 9th Act of Assembly. 2) Each town or nation of Indians shall receive certain marks for their hogs to prevent theft. 3) No English person shall trade, deal or receive any pork from any Indian w/o proper mark, the penalty being 1,000 lbs. of tobo. This is in connection w/ the 6th Act of Assembly made in 1674 regarding the same. Dispute lies in what county court should assign the marks to the "Weynonokes & Notoway Indians." And 4) A clause is to be inserted in the bill authorizing Surry County court to assign a particular mark for hogs of the "Weyonoakes & Notoway Indians."

McIlwaine 1914:427-428

E. Andros

Document

16 March 1692/3

Request granted

Free trade w/ the Indians, "preferring ye particular benefit of their people" before any advantage that might "accrew unto them by restraining said Trade" is granted. This would be beneficial for the colony.

McIlwaine 1914:
433-434, 436

Court

Order

20-22 March 1692/3 court

Hogs

Bill concerning the marking of Indians' hogs read three times in court and passed. The title of the bill shall be "An Act Concerning Indians hogs."

McIlwaine 1979A:184

Court

Order

29 March 1693 court

Clerk & bill re hogs

The clerk of the General Assembly shall carry the bill concerning the Indians' hoggs to the House of Burgesses "endorst thus."

McIlwaine 1914:442

Court

Order

30 March 1693

Hogs

Bill concerning the Indians' hogs were delivered at table and then returned from the Court w/o any further amendments.

McIlwaine 1979A:189

Court

Order

3 April 1693 court

Act

"The honoble Councill have been pleased with the Burgesses to agree upon severall Acts which they have Judged Conducible to the Peace Defence and Welfare of this their Mas. Dominion...": "2. An Act concerning Indians hoggs."

McIlwaine 1979A:189

Court

Order

3 April 1693 court

Act

[Same as above but with] "6. An Act for continueing the Rangers at the heads of the four great Rivers."

McIlwaine 1914:454

Comittee

Report

16 Oct. 1693 court

Defense

The Committee's report concerns a proposal that the Rangers at "the heads of Great Rivers" be continued.

McIlwaine 1914:460

Queen of Weyonoake

Petition

21 Oct. 1693 court

Hogs

Queen of Weyonoake and her Indians would like to have two years' time to kill & dispose of their hogs, which at present are under another mark than what was assigned lately by Surry County Court. Petition read in court and referred to the Committee of Public Claims for consideration.

McIlwaine 1914:465

Queen of Weyonoake

Petition

25 Oct. 1693 court

Resolutions

Resolutions to the Queen of Weyonoake's petition are read twice, both before the committee and the court, before being agreed to by the house. They are to add a clause to the Act made at the last Assembly to mention "the same for liberty to ye Weyonoake Indians to kill & dispose of their hogs under ye marke they now are until the last of January 1694."

McIlwaine 1914:474

Court & Indians

Order

30 Oct. 1693 court

Bill

Bill read in court about Indians for the first time.

McIlwaine 1914:473 & 476

Court

Order

31 Oct. 1693 court

Bill

A bill which declared "Negroes, Moores, Molattoes, & Indian slaves" read in court three times and passed.

McIlwaine 1914:475-476

Court

Order

31 Oct. & 1 Nov. 1693 court

Bill

Bill concerning Indians was read in court three times, amended and passed.

McIlwaine 1979A:198

Court

Order

1 Nov. 1693 court

Act

Readings in court of "An Act for Continuing the Rangers att the heads of the four greate Rivers."

McIlwaine 1979A:198, 203

Court

Order

1 & 2 Nov. 1693 court

Act

"An Act declaring Negros, Moores Molatto's & Indian Slaues" read in court more than once.

McIlwaine 1979A:198, 199, 205

Court

Order

1 & 14 Nov. 1693 court

Act

"An Act Concerning Indians" read aloud in court three times.

