ESTABLISHMENT OF THE NATIONAL MONUMENT
1Laws Relating to the National Park Service, Supplement II, May 1944 to January 1963 (Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1963) p. 430; and, Statement for Management Grand Portage National Monument, National Park Service, 1979.
PROVISIONS OF PUBLIC LAW 85-910
HISTORY OF GRAND PORTAGE
ENTER THE MINNESOTA HISTORICAL SOCIETY
9Solon J. Buck, "The Story of Grand Portage," Minnesota History Bulletin 5 (March 1922), pp. 26-7; James W. Buchanan, "Grand Portage: Past and Present," a Plan B Paper, Graduate School, University of Minnesota, Duluth (June 1964), pp. 78-9; Alan R. Woolworth, "Minnesota Historical Society Involvement with Grand Portage, Minnesota, 1922-1976," typewritten, Clippings File, Superintendent's Office, Grand Portage National Monument (hereafter cited as GRPO), Grand Marais, Minnesota, p. 1; Alan R. arid Nancy B. Woolworth, Grand Portage National Monument: An Historical Overview and An Inventory of Its Cultural Resources, Vol. 1, completed August 1982, pp. ix-x; and, Theodore W. Alvard, "The State Convention at Duluth," Minnesota History Bulletin 6 (August to November 1922), p. 345.
11Woolworth, Archeological Excavations at the Northwest Company's Fur Trade Post Grand Portage Minnesota in 1936-1937, By the Minnesota Historical Society (St. Paul: MHS, 1963), pp. 11-12; and, Riley, Grand Portage: Fur Trade Metropolis of the Past p. 29.
THE MHS AND THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
16Alan R. and Nancy L. Woolworth, An Historical Overview and An Inventory of Its Cultural Resources, p. xii, (The University of Minnesota dig was comprised of 14 students and Dr. Eldon Johnson, Associate Professor of Anthropology); and Alan R. Woolworth, Archeological Text Excavations at Grand Portage National Monument, June-September 1961, compiled from the notes of Dr. Eldon Johnson (St. Paul: MHS, 1962), p. ii.
25An Historic Interpretation Program for the State of Minnesota: A Report Submitted to the Legislative Committee on Minnesota Resources By the Minnesota Historical Society (St. Paul: MHS, January 1977), p. 18.
THE NATIONAL PARK SERVICE
6Ron Cockrell, An Interview with Historian Merrill J. Mattes on Scotts Bluff, Agate Fossil Beds, Grand Portage National Monuments and Other Areas (Omaha: NPS, Midwest Regional Office, 1983), pp. 44-6. The interview took place in Littleton, Colorado, on May 25, 1983.
7Acting Assistant Regional Director Swartzlow to Sigurd Olson, memo, July 9, 1951, Archives File, GRPO NM File 1948-52, GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN. The agreement pledged cooperation with "the Tribe and Band on the preservation and use of the lands and historic features constituting the national historic site and to provide technical assistance in executing measures for such preservation and use within the limitations of available appropriations."
The NPS relied heavily upon the MHS for research and advice. Fur trade historian and MHS researcher Dr. Grace Lee Nute provided "valuable suggestions for panel exhibits" in late 1951. See Asst. R.D. John McLaughlin to Harold Cater, MHS Superintendent, letter, December 3, 1951, Clippings File, Book 1Correspondence GRPO NM, GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN.
8"Grand Portage National Historic Site Dedicated," National Parks Magazine (October-December 1951), pp. 141; 150,found in Clippings File, GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN; and Ibid., Book 1Correspondence GRPO NM, Eliot Davis to R.D., memo, December 6, 1960.
12Ibid., "Report of Annual Inspection, Grand Portage National Historic Site, May 1956," pp. 1-3; Alan R. Woolworth, conversation, October 21, 1982. Public pressure demanded that something be done. The bronze plaques which had the U.S. Department of the Interior and the National Park Service written on them prompted this concluding remark: "We [the NPS] are repeatedly asked why we don't do something about the deplorable situation...."
GRAND PORTAGE NATIONAL MONUMENT 1960-1969
13James Hull, "Grand Portage Monument Had Beginnings Back in August 1951," Cook County News-Herald, Grand Marais, MN (28 July 1960), found in Clippings File, GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN.
Transfer of jurisdiction over GRPO changed from Region V (Philadelphia) to Region II (Omaha) on July 1, 1960. The addition of GRPO brought the total number of national monuments in the NPS system to 84.
M.J. Humphrey, President CCHS, conversation, Grand Marais, MN, October 21, 1982.
14Acting Superintendent Stimson to R.D., memo, July 19, 1960, Archives File, GRPO HM File 1960 to date, GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN. The Crawford Log Cabin was built around 1900 by an uncle of local resident Paul Cyrette. It was "used. as the home of the last trading post facility to operate at Grand Portage."
15Davis to R.D., memo, December 6, 1960, pp. 1-5, Clippings File, Book 1CorrespondenceGRPO NM, GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN. To expand the boundaries, Davis wrote, "every Superintendent here should be ready and willing to use every opportunity to do this."
16A Task Force Report on a Proposed Grand Portage Indian Park and the Grand Portage National Monument, Minnesota (Washington: U.S. Department of the Interior, NPS, 1967), pp. 6-7. (Hereafter cited as A Task Force Report).
