Animal Life in the Yosemite
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To convey an adequate idea of the bird life of any given area, enumerations of species are not alone sufficient; the numbers of individuals of each species must also in some way be indicated. The usual terms "abundant," "common," "rare," and the like, are unsatisfactory in that their meaning varies both with the person employing them and with the kinds of birds considered. In the latter regard, the Western Chipping Sparrow and the Western Red-tailed Hawk might both be put down as "common," whereas the sparrow may have been observed in actual numbers ten times those of the hawk.

Counts of individual birds are fairly practicable when made in the breeding season on the basis of some unit of area such as an acre. At that season each adult pair is settled within a particular circumscribed locality, and the male is in song. But as soon as the young are out, and from then on throughout the year until the beginning of the next nesting season, most species of birds are moving about incessantly. Counts of individuals are then very difficult to make and furthermore are likely to be misleading because of their great variation in any small area from hour to hour and from day to day. And so, in our field work in the Yosemite region, we put into effect the following different method.

Instead of using a unit of area, we used a unit of time. Birds were listed, as to species and individuals, per hour of observation. In a general way this record involved area, too. Our censuses were practically all made on foot, and the distance to the right or left at which the observer could see or hear birds did not differ, materially, in different regions. The rate of the observer's travel did, of course, vary some; for example, when climbing a steep trail, or going through chaparral, progress was slower than when hiking straightaway along open ridges. Also, in some places, the greater density of the vegetational cover acted to limit the range of sight. But for each of these adverse features of the method there were certain compensations.

For recording a census, a piece of cardboard and a pencil were carried, the names of the various species of birds jotted down, and their numbers checked, as they came to notice. The presence of no species was assumed; but probabilities were given consideration in making identifications. In cases where birds were seen or heard, but their identity was not established with certainty, provisional names were entered, each followed by a question mark. Occasionally the bird could be identified only as to its general grouping, as "hawk." Species of very close resemblance were sometimes grouped together in a joint entry; for example, the crowned sparrows (Zonotrichia). The plus sign indicated that more were present than the actual number entered: the birds could not be counted with certainty; flocking birds, for instance, frequently could not be counted accurately.

At the close of the day or of the period of observation, we were accustomed to transfer our censuses from the field sheet (more or less scribbled, in lead pencil) to our permanent notebooks. If but few species of birds had been seen, these were entered seriatim with numbers of each observed, and comments; if a goodly census had been secured we entered the results in more formal, tabular style, on special sheets printed for this purpose (fig. 3). In either case, record was kept of exact time involved, approximate distance covered, nature of territory traversed, and weather conditions.

census sheet

Fig. 3. A sample census sheet.

Totals were computed, both of species and individuals. Comparisons of these totals for different parts of the Yosemite region and for different seasons have brought forth some interesting conclusions. Outstanding among these generalizations are the following: The greatest bird population, both summer and winter, is found in the Upper Sonoran Zone. Next come the Lower Sonoran and Canadian zones. The Transition Zone has a fairly large population in summer, but its population drops far down in winter. The Hudsonian has the sparsest summer population, except, of course, for the Alpine-Arctic. The winter population below the snow line consists more largely of seed and berry eaters than of insect feeders; the summer population everywhere contains a predominating proportion of insect-eating birds.

We present below a series of censuses, selected from the more than 250 in our notebooks. The censuses given are chosen to illustrate, first, the nature of the avifauna in various representative parts of the Yosemite section, and, second, the marked changes in bird life taking place in Yosemite Valley from season to season through the year.

The series of censuses given for Yosemite Valley is more complete than for any other station in the section. It begins at the height of the nesting season with two censuses on separate days in two different parts of the Valley, embracing widely different sorts of habitats (associations) and consequently unlike assemblages of birds. The decline of song and general activity at the end of the nesting season is indicated in the census of July 30. That for October 25 shows replacement of the summer visitants by winter invaders. The censuses of December 10 and February 29 show how completely the Valley is deserted by birds with the advent of the midwinter snows; there are scarcely one-fourth as many birds present there in midwinter as in early summer. Return of summer species is already much in evidence in the list made on April 29.