McIlwaine
1925:320

Court & Chickohomony Indians

Petition

25 Oct. 1694
court

Lands

The lands on the north side of the Mattapony River in King & Queen County are so poor that it will no longer yield corn or wood for the Chickahomonies to survive. They pray to have a tract called Quaynohomock that "lye's over against them in Pomunkey Neck, not Improved and formerly theirs."

McIlwaine 1913:72

Thomas Blunt & William Stone

Petitions

2 Oct. 1696
court

Allowances

Blunt, as interpreter to the Indians on the south side of the James River, asked for allowance for his services. Stone had served the Pamunkey Indians as their interpreter and now requested allowance.

McIlwaine 1913:72

Giles Webb and George Mason

Petition

2 Oct. 1696
court

Allowance

As captains for 2 months' worth of service of the "18 Additional Rangers," they also requested allowance.

McIlwaine 1913:
73, 75-76, 78, 82

Court

Order

2, 3, 5, 7,10 Oct. 1696 court

Bill

Bill concerning giving rewards to Indians for killing wolves: the Council agreed w/ the bill, but added one amendment. The same is agreed by the house and made into a bill.

McIlwaine 1979A:
235-237, 244

Court

Order

5, 7, 8, 9, 10 & 13 & 31 Oct. 1696 court

Bill & Act

Readings of "A bill giving a reward to Indians for Killing of Wolves" in court. At one of the last readings, "some amendments assented it." The bill was then presented as final and assented by the House of Burgesses on the 13th.

Duvall 1957:21-22
[Ambler Ms. #65]

William Sherwood

Will

18 Aug. 1697

Freedom & 50s Ster.

"My Indian woman Dorothy Jubille to be free Immediately after my decease being satisfied she is no slave and in full of corn and clothes I give her fifty shill. Sterl."

McIlwaine 1913:105

Indian troubles

Investigation

25 Oct. 1697 court

Murder

Two Indians at Apamatucke were questioned and cleared about the murder of an Englishman from South Carolina by some unknown Indians near Roanoke River. These same two Indians were later killed that evening by other Indians w/in our settlements and habitations.

McIlwaine
1927:41

Gov. & Council & Indian tribes

Investigation

22 Feb. 1699
James City

Indian peace treaty

Court learned that the Great Men of the Nottoway, Meheren, Nansemund, Pamunkey, Chickahomini, Rappahanock, and Nantiatico Indians intended to make peace w/ some foreign Indians w/o the knowledge or consent of the Gov. & Council. Indians confessed that they had designed a Treaty of Peace w/ the Tawittawayes & others & each had prepared a Peake belt (being the token that usually passes between them when they desire a treaty of peace). The Nantiaticos planned to take these to the foreign Indians but since the Gov. & Council are not pleased, they shall not do so. Interpreters to tell each of the nations that the next time they pay their tributes, they shall get back the peake belts.

McIlwaine
1925:415

Court & Indians

Court

25 Feb. 1698/9
court

Tribute

Indian interpreters on 1st of May to bring several nations of Indians in order to pay tribute to his Excellency at Middle Plantation. They to bring some of the "best and most active of the youth of their severall nations" with "their bowes and arrows."

McIlwaine 1979A:261

Court

Order

8 May 1699 court

Clerk & proceedings

Clerk of the General Assembly is ordered "to carry all the papers concerning the Rangers, Indians and their trade to the House of Burgesses."

McIlwaine 1979A:261

Court

Order

9 May 1699 court

Complaint

The complaints of the Queen of Pamunky and other Indian nations are to be referred to the consideration of an appointed committee, which will hear & determine the disputes and controversies with respect to claims & titles to land on Pamunky Neck and south side of Blackwater Swamp. Their opinion to be reported.

McIlwaine 1979A:262

Thomas Davis & Indians

Petition

11 May 1699 court

Allowance

Davis' petition for an allowance to bring Indians & their interpreter over the James river is read aloud by the House of Burgesses for consideration.

