Hopewell Culture
Administrative History
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President Warren G. Harding signed an executive order declaring Mound City Group National Monument on March 2, 1923. Because the monument came from land within Chillicothe's federal reservation containing Camp Sherman, it came under the jurisdiction of the Secretary of War. The War Department immediately assigned administration via a revocable agreement to the Ohio Historical Society. Federal jurisdiction of the monument changed on August 10, 1933, when President Franklin D. Roosevelt assigned prehistoric and historical monuments to the National Park Service via the Secretary of the Interior. The bureau terminated the state's onsite involvement as of July 24, 1946. Mound City Group National Monument thereafter received onsite National Park Service administration, continuing through its redesignation on May 27, 1992, as Hopewell Culture National Historical Park.

Mound City Group's superintendent also administered William Howard Taft National Historic Site from December 2, 1969 through December 3, 1970, and subsequently served as general superintendent of the Ohio National Park Service Group (including Mound City Group NM, William Howard Taft NHS, and Perry's Victory and International Peace Memorial) from March 7, 1971 through July 15, 1975, at which point the Ohio NPS Group was abolished. In the mid to late 1990s, managers of Hopewell Culture NHP, William Howard Taft NHS, and Dayton Aviation Heritage NHP discussed sharing personnel, services, and other resources in a loosely-formed cooperative effort to be called "Southern Ohio Group."

President of the United States

Warren G. Harding: 1921-1923
Calvin Coolidge: 1923-1929
Herbert C. Hoover: 1929-1933
Franklin D. Roosevelt: 1933-1945
Harry S Truman: 1945-1953
Dwight D. Eisenhower: 1953-1961
John F. Kennedy: 1961-1963
Lyndon B. Johnson: 1963-1969
Richard M. Nixon: 1969-1974
Gerald R. Ford: 1974-1977
Jimmy E. Carter: 1977-1981
Ronald W. Reagan: 1981-1989
George H. W. Bush: 1989-1993
William J. Clinton: 1993-

Secretary of War [2]

John W. Weeks, 1921-1925
Dwight F. Davis, 1925-1929
James W. Good, 1929
Patrick J. Hurley, 1929-1933
George H. Dern, 1933-1936
Harry H. Woodring, 1936-1940
Henry L. Stimson, 1940-1945
Robert Porter Patterson, 1945-1947

Secretary of the Interior

Harold L. Ickes, March 4, 1933-February 15, 1946
Julius A. Krug, March 18, 1946-November 30, 1949
Oscar L. Chapman, December 1, 1949-January 20, 1953
Douglas McKay, January 21, 1953-April 15, 1956
Fred A. Seaton, June 8, 1956-January 20, 1961
Stewart L. Udall, January 21, 1961-January 20, 1969
Walter J. Hickel, January 21, 1969-November 25, 1970
Rogers C. B. Morton, January 30, 1971-April 30, 1975
Stanley K. Hathaway, June 13, 1975-October 9, 1975
Thomas S. Kleppe, October 17, 1975-January 20, 1977
Cecil D. Andrus, January 23, 1977-January 20, 1981
James G. Watt, January 21, 1981-November 8, 1983
William C. Clark, November 21, 1983-February 6, 1985
Donald P. Hodel, February 7, 1985-January 20, 1989
Manuel Lujan, Jr., February 3, 1989-January 20, 1993
Bruce Babbitt, January 22, 1993-

Director, National Park Service

Arno B. Cammerer, August 10, 1933-August 9, 1940
Newton Drury, August 20, 1940-March 31, 1951
Arthur B. Demaray, April 1, 1951-December 8, 1951
Conrad L. Wirth, December 9, 1951-January 7, 1964
George B. Hartzog, Jr., January 8, 1964-December 31, 1972
Ronald H. Walker, January 1, 1973-January 3, 1975
Gary E. Everhardt, January 13, 1975-May 27, 1977
William J. Whalen, July 5, 1977-May 13, 1980
Russell E. Dickenson, May 15, 1980-March 3, 1985
William Penn Mott, May 1, 1985-April 15, 1989
James M. Ridenour, April 17, 1989-January 20, 1993
Roger Kennedy, June 1, 1993-March 29, 1997
Robert G. Stanton, August 4, 1997-

Regional Director, National Park Service

Region One Office, Richmond, Virginia [3]
     Thomas J. Allen, June 16, 1944-December 8, 1951
     Elbert Cox, December 9, 1951-July 14, 1955

