Grand Teton
Historic Resource Study
NPS Logo

The Dude Wranglers (continued)

By its very nature, the dude business required tracts of undeveloped land, the more pristine the better. Ironically dude wranglers introduced people to Jackson Hole who stayed on and increased development by homesteading public lands in the valley. For example, Owen Wister bought a homestead along the Snake River in 1912, after spending a season at the JY. Struthers Burt claimed responsibility for bringing a score of settlers into Jackson Hole. Some had worked at the Bar BC. Among them were Alfred and Frank Bessette, who came west to work at the Bar BC as a waiter and chef respectively. In 1914, Alfred Bessette homesteaded land south of Timbered Island. The following spring, his brother filed preemption papers on nearby acreage. Foreman and partner Joe LePage took over a relinquishment north of the Bar BC in 1924. Dudes also stayed. Bryant Mears homesteaded the Sun Star Ranch in 1915, now known as the 4 Lazy F. Tucker Bispham, an original Bar BC dude, teamed up with Harold Hammond in 1913 to form the White Grass. Bar BC dudes Eleanor Patterson, "the Countess of Flat Creek," and Lambert Cadwalader bought their own ranches, beginning the trend of affluent people buying ranches to realize their dream of owning a western ranch. Maud Noble was another Bar BC dude, who purchased Menor's Ferry in 1918. Dr. George Woodward established a camp at the outlet of Leigh Lake known as the Bar None or Wildmere. Much has been made of cowboy and dudene romances—perhaps too much. Yet it happened. Frances Mears, a young socialite from Pennsylvania, met wrangler Buster Estes at the Bar BC around 1918 and, much to her family's dismay married him. In the early 1920s they established the STS, a small dude ranch near Menor's Ferry. [32]

costume party
Costume parties, as well as literary discussion groups, provided the well-heeled clientle of the Bar BC with activities not normally associated with a "ranch." Jackson Hole Historical Society and Museum

Dude ranches in Jackson Hole contributed to the economy in a significant way. First, dudes brought money to spend in a cash-poor valley. During the 1920s, the only other important sources of cash were game animals and cattle. Further, the cattle business experienced a depression in these years, which magnified the importance of the dude ranching and tourist-related businesses. Dude ranches employed significant numbers—a larger dude ranch hired as many as 20 to 25 employees, from cabin girls to wranglers. Walt Callahan, a top wrangler, worked at both the JY and the Bar BC. In 1917, the Courier reported homesteaders Jimmy Manges working at the White Grass, while Norm Bladon was employed at the JY. Mr. and Mrs. Ed Price were employed at the Bar BC. The expansion of dude ranches required builders providing another source of wages. In 1917, Charles Fox took a crew to the Bar BC to construct buildings. In 1920, Louis Joy remodeled the Wister cabin at the JY; nearby homesteader Charles Ilse helped with the project, while Frank Waterman hauled logs. Dude ranches also purchased produce from local farms and ranches. In late 1922, the Bar BC bought hay from Roy Nipper and Jake Johnson to feed livestock. John Moulton, who homesteaded on Mormon Row, turned to dairy farming in the 1920s, selling milk, cream, and butter to nearby dude ranches and tourist resorts. [33]

Wrangling dudes became a complex business. Some ranches remained small, such as the Danny Ranch and STS, while others such as the JY, Bar BC, and Crescent Lazy H grew into large outfits. Burt and Carncross learned "that a dude-ranch can be made profitable, because you can run it as an ordinary ranch" with little overhead. They built for 15 dudes in 1912, but found to their dismay that "overhead charges ate up the profits." They expanded the ranch to house 50 dudes in the decade between 1912 and 1922. Burt found they could wrangle 50 dudes with about the same outfit as it took to care for 30. To emphasize the point that dude ranching was a business, the Bar BC incorporated as Bar BC Ranches by 1922. It was the largest operation in the valley, with the upper ranch on the Snake boasting 45 buildings and housing 50 dudes. Located to the south, on the Snake River, was the JO, a boys' camp. On the lower Gros Ventre, Burt and Carncross operated the Lower Bar BC. In addition, they entered a partnership with Hammond and Bispham, and operated the White Grass under the Bar BC Ranches in the 1920s. The owners of the Half Moon, the Karppis and Anita Tarbell, filed articles of incorporation in 1928, issuing $30,000 worth of stock. [34]