18Ibid., pp. 6-7; 14, 19. Population of the reservation in 1961 totalled 186 Indians and 30 non-Indians. Many have moved to Duluth and the Twin Cities. Land ownership in total acreage was Grand Portage Band, 23,000; Chippewa Tribe, 9,758; Bureau of Indian Affairs, 79; and individual families, 8,715.
19Bromberg to R.D., Inactive File-Administration, Folder-Superintendent's Monthly Narrative Report, June 1963. The Grand Portage Band asked that only Band members be hired. NPS officials pointed out that Public Law 85-910 stated that preferential employment extended to any qualified member of the Minnesota Chippewa Tribe, not just the Grand Portage Band.
26"Facts and Factors to Consider in Establishing a National Park in MinnesotaStatement by Representative J. William Trygg, February 15, 1968," Clippings File, GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN.
FIRE AT THE GREAT HALL
33Dunning, Gallison, and Lessig to R.D., memo, July 25, 1969, pp. 3, 5, and 7, File-Administration and Management, Folder-Protection, Building Fires and Reports, GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN.
GRAND PORTAGE NATIONAL MONUMENT 1970-1982
35Erwin N. Thompson, Grand Portage National Monument, Great Hall, Historic Structure Report, History Data Section, Office of History and Historic Architecture (Eastern Service Center, NPS, 1970), p. vii.
36Richard S. Tousley, Associate Regional Director, Management and Operations, North Atlantic Regional Office, to Regional Director, Midwest Region, memo, May 3, 1983. On file in the Midwest Regional Office.
39Ibid., p. 2. In the late 1960s, the lot was surrounded by a high chain link fence, a security light installed, and prominent warning signs admonishing visitors against leaving valuables inside their cars were placed near the lot's entrance. Eight cars were entered in 1970 for a loss of $1,042, compared to three cars and $24.50 in 1972.
Another Band concession was for the coffee shop and short order food service, while the Siverston Brothers Fisheries of Duluth had the contract to use the Government dock for trips on the Wenonah to Isle Royale.
41Perry to Pfanz, memo, March 5, 1974, File-Administration and Management, Folder-Annual Reports (1973), p. 3, Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN. In 1979, the hotel employed 132 people, half Indian and half local non-Indians. It contributed $3.33 million to Cook County and $.34 million in purchases, supplies, and services. See Clippings File, Shelley A. McIntire, "Grand Portage News," Cook County News-Herald, Grand Marais (24 April 1980), p. 5, GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN.
42Ibid., p. 1. Energy conservation began in earnest at GRPO when oil-fired furnaces in the Great Hall's basement were eliminated saving 7,000 gallons of fuel oil per year. Additional measures included not heating three trailers, reducing the number of auto trips from Grand Marais to the monument, and lowering office temperatures. Ibid., p. 3.
44Master Plan, pp. 11-2; 14-6. The plan calls for continued archeological expeditions, moving the Isle Royale embarkation point, refurnishing the Great Hall and Kitchen, and construction of NPS personnel residences and an area utility system.
45Acting R.D., Mid-Atlantic Region, to Congressman John Blatnik, letter, June 5, 1974, File-Administration and Management, Folder-Complaints, GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN. The Minnesota Congressman wrote that he was frustrated at what he perceived as the Park Service's "lack of cooperation and commitment" to develop the monument.
46Perry to Acting R.D., memo, January 15, 1975, pp. 1-4, File-Administration and Management, Folder-Annual Reports (1974). Heavy use of the back country campsites and Pigeon shoreline erosion resulted in another relocation of the campsite.
47Acting Superintendent W. Michael Quick to R.D., memo, January 19, 1976, File-Administration and Management, Folder-Annual Reports (1975), pp. 1-4, GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN. Charles Kuralt of CBS-News "On the Road" series visited and filmed Grand Portage as part of his program on the State of Minnesota.
Handicapped access was provided to the Information Center and Kitchen in 1980.
48Miller to R.D., memo, February 28, 1977, p. 6, File Administration and Management, Folder-Annual Reports (1976), GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN. Problems encountered were recruitment and transportation difficulties, staff housing, contract execution, resentment of environmental and educational instructions, discipline, and certain safety restrictions.
56A Magnetic Survey of Fort Charlotte, Grand Portage National Monument conducted via contract with the NPS by Robert Huggins and John W. Weymouth, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln (NPS, 1979), pp. 1-2; and, Bruce A. Jones, Historic Site Archeology at Fort Charlotte, Grand Portage National Monument, Minnesota (Lincoln, NE: NPS, Midwest Archeological Center, 1980), pp. 2, 5, 7, and 28-9.
68Alan R. and Nancy Woolworth, Grand Portage National Monument, An Historical Overview and An Inventory of It Cultural Resources, Vols. I and II (St Paul: MHS, 1982). A preliminary draft was released in 1980.
1Perry to Pfanz, memo, March 5, 1974, p. 1, File-Administration and Management, Folder-Annual Report (1973), GRPO Superintendent's Office, Grand Marais, MN. In some years, very few American Indians apply for the seasonal positions and a concerted recruitment drive is undertaken on the reservation. Presently, seasonal interpreters number seven .
PROBLEMS AND LIMITATIONS
5Anthony L. Andersen, GRPO Superintendent, conversation, October 14, 1982. The congressional member in question is Senator David Durenberger. See Andersen to R.D., memo, September 27, 1982, p. 1, Midwest Regional Office, Omaha, NE.
Last Updated: 27-Jan-2005