Region Five/Northeast Regional Office, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania [4]
     Daniel J. Tobin, July 15, 1955-December 31, 1959
     Ronald F. Lee, January 11, 1960-December 30, 1965
     Lemuel A. Garrison, January 2, 1966-July 11, 1970
     Henry G. Schmidt, July 12, 1970-August 22, 1971
     Chester L. Brooks, August 22, 1971-January 5, 1974

Midwest Regional Office, Omaha, Nebraska [5]
     J. Leonard Volz, January 6, 1974-December 1, 1975
     Merrill D. Beal, February 2, 1975-December 2, 1978
     Jimmie L. Dunning, December 3, 1978-July 17, 1983
     Randall R. Pope (Acting), July 18, 1983-December 31, 1983
     Charles H. Odegaard, January 1, 1984-February 14, 1987
     Don H. Castleberry, February 15, 1987-May 1, 1994
     William W. Schenk, May 2, 1994-September 30, 1995

Field Director, National Park Service [6]

Midwest Field Office, Omaha, Nebraska
     William W. Schenk, October 1, 1995-September 30, 1997

Regional Director, National Park Service [7]

Midwest Regional Office, Omaha, Nebraska
     William W. Schenk, October 1, 1997-

Mound City Group / Hopewell Culture Employees

Superintendent, Mound City Group National Monument

(Acting Custodian) William W. LuckettJuly 24-September 24, 1946
(Custodian/Supt.) Clyde B. KingNovember 2, 1946-March 31, 1962
James C. W. ("Bill") RiddleSeptember 4, 1962-June 12, 1965
James W. Coleman, Jr.July 18, 1965-July 2, 1967
George F. SchesventerJuly 30, 1967-March 6, 1971
(General Supt.) William C. BirdsellMarch 7, 1971-July 15, 1975
Fred Fagergren, Jr.October 26, 1975-March 7, 1981
Kenneth E. ApschnikatApril 19, 1981-August 13, 1988
(Acting Supt.) Bonnie M. MurrayAugust 14, 1988-December 3, 1988
William GibsonDecember 4, 1988-May 26, 1992

Superintendent, Hopewell Culture National Historical Park

William GibsonMay 27, 1992-April 15, 1993
Johnny D. NealJune 27, 1993-

Park Archeologist

1961-1965Richard D. Faust
1965-1967Lee H. Hanson, Jr.
1967-1970Nicolas F. Veloz, Jr.
1970-1971Benjamin Morris
1971-1972Robert Costales
1995-1998Bret J. Ruby (term)
1999-Jennifer Pederson

Supervisory Park Ranger (Chief, Interpretation and Resource Management)

1972-1975Robert Holmes
1975-1977Michael S. Bitsko
1977-1987Jerry B. Chilton
1987-1992Harrie Reed Johnson
1992-Robert C. Burgoon

Park Technician

1974-1982Bonnie Meyer Murray
1983-1985John A. Mangimeli

Park Ranger (title change from Park Technician)

1985-1986John A. Mangimeli
1986-1988Jean M. Schaeppi
1988-1995Robert W. Petersen
1995-1999Rebecca R. Jones

Park Ranger Intake

1971-1975George M. Kane
1977-1980Theresa F. Nichols

Maintenance Foreman

1948-1979J. Vernon Acton
1979-1987Jerrold D. Napier
1988-1993Jon H. Casson

Maintenance Worker Supervisor (title change)

1993-Jon H. Casson

Maintenance Worker (permanent appointment)

1969Gerald Monroe
1971-1994Phillip H. Egan
1981-David W. Dere (VRA)
1994Timothy A. Newberry (VRA)
1994-1997James N. Sharps (VRA)
1997-1999Charles A. Henry (reinstatement)

Maintenance Mechanic

1994-Phillip H. Egan

Laborer (Stay-in-School)

1982-1985Douglas A. Wolfe
1986Penny A. McGraw
1987Lana K. Detty
1988-1989Orville Brewster
1989-1990Harry Pierce
1990-1992Everett Lee Anderson
1992-1993Quienton A. Perkins
1993-1994Wendy J. Knisley
1998-Stephen T. Johnson

Maintenance Worker/Laborer (Seasonal appointment)

1962-1971Walter Fraley
1977-1978Joseph D. Anglemyer
1979Joseph D. Anglemyer, Terry L. Leach
1980Terry L. Leach
1981Terry Fry, Joseph D. Anglemyer, Ronald A.