In the census at Mono Lake Post Office on May 31 a 'wave' of migration is indicated in the numbers of species and individuals of warblers seen, which are in excess of what would be present there a month later, in the height of the nesting season. The census on the Big Oak Flat Road in December exhibits the congregation, in a favorable situation, of berry-eating species such as the Townsend Solitaire and Western Bluebird. Had it not been for the berry-laden mistletoe in the golden oaks on the talus slope (pl. 16a) this census in all likelihood would have been no larger than the one taken at the same season on the floor of the Valley.

The census-taker is struck by the variation in his records from hour to hour during the day, irrespective of kind of territory covered and of his own degree of alertness. This fluctuation is due in large part to the fact that there are two daily periods of marked activity on the part of birds, namely, in the early morning, within an hour or so after sunrise, and in the late afternoon, about two hours before sunset. Of these two periods, that in the morning is the most impressive; in other words the observer, by selecting the earlier hours for his census-walk, will make the highest score and also the most representative one. It is quickly apparent that in comparing the enumerations for different days and for different localities allowance should be made for this daily double fluctuation in the visibility and audibility of birds.

It is the earnest recommendation of the authors that observers in a position to do so will get into the habit of taking bird censuses. The method here advocated is a practicable one; we believe it can be adopted to advantage by anyone possessed of a fair acquaintance with bird species. A 'collection' of census records will afford basis for much future satisfaction. On the one hand, is the pleasure of recalling to mind pleasant days afield spent among the most attractive things in nature; and on the other hand is the intellectual enjoyment derived from comparing bird populations in kind and size from place to place and season to season, and from endeavoring to account for the fluctuations which are shown, on the basis of all the factors known to control the birds' existence.

SNELLING, altitude 250 feet, Lower Sonoran Zone, riparian association; January 6, 1915, 9:30 A.M.-12:00 M.; rain the night previous, the morning somewhat cloudy; distance covered about 3 miles, within a mile east of the town.

Pied-billed Grebe1 Song Sparrows (2 subsp.)12+
California Great Blue Heron4 Northwestern Lincoln Sparrow2
Mud-hen1 Sacramento Spurred Towhee8
American Sparrow Hawk2 Northern Brown Towhee4
Black Phoebe6 California Shrike2
Interior California Jay8 Orange-crowned Warbler2
Brewer Blackbird100+ Tule Yellowthroat10
California Linnet10+ Western Mockingbird6
Willow Goldfinch6+ San Joaquin Bewick Wren1
Green-backed Goldfinch4 Western House Wren1
Intermediate White-crowned Sparrow10 California Bush-tit15+
Golden-crowned Sparrow10+ Western Ruby-crowned Kinglet12
Total: species 24, individuals 237+.

SNELLING, 250 feet, Lower Sonoran Zone, riparian association; May 26, 1915, 6:00-9:00 A.M.; warm, sunny; distance covered about 3 miles, close to Merced River, within a mile east of the town.

California Great Blue Heron3 Brewer Blackbird8
Black-crowned Night Heron1 California Linnet50+
Killdeer2 Willow Goldfinch40+
Valley Quail4 Green-backed Goldfinch6
Western Mourning Dove40+ Western Lark Sparrow1
Turkey Vulture1 Western Chipping Sparrow1
Red-bellied Hawk1 Sacramento Spurred Towhee10+
American Sparrow Hawk2+ Northern Brown Towhee7
California Woodpecker2 Pacific Black-headed Grosbeak10
Lewis Woodpecker1 California Blue Grosbeak6
Red-shafted Flicker12+ Lazuli Bunting10+
Western Kingbird10 Barn Swallow4
Ash-throated Flycatcher6+ Western Warbling Vireo1
Black Phoebe6 California Least Vireo4
Western Wood Pewee12+ California Yellow Warbler8+
Traill Flycatcher10+ Tule Yellowthroat8+
Interior California Jay4 Long-tailed Chat6+
Western Crow2 Western Mockingbird1
Bi-colored Red-winged Blackbird87+ San Joaquin Bewick Wren6
Western Meadowlark12+ Russet-backed Thrush2
Bullock Oriole20
Total: species 41, individuals 427+.

