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Cultural Landscape Report
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APPENDIX 2: Types of Landscape Views as Defined

by R. Burton Litton (1974):

Enclosed landscape — Typically a valley, with sides enclosing your vision; definable by means of wall and floor characteristics.

Feature landscape — Dominated by feature objects or groups of feature objects that catch the eye.

Panoramic landscape — Little or no boundary restriction; level or undulating horizon with wide view.

Focal landscape — Series of essentially parallel objects seen in alignment.

Detail landscape — Tied to immediate foreground distances and pedestrian pace; minor details are noted.

Ephemeral landscape — Dependent on transitory effects; five groups or influences that exist are:
Atmospheric and weather conditions (e.g., sunrise and sunset, clouds, fog);

Projected/reflected images (e.g., shadows, mirrored images in still water);

Displacements (e.g., fallen leaves, floods, windblown objects);

Signs (e.g., animal tracks, spider webs); and

Animal occupancy (e.g., animal sightings).

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Last Updated: 26-Apr-2004