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JUNE 1959



500 A. D., ca.—Hawaii discovered by Hawaii-loa, Polynesian fisherman-navigator who, tradition says, came from Kahiki (Tahiti?), an island to the south. He made several round trips, bringing with him a large company of retainers.
1100 ca.—After a wave of navigation, intercourse with Tahiti ended.
1300 ca.—According to an ancient chant, mele, Kalaunuiohua, moi of Hawaii, conquered Maui. Moi, in 19th century Hawaiian, signifies the supreme ruler or head chief, now usually termed king.
1500—Piilani, king of Maui. He was succeeded by Lonoapii who in turn was overthrown by his brother Kihapiilani and his brother-in-law, King Umi of the Big Island. Bloody battles stretched from Kauiki to the sands of Waihee.
1555—Possible discovery of Hawaii by Juan Gaetano, Spanish navigator. He prepared a manuscript chart now in the Spanish archives which contains a group of islands in the latitude of Hawaii but whose longitude is 10 degrees too far to the east. What corresponds to Maui is called La Desgradiada, the unfortunate. The largest, most southerly island, which should be the present Hawaii is labelled La Mesa, the table. Three other islands, appearing to be Kahoolawe, Lanai, and Molokai, are called Los Monjes, the monks.
1736—King Kekaulike died and was succeeded by Kamehamehanui.
1737—Alapainui, moi of Hawaii, invaded Maui via Kaupo. He took with him two young princely half-brothers, Kalaniopuu and Keoua. Keoua was father of Kamehameha I. Since Alapainui found his adversary, Kekaulike, dead, he made peace with the nephew, Kamehamehanui. The two joined forces to repel the invader, Kapiiohokalani of Oahu, in bloody, obstinate battles that ended in the rout of the Oahu army at Kawela, Molokai.
1738—At Keawawa, West Maui, Alapanainui and Kamehamehanui decisively defeated Kauhi, the latter's brother and usurper of power.
1750 ca.—The calculated date of the most recent activity of Haleakala, the Keoneoio flow above La Perouse Bay. The flow originated at Kaluaolapa at an elevation of 575 feet, and from vents one mile further northeast at an elevation of 1,550 feet. The method of dating is interesting. In 1841, Rev. Edward Bailey of Wailuku inquired about the eruption and was informed by Hawaiians that it happened at the time of their grandfathers. In 1906, Lorrin A. Thurston was told by a Chinese-Hawaiian cowboy, Charles Ako, that his father-in-law's grandfather at the time of the event was just old enough to carry "two" coconuts 4 or 5 miles from the sea to the upper road at an elevation of 2,000 feet. Since Hawaiians counted coconuts by fours, "two" probably refers to a total of eight nuts. Mr. Bailey was told that a woman and child were trapped by the flow but escaped after it cooled. By 1922, 80 years later, this tale had grown into a neo-myth about a husband and wife with their two children. The mother and her young daughter fled mauka, but were seized by Pele, and turned into the two lava columns that stand beside the vent at Kaluaolapa. The father and son, plunged into the sea and started swimming toward Kahoolawe. Pele cast rocks after them and turned the two to stone. The two rocks, a big and a little one, can be seen today rising out of the sea several hundred feet out from shore as proof of the tale. Mr. Thurston's estimate of the date of the eruption is 1750 while J. F. G. Stokes, Hawaiian ethnologist, favors a later date, possibly 1770.
1754—Kalaniopuu, warlike king of Hawaii, captured the fortress Kauiki and held it successfully for more than 20 years.
1765—Kamehamehanui died and was succeeded by his brother, Kahekili.
1768—Queen Kaahumanu was born at Kauiki. She became the favorite wife of Kamehameha I.
1775—Kalaniopuu was defeated by Kahekili at Kaupo.
1776—Kalaniopuu invaded Maui at Maalaea; his army was annihilated on the sand hills near Wailuku.
1777—Kalaniopuu took Lanai but again was repelled when he tried to invade Maui,
1778, November 26—Captain James Cook, Royal British Navy, discovered Maui.
1781—Kahekili reconquered East Maui. He recaptured the fort at Kauiki by cutting off the water supply. To show contempt, he baked the bodies of the defenders in earth ovens.
1786—Kamehameha I sent an expedition to recapture East Maui. It was defeated at Kipahulu by Kalanikapule, the son of King Kahekili.
1786, May 28—La Perouse visited Maui and camped on Keoneoio lava flow.
1790—Olowalu massacre. The snow, Eleanor, under Captain Simon Metcalf, treacherously opened fire on native boats following a truce made after one white sailor had been murdered. More than a hundred natives were slaughtered.
1790—Conquest of Maui by Kamehameha I after landing at Hana. He decisively defeated Kalanikapule, in the Battle of Iao Valley or Kepaniwai.
1793—Vancouver visited Maui on his second expedition. He tried to bring about an end to the wars and to establish a lasting peace between Maui and Hawaii.
1795—Maui was subdued by Kamehameha I without a battle.
1819—Kamehameha I, king of all Hawaii, died. Abolition of the kapu system by Kamehameha II, incited by his guardian, Queen Kaahumanu.
1823—The Christian mission at Lahaina was founded by Rev. William Richards and A. S. Stewart. On September 16, Queen Keopuolani, a wife of Kamehameha I and a devout Christian, died at Lahaina. She was buried with services by Rev. William Ellis.
1824—At Lahaina, Queen Regent Kaahumanu orally proclaimed a law forbidding desecration of the Sabbath, fighting, murder, and theft.
1825—The English frigate The Blonde anchored off Lahaina with the bodies of King Liholiho (Kamehameha II) and his queen, Kamamalu. They had died from measles while on a visit to London.
1825—The crew from the Whaler Daniel attempted to demolish the home of Rev. Richards, Lahaina.