Inventories indicated the complexity of the business. According to a 1932 inventory, the JY included more than 40 buildings, including a post office, library and casino. Burt listed:

eighty saddle-ponies, two work teams, ten cows, sixty saddles with their paraphernalia of bridles, blankets, and so on, complete camping outfits for about twenty people, a motor-bus, a smaller car, and an incredible amount of diversified supplies. We must be in a position to replace anything at a moment's notice. I can not tell you how many sheets and blankets and quilts and things like that are stored away. These, I am glad to say, are in charge of a person delegated to keep track of them. [35]

An inventory of the Bear Paw Dude Ranch in 1949 took a full 26 pages and included everything from saddles and tack to furniture and linens, dishes, and kitchen utensils, to items such as a rubber boat, a moose head, and a "rawhide tomyhawk." [36]

Dude ranching made significant economic contributions to the West, but historians rely on general information rather than exact figures. Laurence Borne noted that the dearth of detailed statistics made it impossible to demonstrate conclusively the significance of dude ranching to the economy of a state or region. In March 1925, a Jackson's Hole Courier article, titled "Dude Ranches Grow Popular," reported that a total of 600 dudes vacationed in Jackson Hole in 1924. Jackson Hole dude ranches could house 394 guests in 1927. The Elbo, Flagg Ranch, Jackson Lake Lodge, Sheffield's Teton Lodge, and Leek's Camp could provide lodging for 325 guests. Assuming a ten-week season and 65 guests, Henry Stewart of the JY would earn $43,500, excluding extended pack trips. Assuming a monthly rate of $300, the popular Bar BC would gross $37,500 for a ten week season. Tony Grace, owner of the Danny Ranch, charged a daily rate of $8, which included lodging, meals, and a saddle horse. Assuming 15 dudes stayed at the ranch for ten weeks, the gross in come would total $8,400. At the Double Diamond boys' ranch, Joe Clark and Frank Williams charged a total fee of $800 for three months, including train fare from Philadelphia. A pack trip to Yellowstone cost $50 extra. The potential income of dude ranches suggests that the business contributed significantly to the local economy especially in light of its growth in the 1920s. [37]

The stock market crash of October 29, 1929, crushed the optimistic future projected for dude ranching. Because of a banner season, 1929 became known as the "golden year" of dude ranching. Looking back during the depression, 1929 appeared even more gilded, especially in the spring of 1932, when a large number of businesses failed nationwide. These failures had a ripple effect on tourism and dude ranching, as people put off or cancelled vacations. Dude ranches experienced several fates in this gloomy period—failure, change of ownership, or survival. Those encumbered with large debts were especially vulnerable and some went bankrupt. Inability to pay property taxes drove others under. Some sold out, such as pioneers Dick and Dora Randall, who sold the OTO in 1934. Others weathered the depression and even thrived. Shrewd managers cut staff, activities, and overhead costs. For example, Larry Larom ended extended pack trips from his Valley Ranch west of Cody to Yellowstone and Jackson Hole. [38]

In spite of the depression, dude ranching fared better than many other businesses and industries. Wyoming citizens perceived them as a hedge against hard economic times that had crippled agriculture and coal mining, both mainstays of the state's economy. The Great Depression forced stockmen to convert to dude ranching to bring in extra cash. The Dude Ranchers' Association, formed in 1926, thrived and remained active through the 1930s. Indeed, its promotional activities probably helped sustain the industry. Railroads also provided valuable publicity, especially by publishing booklets and brochures. In 1934, the University of Wyoming began offering a degree in "recreational ranching," offering evidence of the acceptance and stability of dude ranching, even during harsh times. [39]

In Jackson Hole, the experience of dude ranchers mirrors events in the West. Union Pacific brochures indicate stability. About 1927, 20 dude ranches and lodges were listed in the valley. Around 1930, 17 were listed. A subsequent booklet separated dude ranches from other lodging facilities, recording 11 ranches and seven camps or lodges. Yet in 1932, Dick Winger, an agent for the Snake River Land Company, wrote an assessment of the dude ranches in the valley, reporting only the Half Moon booked full for the season and in sound financial shape.