PLEASANT VALLEY westward toward Forty-nine Gap and return, 600 to 1100 feet, Upper Sonoran Zone, blue-oak, chaparral and grassland associations; February 27, 1916, 7:30-9:30 A.M., and 10:30 A.M.-12:00 M. (actual census time 3 hours 30 minutes); cloudy, with rain 9:30-11:30; distance covered about 6 miles, all on foot, chiefly along roadways.

Valley Quail1 Sierra Junco50
Turkey Vulture5 Sacramento Spurred Towhee8
Western Red-tailed Hawk1 Northern Brown Towhee15
Nuttall Woodpecker1 California Shrike3
California Woodpecker11 Audubon Warbler2
Red-shafted Flicker4 Hutton Vireo1
Black Phoebe2 California Thrasher1
California Horned Lark33 San Joaquin Bewick Wren10
Blue-fronted Jay1 Plain Titmouse9
Interior California Jay15 Pallid Wren-tit2
Western Meadowlark37 California Bush-tit11
Brewer Blackbird2 Slender-billed Nuthatch7
California Linnet7 Western Ruby-crowned Kinglet1
English Sparrow2 Western Robin5
Western Lark Sparrow10 Western Bluebird42
Golden-crowned and Intermediate sparrows87
Total: species 31, individuals 386.

PLEASANT VALLEY westward to high hill near Forty-nine Gap and return, 600 to 1700 feet, Upper Sonoran Zone, blue-oak, chaparral and grassland associations; May 24, 1915, 7:30 A.M.-12:30 P.M.; the day cloudy, considerable rain the night previous; distance covered about 8 miles.

Killdeer4 Pacific Black-headed Grosbeak6
Valley Quail4 Lazuli Bunting6
Western Mourning Dove30+ Western Tanager10+
Turkey Vulture20+ Cliff Swallow10
Cooper Hawk1 Barn Swallow4
Western Red-tailed Hawk1 Northern Violet-green Swallow20+
Nuttall Woodpecker12+ Phainopepla8+
California Woodpecker10+ California Shrike1
Lewis Woodpecker8+ Cassin Vireo4
Red-shafted Flicker2 California Least Vireo1
Anna Hummingbird1 California Yellow Warbler2
Western Kingbird6 Townsend Warbler4
Ash-throated Flycatcher25+ Warblers (species?)10+
Olive-sided Flycatcher1 Long-tailed Chat3
Western Wood Pewee20+ California Thrasher1
Wright (?) Flycatcher6+ Rock Wren2
Interior California Jay8+ Dotted Cañon Wren2
Western Meadowlark20+ San Joaquin Bewick Wren6+
Bullock Oriole25+ Plain Titmouse30+
Brewer Blackbird20+ California Bush-tit8+
California Linnet40+ Pallid Wren-tit6
Green-backed Goldfinch10 Western Gnatcatcher16+
Western Lark Sparrow20+ Russet-backed Thrush2
Western Chipping Sparrow8 Western Bluebird20+
Northern Brown Towhee4
Total: species 48, individuals 488+.

SMITH CREEK (Dudley), 3000 feet, Transition Zone, riparian, grassland and forest associations; July 21, 1920, 8:10-11:10 A.M.; the day clear, hot; distance travelled about 6 miles on foot, from Dudley northeast over ridge, thence down a cañon to Smith Creek and back up to Dudley.

Mountain Quail11+ Western Lark Sparrow2
Western Mourning Dove3 Sierra Junco1
Modoc Woodpecker1 Sacramento Spurred Towhee4
Willow Woodpecker1 Northern Brown Towhee7
Northern White-headed Woodpecker1 Pacific Black-headed Grosbeak6
California Woodpecker5 Western Tanager8
Red-shafted Flicker6 Western Warbling Vireo5
Anna Hummingbird2 Cassin Vireo1
Black Phoebe3 Hutton Vireo1
Western Wood Pewee13 Black-throated Gray Warbler1
Traill Flycatcher5 Sierra Creeper1
Blue-fronted Jay8 Slender-billed Nuthatch5
Interior California Jay13 Red-breasted Nuthatch1
Western Meadowlark1 California Bush-tit8
California Purple Finch4 Western Gnatcatcher2
California Linnet9 Western Robin5
Green-backed Goldfinch8 Western Bluebird15
Total: species 34, individuals 167+.