Watkins, David W. Dere
1982Joseph D. Anglemyer
1983-1986Joseph D. Anglemyer
1987Emery Coker, Joseph D. Anglemyer, Ann Lupton,

Jerry Isaac
1988Joseph D. Anglemyer
1991Peggy Ater
1992Peggy Ater, Eldon Smith
1993Timothy Newberry
1994-1995Joseph Johnston
1996Thomas Hagerty, Robert Alexander


1946-1947Louis Lundblad
1948Betty Bateman


1971-1976Virginia Basye Skaggs
1979-1980Shirley Keesee-Lambert
1981-1990Lisa Stanton White
1990-Laura L. Long


1948-1962Margaret Henry
1973 (Summer)Barbara Green
1974 (Summer)Barbara Green
1974-1975Rhonda Hughes
1976-1977Betty Wainscott
1977 (June)Kristy Siberell
1977-1979Shirley Keesee-Lambert

Administrative Aid

1962-1963Sam Peck
1963-1967Delmar Peterson

Administrative Clerk

1967-1969Virginia Basye Skaggs
1969-1973Joan F. Crider
1982-1983Bonnie M. Murray

Administrative Technician

1973-1980Joan F. Crider
1980-1982Shirley Keesee-Lambert
1983-1993Bonnie M. Murray

Administrative Support Specialist (title change)

1993-1994Bonnie M. Murray

Administrative Officer (title change)

1994-Bonnie M. Murray

Seasonal Interpreters

1952Max Baughman
1953Margaret Anderson
1956-1962Richard Painter
1963Richard Painter, Francis Spetnagel
1964-1965Richard Painter, Martin Peterson
1966Richard Painter, Martin Peterson, Joan Thelan
1967David Augsburger, Bill Weaver, Martin Peterson
1968Bob Ward, Martin Peterson, Bill Weaver, Martin Peterson
1969Linda Shreve, Susan Brady, Kathleen Allyn, Pamela Shoemaker
1970Pam Shoemaker, Pamela Gaston, Margie Pulliam, Pamela Ramsey
1971Pam Shoemaker, Pam Ramsey
1972Pam Ramsey, Joe Gothard, Sara Knox
1973Joe Gothard, Terry Allen, Marilyn Kellough
1974Janet Prine, Bob Kline, Joe Gothard
1975Joe Gothard, Bob Kline, Llyn Conrad, (Communications Specialist), Don Floyd
1976Joe Gothard, Carl Roth, Debbie Shoemaker
1977Jim Anderson, Katie Keim, Lynn Boydelatour
1978Jim Anderson, Lynn Boydelatour, Anita Picciano
1979Jim Anderson, Steve Race (Co-Op Ed), Beverly Cooper
1980Jim Anderson, Kathy Albers (Co-Op Ed), Lisa Kutschbach (Co-Op Ed)
1981Jim Anderson, Kathy Albers (Co-Op Ed), Ruth Bartlett
1982Jim Anderson, Brent Devitt, Ruth Bartlett
1983Jim Anderson, Dave Ziegler, Nita Waggoner, Ruth Bartlett
1984Jim Anderson, Jody Newton, Nita Waggoner
1985Jim Anderson, Gayle Stadt, Nita Waggoner
1986Jim Anderson, Gayle Stadt, Misty Jackson
1987Sheila Mays, Jim Anderson, Nita Waggoner, Gayle Stadt, Ken Yeso, Allen Burt
1988Sheila Mays, Paula Potts, John Short, Elizabeth Houserman, Claude Britt
1989Michael Hamilton, Mary Current, John Morrell, Elizabeth Houserman, Sharon Bogner, Claude Britt
1990Mary Current, Pamela Barnes, Elizabeth Houserman, Claude Britt
1991Mary Current, Pamela Barnes, Jody Newton, Claude Britt
1992Mary Current, Michael Hamilton, Claude Britt, Elizabeth Houserman
1993Mary Current, Michael Hamilton, Elizabeth Houserman, Paula Butcher, Jeanette Lamb
1994-1995Mary Current, Paula Butcher
1996Mary Current, Paula Butcher, Deborah Wood

Museum Aids

1994-1995Deborah Wood, William Anderson

Archeology Technician

1995-1996William E. Anderson (term)
1995-1998Jennifer Pederson
1995-Leslie Frazee, Scott Troy, Tori Saneda
1996-Deborah Wood

Biological Technician

1996-Constance Jones


Last Updated: 04-Dec-2000