When silver fox fur coats became fashionable in the 1920s, some dude ranchers established fox farms to provide extra income. Harold Hammond set up a fox farm at the White Grass in 1925, selling pelts to guests. John Hogan operated a small dude outfit in "connection with the Snake River Fox Ranch" at the confluence of the Snake River and Buffalo Fork. Nathaniel Burt recalled the putrid odors that emanated from horse carcasses used to feed foxes at Hogan's ranch. At the worst of the depression in 1932, the large main house at Jack Woodman's Flying V burned to the ground. Woodman did not rebuild, but sold out to mountaineers Paul Petzoldt and Gustav Koven in 1935. The depression forced Coulter Huyler to convert his summer retreat, the Bear Paw, to a dude ranch in 1935. [40]

In 1927, the Snake River Land Company formed to buy up lands for park purposes. Funded by John D. Rockefeller Jr., company agents bought out numerous important dude ranches and resorts. They purchased the Elbo, the Danny Ranch, the Triangle X, Hogan's fox farm, and pioneer dude ranches, the JY and Bar BC. John S. Turner continued to operate the Triangle X through a series of short-term leases, while Burt and Irving Corse secured a lifetime estate in exchange for the sale of their ranch. This buy-out reduced the level of dude ranching in Jackson Hole. [41]

Jackson Hole dude ranches influenced the history of this valley tremendously and, in a larger context, this area became a major dude ranching center in the West. Three early dude ranches pioneered the business and led the way for a second wave of dude ranches in the golden age of the 1920s. A third wave grew out of the Great Depression of the 1930s. Each ranch exhibited distinctive characteristics, usually the stamp of its owners, yet each shared common traits that shaped the business as a whole.

The first dude ranch was the JY. At the outlet of Phelps Lake, Louis Joy fled a cash entry on 119 acres in October 1906, taking over a homestead entry filed first by David Spalding in 1903 or 1904. In 1903, Joy had filed a separate desert land entry on 159.75 acres. To prove up on the entry, he cut two main ditches with laterals, and raised oats, barley and timothy on 23 acres. It is doubtful that Joy intended to farm or raise cattle, for Struthers Burt described the ranch as timbered land "absolutely useless for ranching purposes." Rather, Joy set up a dude out fit. He received patents to the two parcels in 1907 and 1908. [42]

Dudes began coming to the JY in 1908 according to most sources. About this time, Struthers Burt approached Joy to buy a half-interest in the ranch. Having no cash, he secured a five-year option. Burt and Joy formed a partnership common to the dude business, merger of Easterner and Westerner. Burt was a Philadelphian educated at Princeton, while Joy though born in the East, "had emigrated to a big Spanish-American ranch in the Southwest" at the age of 18. Since about 1886, he had worked as a cowboy foreman, forest ranger, cook, guide, and sometime professional gambler. For the next three years, Burt learned the craft of wrangling dudes. [43] They began modestly, building two small cabins to house five of Burt's Princeton associates; the next season they expanded their operation to 15 dudes. The next year Burt and Joy took in no fewer than 40 dudes, turning some away. [44]

In 1911, Owen Wister brought his family to the JY for three months. Fanny Kemble Wister described the experience in the preface of Owen Wister Out West; His Journals and Letters. The four Wister children stayed in a small sleeping cabin. Bunks consisted of wooden frames filled with pine boughs and covered with gray blankets. "Every morning a bucket of hot water was brought to the cabin door by a filthy old man who, we thought, had something permanently wrong with his jaw." This man was the roustabout, an indispensable character who hauled hot water and wood to cabins, filled kerosene lamps on demand, and emptied slops from chamberpots if he could be persuaded to do so. Wister learned later that the lumpy jaw turned out to be a wad of tobacco "kept in his mouth in the same place for months." Presumably he bit off a fresh chew occasionally. This may have been the same roustabout who attacked Horace Carncross with an ax. Fanny Wister was more impressed with the old wrangler who "filled us with awe and admiration." The children "hung around him as much as possible, for we knew he was the real thing." The cook was a cockney English woman, who had converted to Mormonism and emigrated to the United States. She left an indelible impression on Wister's daughter, who recalled vividly the cook's "terrible noisy rages" vented at her young daughter—"I'll knock your blooming 'ead against the blooming wall." [45]

Yet, when the season ended, Fanny Wister hated to return to the East. "What—sleep in a real bed again and see trolley cars? How frightful! No more smell of sagebrush, no more Snake River, no more Grand Teton. Why did we have to go back?" In her own way, she summed up the appeal of a dude ranch experience. [46]

In three seasons, the JY outfit had expanded its capacity from five to 40 dudes, demonstrating the potential of the business. In 1911, Struthers Burt fell out with Louis Joy and decided to start his own dude ranch. Burt formed a partnership with Horace Carncross and created the Bar BC in 1912. [47] Meanwhile, Joy continued to operate the JY.