McIlwaine 1979A:262

George Ivie et al.

Petition

11 May 1699 court

Allowance

Ivie's request for the repeal of the Act of Assembly agst. the English marrying w/ negroes, Indians or molattoes is read & referred to the House of Burgesses for consideration.

McIlwaine 1979A:262

Committee, Queen of Pamunky and Robert Peasley

Court

12 May 1699 court

Complaint & Interpreter

The Queen of Pamunky complained that several of the English have encroached upon the "Libertyes of her people Contrary to the Articles of Peace" and other Orders of the General Court. Committee requested their Excellency to have two or three great men of the Pamunky Indians & their interpreter to attend and show the said Articles of Peace and Orders as the basis for their complaint. Robert Peasely, "the Indian Interpreter," is to get & bring these great men as soon as possible to James City to prosecute the same and that Peasely is to be w/them.

McIlwaine 1913:169, 172

Court

Order

19 May 1699 court

Bill

A bill declaring whether "the Negroes, Mulatto or Indian Woemen" are bond or free for tithables. Read in court, debated, and passed in the afirmative.

des Cognets 1981:62
[Title Upon Indian Leases]

Pamunkey Indians & Council

Articles of the Peace and 136th Act of Assembly

June 1699
court

Claims

Titles & claims of the Pamunkey to be null & void due to the true intent of the Articles of Peace and the 136th Act of Assembly. Moreover, the peopling of the colony as well as the claims of many people for lands would improve the colony for the King.

des Cognets 1981:66

Drammacho Mongy, Ruler of Chickahominy

Pamunkey Neck and Blackwater Land (Claims)

2 June 1699 court

Petition

Drammacho Mongy, chief Ruler of the Chickahominy, petitioned that lands in Pamunkey Neck should, by the Articles of Peace May 1677, belong to them. Any sales they had should be confirmed. The Committee rejected the claim on the grounds that only land "within 3 miles of the Indian Town was Indian property." Sales made by them are thus null & void, except in cases for lands they hold by his Majesties' subjects by exchange and confirmed.

McIlwaine
1927:22

Mr. Robert Peasely, Mr. Marshall, the Chickahominy, Pamunkey, et al.

Order

2 Nov. 1699
James City

Interpreter & Indians

Peasely, interpreter to the Indians in the northern parts of the colony to bring to court on the 10th of Nov. the following Indians: Mr. Marshall, a Pamunkey Indian of the Pamunkeys, Chickahominyes, Rapppahanocks, and Nantiaticoes- twogreat men of each Nation. Peasely also to find two Nottoway Indians who went to the northern parts and bring them to court. He himself must also be present in court.

McIlwaine
1927: 154

John Ide & Thomas Bage

Court

April 1700
court

Murder

John Ide, condemned for the murder of Thomas Bage of Surry County, was executed.

McIlwaine
1927:104

Court & Emperor of Pomonker Indians, et al.

Conference

4 Sept. 1700
James City

By command of his Excellency of Md.: Phillip Hoskins & William Dent, Esqrs. of Md. & the Emperor of Pomonker Indians in a conference.

McIlwaine
1927:226

Court & Drammacho, Ruler of the Chicahominies

Order

12 March 1701
court

Petition re lands

Drammacho, Munguy & Ruler of the Chicahominy Indians, on his and his people's behalf, on matters of land. Interpreter to bring them to court and a copy of their petition be sent to the sheriff of King & Queen County.

McIlwaine
1927:148

Court, Nanzsemond & Pomonkey Indians

Complaint

10 June 1701
court

Indian captives

Nanzemond Indians complained that the Pomonkey Indians had carried away two of their men. Court wishes to promote amity, peace, etc. & prevent feuds. Ordered that the interpreter of the Pomonkeys to have them surrender these two captives and return them to their own Nation.