Sliding Sands Trail
Sliding Sands Trail.

1826—Mosquitoes from Mexico were introduced at Lahaina by the SS Wellington.
1827—The Whaler John Palmer fired on the home of Rev. Richards.
1829—Ascent of Haleakala by a missionary party.
1834—First Hawaiian newspaper Lama Hawaii was published at Lahainaluna Mission School.
1839—An Hawaiian "Bill of Rights" was signed at Lahaina by Kamehameha III. It afforded protection to all people and their property while they conformed to the laws of the kingdom.
1841—Haleakala Crater was visited by Pickering and Breckenridge of the United States Exploring Expedition under Captain John Wilkes, U. S. Navy.
1841-1849—Peak of whaling industry in Hawaii, Lahaina was visited by 596 whalers in 1846.
1850—David Malo, Hawaiian antiquarian and teacher at Lahainaluna School, Lahaina, conducted Rev. William P. Alexander and Curtis Lyons from Kaupo through Haleakala Crater, to Makawao, "a trip never before undertaken by white men."
1876—S. F. Alexander and H. P. Baldwin started construction of the Hamakua Ditch, first big irrigation project in Hawaii.
1890—First pineapples were planted at Haiku.
1893—Overthrow of the monarchy and establishment of the Republic of Hawaii, Queen Liliuokalani was the last reigning sovereign.
1898, August 12—Hawaii was annexed to United States by joint legislation of Congress. President Dole was appointed first governor.
1916—Hawaii National Park was established by Act of Congress on August 1 with Haleakala Crater forming the Section on Maui.
1921—Hawaii National Park was formally opened.
1929, November 11—Establishment of commercial air service between the islands.
1930—First permanent park position (ranger) was established to give continuous service at Haleakala.
1931—First permanent park naturalist was appointed for Hawaii National Park, although temporary, summer interpretive services were started in the late twenties by the employment of Otto Degener, formerly botanist at the University of Hawaii. Dr. Degener, presently writing Book 6 of his "Flora Hawaiiensis," kindly supplied many of the scientific plant names for this guide.
1935-February 23—Dedication ceremonies of Haleakala Road in Hawaii National Park.
1937—Kapalaoa, Paliku, and Holua cabins were constructed.
1941—Haleakala closed to travel for military reasons.
1952-3—Present exhibits were installed in Summit Observation Station.
1958—Permanent naturalist position established for Haleakala.
1959—Hawaii becomes the 50th state in the Union.
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