Henry S. A. Stewart of Pittsburgh became enthralled with dude wrangling and leased the JY from Joy in 1916. Four years later, Stewart purchased the ranch along with additional lands and raised cattle on the property. [48] Two personalities associated with the JY were Shadwick (also Chadwick) Hobbs and Dave Spalding. In 1924, Spalding, the original entry-man on the JY, died at the age of 92. He had remained at the ranch after relinquishing his claim to Joy and was buried on the premises. During this period Shad Hobbs, a top wrangler, worked as the foreman at the ranch. [49]

Stewart continued to expand the ranch. In 1927, the JY was the largest dude ranch in the valley, housing 65 guests. Rates were $65 a week, which included food, lodging, and the use of boats and saddle horses. Popular activities included swimming, boating, mountain climbing, fishing, horseback riding, hunting, and camping. Stewart bought a separate ranch to provide fresh vegetables, eggs, milk, and meat and boasted that the ranch had managed to keep the same cook for a decade. For bathing, the ranch provided hot water and tubs or a central bath house. Stewart built a "unique" waterwheel to furnish power for the laundry house. In a concession to the times, the JY offered motor tours of scenic areas and rented automobiles to guests. Stewart also ran a store, selling licenses, camping clothes, candy tobacco, cigarettes, and medicine, an unusual practice for a dude ranch. [50] Around 1930, Stewart reduced the capacity of the ranch to 60 guests but raised the rates to $75 per week. [51]

In 1932, Stewart sold the ranch to the Snake River Land Company for $49,064.03. A company inventory listed 38 buildings at the dude ranch with additional buildings on the "homestead" and the "farm." The more significant buildings included a new casino, a lodge, a new "living room" cabin, 50 x 25 feet, a dining room, a library, a two-story post office, a bathhouse, a large bunkhouse, and 20 dude cabins. The homestead complex consisted of a main cabin, foreman's cabin, barn, granary, and several out buildings. The farmstead included a large chicken house, log pen, vegetable cellar, chicken house and incubator house, and a variety of barns and stables. The inventory indicates that the JY was a complex, self-sufficient operation. The 1932 sale ended dude ranching at the JY. Soon thereafter, the Rockefeller family began using the ranch for a private summer retreat. [52]

The Bar BC, an offshoot of the JY, was established by Struthers Burt and Dr. Horace Carncross. Burt severed his association with the JY after the 1911 season. Over a period of time, Burt perceived Joy "as a sort of financial Blue Beard who inveigled others into intimate business relations and then, when he had derived all the benefit he could from them, got rid of them with infinite subtlety." Burt believed Joy had no intention of making good on the option to buy a half interest in the JY and used Burt's eastern connections to bring dudes to the ranch. In the fall of 1911, Burt set out to find a suitable location for a dude ranch, fired "by a good old-fashioned hatred" for his former partner, possessing "infinitesimal capital"—$2,000—most of it borrowed. His new partner, Dr. Carncross, accompanied him. [53]

During their last two months at the JY, Burt and Carncross would saddle up and ride until evening, inspecting the countryside. Existing ranches were unsuitable, so they decided to take up homesteads and began to survey available public land. After considerable argument, "always with infinite mutual respect and forbearance," they settled on terraced lands along the Snake River east of Timbered Island. The partners considered a number of factors related to stock ranching, among them soils, terrain, prevailing winds, timber for winter shelter of livestock, building material, and firewood, grazing range, and water sources. In addition, scenic beauty, isolation or at least the feeling of it, the availability of fishing and hunting, and points of interest were considered in selecting a site. They even studied sites for a "river wind" to reduce mosquito problems. [54]

Burt and Carncross intended to run the Bar BC as a dude ranch, then hoped to expand into cattle ranching after the dude business was established. Becoming dude wranglers exclusively was not the goal of either man. Carncross was 41 years old in 1912 and well established as a physician. Burt's dream was to be a writer, but rather than reside in New York City, declare himself a writer and hold down a subsidiary job until he established himself, he chose to become a western rancher while he developed his reputation as an author. At the JY, Burt thought the outfit would be devoted primarily to cattle ranching, but found himself wrangling dudes. Looking back in 1922, he wrote "for sixteen years I have been starting other things, only to find myself always in the dude business." [55]