McIlwaine 1979A:298

Thomas Blunt

Petition

14 Aug. 1701 & 24 Sept. 1701 courts

Salary

Blunt, an interpreter to the Nottoway & Nansemond Indians, petitioned for a salary, which was read in court and referred to the House of Burgesses.

McIlwaine 1913:285

Pamunkey & Chickahominy Indians

Order

4 Sept. 1701 court

Claims & Lands

The chain carriers and ax men who laid out the lands for the Pamunkey Indians make claim for their work. Committee for Public Claims shall add the expenses to their book concerning claims. In addition, the Chickahmominy Indians are to enjoy the same priviledges and immunities like the Pamunkey Indians and that they will have land laid out for them in Pamunkey Neck between the branches of Herring Creek. This is in accordance w/ the Articles of Peace made on 29 May 1677.

McIlwaine 1913:169, 172

Court & Pamunkey Indians

Order

4 Sept. 1701 court

Lands

It appeared that the said lands are contained w/in the boundaries of Pamunkey Indians' land. Resolved that a patent should be issued to the Pamunkey Indiuans and their posterity for their lands according to a survey made by Mr. James Ming. Ming is to be paid 3,292 lbs. tobo. for laying out the Pamunkey Indian lands. The same is to be entered to the book of reports of the Committee for Public Claims.

McIlwaine 1913:.285

Pamunkey & Chickahominy Indians

Order

4 Sept. 1701 court

Claims & Bill

Mr. Robert Beverley is to examine the claims for services done in behalf of the Pamunkey & Chickahominy Indians. A bill for the "Quieting the Possessions of the Several persons Seated w/in the bounds of the land" which was laid out for the Pamunkey Indians is considered and prepared. The Chickahominy Indians also shall live on the lands once the lands are laid out.

McIlwaine 1913:290

Two strange Indians

Order

6 Sept. 1701 court

Deportation

Two strange Indians, prisoners sent by Mr. Peter ffield, are considered enemies of this Government. They are to be guarded, brought down and sent to Barbadoes.

McIlwaine 1913:291

Pamunkey Indians and Enemies

Orders

9 Sept. 1701 court

Bills

Bill concerning the quieting of lands w/in the bounds of land laid out for the Pamunkey Indians are read three times and resolved. The other bill, concerning the strengthening of frontiers and discovery of "the approaches of an Enemy" also read in court for the third time.

McIlwaine 1979A:306, 308, 313

Court & Pamunky Indians

Order

9, 10, 12 & 23 Sept. 1701

Bill

"A bill for Quieting ye possescon of Sevll persons Seated Within ye bounds of ye Land laid out for ye Pamonky Indians" is read a number of times in court before it is passed.

McIlwaine 1979A:306

Court

Order

10 Sept. 1701 court

Clerk & Proceedings

Proceedings agst. the "Two Strange Indians Prisoners" and rest of papers and charges are to be carried by the clerk of the General Assembly to the House of Burgesses for their consideration and how the charge shall be paid.

McIlwaine 1979A:308

Court

Order

12 Sept. 1701 court

Defense

House of Burgesses agreed w/ the amendment concerning "an Act or the better Strengthening the ffrontiers, and discovering ye Approaches of an Enimie."

McIlwaine 1979A:308, 313, 324-325

Court

Bill

12, 23 Sept. and 1, 2 Oct. 1701 court

Lands

Bill entitled "An Act for Quieting ye Possession of severall Persons seated wthin ye bounds of ye Land Laid out for ye Pamunkey Indians" read three times and now is agreed to by the Council and ordered to pass w/o any amendments.

McIlwaine 1979A:325

Court & Governor

Bill

2 Oct. 1701 court

Lands

Governor objected to the above referenced bill, since he found this to be "very Contrary to ye Articles of peace made wth ye Indians" and more specifically to the instructions he had received from the Commissioners of Trade and Plantation on this very subject. Thus cannot give his assent to bill.

McIlwaine 1913: 349