EL PORTAL and vicinity, 2000 feet, Upper Sonoran Zone with few Transition Zone elements, riparian, chaparral, and blue-oak and golden-oak associations; April 27, 1916, 7:00-11:40 A.M. (actual census time 4 hours); clear, hot day, little or no wind; distance covered about 5 miles, all on foot, within 2 miles of the settlement.

Valley Quail1 Lazuli Bunting10
Willow (?) Woodpecker3 Northern Violet-green Swallow5
California Woodpecker6 Western Warbling Vireo5
Red-shafted Flicker2 Cassin Vireo3
White-throated Swift14 California Yellow Warbler3
Ash-throated Flycatcher12 Black-throated Gray Warbler3
Blue-fronted Jay1 Dotted Cañon Wren2
Interior California Jay17 San Joaquin Bewick Wren3
Bullock Oriole4 Western House Wren5
California Linnet1 Plain Titmouse4
Green-backed Goldfinch23 California Bush-tit7
Western Chipping Sparrow10 Pallid Wren-tit4
Sacramento Spurred Towhee13 Western Gnatcatcher18
Northern Brown Towhee14 Western Robin4
Pacific Black-headed Grosbeak5
Total: species 29, individuals 202.

YOSEMITE VALLEY, altitude 4000 feet, Transition Zone, chaparral, meadow, forest and riparian associations, May 31, 1915, 2:00-6:00 P.M.; from Sentinel Hotel to LeConte Lodge, then across Stoneman Bridge and along Sequoia Lane, with many zig-zags to likely looking brush clumps or trees, or to run down doubtful songs.

Sharp-shinned Hawk1 Pacific Black-headed Grosbeak12+
Western Belted Kingfisher2 Lazuli Bunting3
Modoc Woodpecker1 Western Tanager8
California Woodpecker4 Northern Violet-green Swallow6+
Red-shafted Flicker2 Western Warbling Vireo15+
White-throated Swift2 Cassin Vireo15+
Calliope Hummingbird2 California Yellow Warbler20+
Western Wood Pewee18+ Audubon Warbler10+
Wright Flycatcher1 Hermit Warbler6+
Traill Flycatcher6 Tolmie Warbler3
Blue-fronted Jay4 Sierra Creeper1
Brewer Blackbird1 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee2
California Purple Finch6 Western Ruby-crowned Kinglet4
Pine Siskin12+ Russet-backed Thrush2
Western Chipping Sparrow16+ Sierra Hermit Thrush1
Sacramento Spurred Towhee4 Western Robin30+
Total: species 32, individuals 220+.

YOSEMITE VALLEY, 4000-4500 feet, Transition Zone, forest, golden-oak and boulder-talus associations; June 3, 1915, 7:00-11:00 A.M.; clear day, windy; distance traveled about 8 miles, all on foot, from old Presidio down nearly to base of El Capitan and return, on Valley floor and up talus to base of cliff.

Band-tailed Pigeon10 Western Warbling Vireo12
California Woodpecker4 Cassin Vireo12
White-throated Swift2 Calaveras Warbler8
Western Wood Pewee12 California Yellow Warbler10
Traill Flycatcher3 Audubon Warbler2
Western Flycatcher1 Hermit Warbler2
Blue-fronted Jay10 Black-throated Gray Warbler4
California Purple Finch4 Tolmie Warbler1
Pine Siskin12 Dotted Cañon Wren2
Western Chipping Sparrow24 Sierra Creeper1
Sierra Junco4 Red-breasted Nuthatch1
Sacramento Spurred Towhee2 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee2
Pacific Black-headed Grosbeak8 Russet-backed Thrush1
Lazuli Bunting2 Sierra Hermit Thrush 2
Western Tanager10 Western Robin18
Total: species 30, individuals 186.

YOSEMITE VALLEY, 4000 feet, Transition Zone, forest, golden-oak, talus and chaparral associations; July 30, 1915, 7:30-10:00 A.M.; along north side of Valley from old Presidio to vicinity of Rocky Point and return; distance traveled about 4 miles.