To open by summer, Burt and Carncross boarded in Jackson and attended to a myriad of details over the winter of 1911-1912. They ordered supplies, ranging from building materials and tack to food staples and building logs. They recruited help for the following season such as teamsters, ranch hands, and builders. These tasks completed, they returned east to secure commitments from 15 dudes. [56]

On May 12, 1912, Burt and Carncross established residence on adjacent tracts through the Homestead Act of 1862. Burt staked out a claim on 154.03 acres, while Carncross took up 158.63 acres. The 1862 law required five years of continuous occupation, and farming the land for five years. On Carncross's acreage, improvements included nine log cabins, 320 rods of fences, and 25 acres of oats cultivated by the end of 1916. On Burt's property, by the same year, they constructed a frame laundry building (25 x 12 feet), nine cabins of various sizes, and seven 12 x 14-foot cabins. Other improvements consisted of a 20-foot well, 21 acres of grain, and 800 rods of fence. In addition, each partner filed a desert land entry in 1913, adding a total of 252.72 acres to the ranch. By 1917, the Bar BC comprised more than 600 acres and the home ranch consisted of 26 buildings, capable of accommodating as many as 25 dudes. Burt recorded those first hectic days in 1912, when he and Carncross set up camp at the ranch and scrambled to build a functional outfit. "In short, we had to build a small town in the wilderness, complete and self-sustaining in every detail." [57]

Burt and Carncross put most of their profits back into the ranch. In 1916, they purchased a ranch along the Gros Ventre River near Spring Gulch from John C. Anderson to raise hay and cattle. This ranch became known as the Lower Bar BC. A year later, each partner borrowed $4,600 from the Philadelphia Trust Company, securing it with the ranch. In the summer of 1917, the Courier reported that Charles Fox and a crew had left Jackson to "do some building" at the Bar BC. The operation paid well enough that the men were able to pay 15 percent interest per annum and pay off the loan in 1924. [58]

By 1922, the Bar BC had expanded to 45 buildings. In addition to single and double sleeping cabins, a main house consisted of two dining rooms, a kitchen, two sitting rooms, and two smaller rooms. Other buildings included a blacksmith shop, garage, saddle shed, granary, camp store house, three storage sheds, root cellar, office, ice house, outfit dining room, five bunkhouses, store, laundry, dance hall, and four houses for the owner and foreman. The cattle ranch and a boys' camp added 50 more buildings. There were four partners, three foremen, and around 45 employees. The Bar BC had emerged as a small empire in the valley. [59]

To control the increasingly complex operation, Burt and Carncross formed the Bar BC Ranches. Incorporated under the laws of the State of Delaware, the Burts and Carncross transferred all property to the corporation. New partners joined them, Irving Corse and Joe LePage. Corse came to the Bar BC after the First World War, working his way up from driver to foreman, and finally to full partnership. Joe LePage, a Canadian by birth, migrated west and became a cowboy. He made his way to Jackson Hole from Montana in 1917. A top wrangler, he became a foreman and a partner in a short time. [60] From 1924 through 1928, the White Grass was affiliated with the Bar BC Ranches. In 1924, Bispham and Hammond sold out to the Bar BC Ranches and became partners. They bought back the ranch in 1928. [61]

The Bar BC became a social center and a major employer in the valley. The comings and goings of people affiliated with the ranch were reported regularly in the Courier. In September 1914, the Courier noted the visit of Bar BC "tourists" to Jackson. Even during the winter, residents at the Bar BC hosted social activities such as a dance in February 1916. Felicia Gizycka recalled vividly her arrival at the Bar BC with her mother Eleanor "Cissy" Patterson in 1916. From Victor, they bounced over the pass in a crude ranch wagon. They reached the ranch after dark, soaked by a drenching rainstorm to find the Burts and Carncross hosting a costume party. Katherine Burt introduced herself to Cissy Patterson, saying, "Hello, I'm a cave woman." Gizyka's mother was determined to leave the next day but did not. They spent the summer at the ranch. [62]