Band-tailed Pigeon4 Western Tanager2
Red-shafted Flicker1 Western Warbling Vireo3
Western Wood Pewee8 Cassin Vireo2
Western Flycatcher1 Black-throated Gray Warbler5
Blue-fronted Jay2 Dotted Cañon Wren3
California Purple Finch1 Sierra Creeper2
Western Chipping Sparrow12 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee4
Sacramento Spurred Towhee2 Pallid Wren-tit2
Pacific Black-headed Grosbeak2
Total: species 17, individuals 56.

YOSEMITE VALLEY, 4000 feet, Transition Zone, forest, chaparral and riparian associa tions; October 25, 1915, 2:35-5:35 P.M.; afternoon to late duck of evening; weather clear; distance traveled about 6 miles, from old Presidio along north road to Kenneyville, to Camp Curry, to village, to Presidio, then to Ahwahnee footbridge and return.

American Sparrow Hawk1 Audubon Warbler6
California Pigmy Owl3 American Dipper2
Western Belted Kingfisher2 Sierra Creeper2
Willow Woodpecker1 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee1
California Woodpecker6 Western Golden-crowned Kinglet11
Red-shafted Flicker4 Western Ruby-crowned Kinglet1
Blue-fronted Jay12 Hermit Thrush (Alaska?)2
Golden-crowned Sparrow1 Western Robin10
Sierra Junco12 Western Bluebird23
Total: species 18, individuals 100.

YOSEMITE VALLEY, 4000 feet, Transition Zone, chiefly in forest association; December 10, 1914, 7:50 A.M.-12:10 P.M.; eight inches of fresh snow on ground, and snow falling off and on during the morning; trees heavily laden with snow; from village via Camp Curry and Clark Bridge to Mirror Lake and up lower zigzags on Tenaya Lake trail, returning by same route.

California Pigmy Owl1 Sierra Creeper4
Modoc Woodpecker4+ Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee2
Red-shafted Flicker1 Hermit Thrush (Alaska?)1
Blue-fronted Jay1 Western Robin2
Dotted Cañon Wren1 Western Bluebird9+
Total: species 10, individuals 26+.

YOSEMITE VALLEY, 4000 feet, Transition Zone, forest and riparian associations; February 29, 1916, 1:30-3:00 P.M.; about 3 feet of snow on ground; distance covered about 2 miles, west of village in vicinity of Camp Ahwahnee.

Duck1 Red-breasted Nuthatch3
Western Belted Kingfisher1 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee2
Sierra Junco15+ Western Golden-crowned Kinglet25+
American Dipper1 Townsend Solitaire (?)1
Sierra Creeper3
Total: species 9, individuals 52+.

YOSEMITE VALLEY, 4000 feet, Transition Zone, forest, meadow, chaparral and riparian associations; April 29, 1916, 7:10-10:55 A.M. (actual census time 3 hours 30 minutes); a bright day with few thin clouds and slight wind; distance covered 8 miles, from village to Yosemite Falls Camp, to El Capitan bridge, and return to village.

Mountain Quail1 Western Warbling Vireo33
Red-shafted Flicker4 Cassin Vireo29
White-throated Swift1 Calaveras Warbler3
Calliope Hummingbird1 California Yellow Warbler13
Wright (?) Flycatcher5 Audubon Warbler13
Blue-fronted Jay10 Hermit Warbler31
California Purple Finch7 Golden Pileolated Warbler1
Sierra Crossbill (?)2 Sierra Creeper7
Pine Siskin22 Red-breasted Nuthatch3
Western Chipping Sparrow35 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee2
Sierra Junco25 Western Golden-crowned Kinglet3
Sacramento Spurred Towhee6 Western Ruby-crowned Kinglet6
Pacific Black-headed Grosbeak11 Western Robin20
Total: species 26, individuals 294.

CRANE FLAT TO MERCED GROVE BIG TREES, 6000-5500 feet, Canadian and Transition zones, coniferous and oak forest, meadow and riparian associations; June 15, 1915, 7:30-11:00 A.M.; the day clear and hot; distance traveled about 4 miles, in more or less direct course between the two stations but with many short side trips to examine 'unknowns' or to study rare species.

Mountain Quail4 Western Warbling Vireo6
Sierra Grouse1 Cassin Vireo1
Sierra Red-breasted Sapsucker1 California Yellow Warbler8
Red-shafted Flicker1 Audubon Warbler3
Calliope Hummingbird3 Black-throated Gray Warbler5
Olive-sided Flycatcher5 Hermit Warbler3
Western Wood Pewee5 Golden Pileolated Warbler1
Hammond (?) Flycatcher5 Western Winter Wren1
Western Flycatcher1 Sierra Creeper8
Blue-fronted Jay3 Red-breasted Nuthatch4
California Evening Grosbeak2 Pigmy Nuthatch (?)flock
Pine Siskin3+ Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee8
Western Chipping Sparrow10+ Western Ruby-crowned Kinglet5+
Sierra Junco20+ Russet-backed Thrush1
Mariposa Fox Sparrow8 Sierra Hermit Thrush2
Green-tailed Towhee5 Western Robin10+
Western Tanage6
Total: species 33, individuals 149+.

BIG OAK FLAT ROAD below Gentrys, 4500-5700 feet, Transition Zone, golden-oak, talus, yellow-pine, and chaparral associations; December 28, 1914, 9:40 A.M.-1:30 P.M; the day clear, crackling cold, trees covered with frost, snow on ground; distance traveled about 4 miles.

Golden Eagle2 Western Ruby-crowned Kinglet1
Blue-fronted Jay1 Townsend Solitaire42+
Sierra Junco14+ Hermit Thrush (Alaska?)2
Hutton Vireo2 Northern Varied Thrush8+
Dotted Cañon Wren3 Western Bluebird143+
Total: species 10, individuals 218+.

CHINQUAPIN and below, along Indian Creek, 6200 to 4500 feet, Canadian and Transition zones, forest association chiefly; June 11, 1915, 7:30-11:30 A.M.; distance covered about 7 miles, going and returning along different routes.

Mountain Quail6 Western Tanager6
Sharp-shinned Hawk1 Western Warbling Vireo8+
Northern White-headed Woodpecker1 Cassin Vireo1
Calliope Hummingbird1 Calaveras Warbler10+
Olive-sided Flycatcher2 Audubon Warbler2
Western Wood Pewee4 Hermit Warbler5
Wright Flycatcher10+ Golden Pileolated Warbler2
Blue-fronted Jay4+ Sierra Creeper8+
Purple Finch (species?)2 Red-breasted Nuthatch8+
Sierra Junco18 Sierra Hermit Thrush2
Mariposa Fox Sparrow12+ Townsend Solitaire1
Pacific Black-headed Grosbeak2
Total: species 23, individuals 116+.

CHINQUAPIN to MONO MEADOW along "Glacier Point road," 6200-7700 feet, Canadian Zone, forest, riparian and chaparral associations; June 18, 1915, 7:20-10:30 A.M.; distance covered about 8 miles.

Mountain Quail2 Green-tailed Towhee2
Northern White-headed Woodpecker2 Pacific Black-headed Grosbeak1
Northern Pileated Woodpecker2 Western Tanager6
Olive-sided Flycatcher3 Western Warbling Vireo4
Wright Flycatcher10 Audubon Warbler6
Blue-fronted Jay6 Tolmie Warbler2
Cassin Purple Finch4 Golden Pileolated Warbler7
Pine Siskin1 Sierra Creeper2
Western Chipping Sparrow8 Red-breasted Nuthatch4
Sierra Junco30 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee6
Northeastern Lincoln Sparrow8 Western Ruby-crowned Kinglet10
Mariposa Fox Sparrow10 Western Robin12
Total: species 24, individuals 148.

Above YOSEMITE FALLS, 6600-7300 feet, Canadian Zone, chaparral and forest associations; October 30, 1915, 10:20 A.M.-4:20 P.M.; distance traveled about 5 miles, from top of zigzags, along old Snow Flat trail to west branch of Indian Canon, and return.

Cooper Hawk1 Kadiak Fox Sparrow5
Western Red-tailed Hawk2 Sacramento Spurred Towhee1
Modoc Woodpecker1 Red-breasted Nuthatch14
Northern Pileated Woodpecker1 Slender-billed Nuthatch2
Red-shafted Flicker2 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee20
Blue-fronted Jay22 Western Golden-crowned Kinglet3
Clark Nutcracker1 Townsend Solitaire13
California Evening Grosbeak4 Western Robin4
Cassin Purple Finch4 Northern Varied Thrush3
Golden-crowned Sparrow1 Western Bluebird2
Total: species 20, individuals 106.