Many well-known wranglers worked at the Bar BC at one time or another. Cal Carrington was the foreman until lured away by Cissy Patterson in 1917. Joe LePage became foreman and partner until his death in 1929. Bill Howard began his association with the Bar BC in 1922 and took over the foreman's job after LePage's death. A few wrangled dudes at the Bar BC, then moved on to start their own dude ranches, such as Hammond of the White Grass and Frank Williams of the Double Diamond. Some secured work guiding hunting parties from the Bar BC. One was George Ross, who worked at the ranch for 18 years and reputedly received a tip of $1,300 on one occasion—such a stupendous amount for the times it is difficult to believe. Other Bar BC alumni were Billy Stilson, Walt Callahan, Bill Jump, Jim Budge, and Fred Deyo. [63]

The arrival of dudes each summer created an interesting blend of East and West. The dudes at the Bar BC were affluent, often well educated individuals. The first Bar BC dudes knew Burt through their associations in Philadelphia or Princeton. Among them were Sydney Biddle, Tucker Bispham, Adolph Borie, Abram Poole, David Adler, and George Porter. Nathaniel Burt recalled that "it was this blend of wildness and sophistication, of remoteness and civilization that gave Jackson Hole and especially the Bar BC a special quality." [64]

By the late 1920s, the Bar BC was one of the best known western dude ranches. The unknown contributor to the 1927 Union Pacific brochure believed simplicity characterized the ranch best. "All necessary comforts are provided, but luxuries are neither expected nor desired." Fifty dudes could be accommodated in 32 rooms. The rates were $300 to $310 per month. Like many other dude ranches, the Bar BC management required references from prospective guests. At the end of July 1925, 35 dudes were at the Bar BC and, in 1928, more improvements were built at the ranch. [65]

In the late 1920s, the character of the ranch began to change. Writing was Struthers Burt's first love, and by this time both he and Katherine Burt were popular authors. Burt eased out of active management to devote his efforts to writing. In 1929, he purchased two homesteads along the south side of Pacific Creek and established the Three Rivers Ranch. He formed an association of partners who built cabins on the land as a summer retreat. It was patterned after a dude ranch, except that there were no paying guests. Even a contributor to the Courier sensed the changing times in reporting the arrival of Burt at the Bar BC in July 1927. It seemed like "old times" with Burt at the ranch. Further, the Bar BC held a few bitter memories for the Burts. In 1918, Burt's sister, Jean Burt, swallowed three antiseptic tablets and died one day later. Then, early in 1928, Horace Carncross died at his home in Whitemarsh, Pennsylvania. The death of Carncross ended a close partnership of two men of "opposing qualities." Several months later, Joe LePage died of influenza and pneumonia. Alone at his ranch above the Bar BC, he had grown so sick that he tied a note to the collar of a horse and set it loose to be found by neighbors. Help arrived and transported LePage to Jacksons small hospital, but too late. Bispham and Hammond had bought back the White Grass in 1928, severing their business connections with the Bar BC. This left Burt and Irving Corse as active partners. [66]

In the late 1920s, significant events were taking place that would impact the future of Jackson Hole. Influenced by his experience at wrangling dudes and living in the West, Struthers Burt became a fierce advocate of conservation. Along with a few others in Jackson Hole, he grew very concerned with developments that threatened the frontier and wilderness character of the Teton country. In particular, water reclamation projects and commercial developments associated with the automobile aroused his ire. He was a vocal opponent of Wyoming State Engineer Frank Emerson's proposal to build a dam at the outlet of Jenny Lake, the pristine mountain lake at the foot of the Teton Range. When Burt and Carncross filed their homestead entries in 1912, they were virtually alone. Jimmy Manges had a homestead a mile and a half to the west, while Bill Menor operated his ferry two miles to the south. During and after World War I, new settlers arrived in the area. When Chester Goss and Scott developed the Elbo, Burt wrote to Horace Albright "this speedway down here, the El-Bo Ranch and the south end of Timber Island, not to mention Jenny's Lake, has about sickened me with this neck of the woods." [67] He established contacts with Horace Albright, the superintendent of Yellowstone by 1922, after the two had clashed over the proposed Yellowstone extension of 1919. Burt participated in the July 26, 1923, meeting at the Maud Noble cabin, where Albright formed an alliance with local conservationists to devise a way of saving Jackson Hole from commercial exploitation. For the next six years, Burt found time, in the midst of operating a dude ranch and writing, to work for the creation of a Grand Teton National Park. He and other advocates were rewarded when Congress set aside a 96,000-acre park in 1929.

<<< Previous <<< Contents >>> Next >>>

Last Updated: 24-Jul-2004