TIOGA ROAD between Porcupine Flat and Snow Flat, and return, 8100 to 8700 feet, across Canadian-Hudsonian Zone boundary, forest and meadow associations; June 28, 1915, 6:55 A.M. to 1:45 P.M. (actual census time 5 hours 45 minutes); clear, moderately warm, much snow about, covering road in places; distance covered about 6 miles, by two observers jointly.

Mountain Quail4 Mariposa Fox Sparrow5
Sierra Grouse2 Green-tailed Towhee2
Modoc Woodpecker1 Western Tanager6
Williamson Sapsucker4 Western Warbling Vireo7
Red-shafted Flicker1 Audubon Warbler9
Olive-sided Flycatcher3 Golden Pileolated Warbler3
Western Wood Pewee8 Sierra Creeper3
Blue-fronted Jay5 Red-breasted Nuthatch8
Clark Nutcracker4 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee9
Cassin Purple Finch3 Western Golden-crowned Kinglet7
Pine Siskin18 Western Ruby-crowned Kinglet14
Western Chipping Sparrow9 Townsend Solitaire1
Sierra Junco12 Sierra Hermit Thrush9
Northeastern Lincoln Sparrow1 Western Robin6
Total: species 28, individuals 164.

MERCED LAKE, 7500 feet, Canadian Zone, forest and riparian associations; August 20, 1915, 8:00-10:30 A.M.; distance traveled about 2 miles, all within one mile of upper end of lake.

Red-shafted Flicker1 Cassin Vireo2
Hammond Flycatcher2 Calaveras Warbler2
Blue-fronted Jay2 Audubon Warbler2
Sierra Junco8+ Red-breasted Nuthatch2
Mariposa Fox Sparrow1 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee4
Western Warbling Vireo2 Western Ruby-crowned Kinglet2
Total: species 12, individuals 30+.

VOGELSANG LAKE to Evelyn Lake and return, via Fletcher Creek, 10,350 feet, Hudsonian Zone, rock-slide, riparian and white-bark pine associations; September 4, 1915, 7:30 A.M.-2:30 P.M. (but actual census time 4 hours); heavy frost in morning, ice on quiet pools; distance traveled about 5 miles.

Western Mourning Dove1 Lutescent Warbler1
Prairie Falcon1 Audubon Warbler14
Blue-fronted Jay1 American Dipper3
Clark Nutcracker7 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee4
Hudsonian White-crowned Sparrow7+ Western Gnatcatcher1
Sierra Junco10
Total: species 11, individuals 50+.

GLEN AULIN, 7700 feet, Hudsonian-Canadian Zone boundary, riparian and forest associations; September 30, 1915, 9:15 A.M.-12:15 P.M.; clear, moderately warm in sunlight, west wind; distance covered about 4 miles, in territory northeast of the Glen.

Western Belted Kingfisher1 Audubon Warbler8
Red-shafted Flicker4 American Dipper1
Blue-fronted Jay3 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee24
Clark Nutcracker5 Townsend Solitaire23
Sierra Junco15+ Western Robin2
Total: species 10, individuals 86+.

TUOLUMNE MEADOWS, 8600 feet, Hudsonian Zone, forest, riparian and meadow associations; July 7, 1915, 8:00-10:00, 11:00-11:45 A.M.; clear, sunny, warm; distance traveled about 4 miles, chiefly along road on south side of meadows.

Spotted Sandpiper3 Sierra Junco11
Killdeer2 Green-tailed Towhee (?)1
Pacific Nighthawk2 Audubon Warbler3
Western Wood Pewee8 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee2
Cassin Purple Finch4 Western Ruby-crowned Kinglet3
Pine Siskin11 Sierra Hermit Thrush1
Hudsonian White-crowned Sparrow11 Western Robin12
Western Chipping Sparrow2 Mountain Bluebird4
Total: species 16, individuals 80.

YOUNG LAKE (near Conness Mountain) to Tuolumne Meadows, 10,000-8600 feet, Hudsonian Zone, forest, meadow and rock-slide associations; 8:30 A.M.-12:30 P.M., July 9, 1915; clear, hot, slight westerly wind; distance covered about 7 miles.

Golden Eagle1 Sierra Junco18
Western Wood Pewee4 Audubon Warbler4
Wright (?) Flycatcher1 Rock Wren4
Clark Nutcracker7 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee8
Cassin Purple Finch12 Western Ruby-crowned Kinglet3
Pine Siskin10 Sierra Hermit Thrush4
Hudsonian White-crowned Sparrow1 Western Robin4
Western Chipping Sparrow1 Mountain Bluebird5
Total: species 16, individuals 87.

WARREN FORK OF LEEVINING CREEK, 9200-11,000 feet, upper part of Hudsonian Zone, open forest and cliff associations, chiefly; September 26, 1915, 7:10 A.M.-2:30 P.M.; after slight snowstorm on September 25, partially clear day; distance covered about 10 miles, from camp in canon up onto Tioga Crest, thence around head of cañon to southwest slope of Warren Mountain, and return.

Sierra Grouse8+ Cassin Purple Finch11+
Hawk (unidentified)1 Sierra Nevada Rosy Finch16
Owl (probably Horned)1 Sierra Junco59+
Modoc Woodpecker1 American Pipit2
Williamson Sapsucker2 American Dipper2
Red-shafted Flicker3 Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee21+
Clark Nutcracker45+ Mountain Bluebird11
Total: species 14, individuals 183+.

FARRINGTON RANCH to Walker Lake and return, 6600-8000 feet, Transition and Canadian zones, meadow, riparian and sagebrush associations; May 9, 1916, 2:00-7:00 P.M. strong west wind; distance traveled about 12 miles, returning through sagebrush on ridge adjacent to Williams Butte.

California Gull1 Western Vesper Sparrow2
Mountain Quail1 Nevada Savannah Sparrow8
Sierra Grouse3 Hudsonian White-crowned Sparrow5
Western Mourning Dove16 Brewer Sparrow2
American Sparrow Hawk1 Sierra Junco4
Long-eared Owl1 Modoc Song Sparrow2
Red-shafted Flicker3 Mono Fox Sparrow1
Lewis Woodpecker2 Green-tailed Towhee1
Traill (?) Flycatcher1 Western Tanager1
Black-billed Magpie2 Audubon Warbler4
Blue-fronted Jay1 Alaska Pileolated Warbler1
Clark Nutcracker6 Western House Wren1
Nevada Red-winged Blackbird25 Western Robin13
Western Meadowlark7 Mountain Bluebird4
Total: species 28, individuals 119.

FARRINGTON RANCH (near Mono Lake) to MONO CRATERS and June Lake, and return; Transition and Canadian zones, sagebrush, Jeffrey-pine and meadow associations; September 17, 1915, 7:50 A.M.-6:50 P.M.; distance covered about 25 miles, on horseback.

Mud-hen100+ Intermediate White-crowned Sparrow3+
Marsh Hawk1 Brewer Sparrow107+
Large Hawk (Red-tailed?)1 Small sparrows (Spisella)3
American Sparrow Hawk1 Nevada Sage Sparrow10
Red-shafted Flicker1 Green-tailed Towhee12
Say Phoebe1 Audubon Warbler4
Dusky Horned Lark14+ Sage Thrasher7
Clark Nutcracker18+ Sierra Creeper1
Piñon Jay51+ Slender-billed Nuthatch9+
Western Meadowlark1 Pigmy Nuthatch1+
Brewer Blackbird106+ Short-tailed Mountain Chickadee11+
California Linnet6 Mountain Bluebird1
Western Vesper Sparrow8+
Total: species 25, individuals 478+.

MONO LAKE POST OFFICE and vicinity, Transition Zone, willow-cottonwood, meadow and sagebrush associations; May 31, 1916, 7:00 A.M.-12:00 P.M.; weather bright and warm; distance traveled about 2-1/2 miles, chiefly along lake shore.

American Eared Grebe50 Modoc Song Sparrow13
California Gull13 Green-tailed Towhee2
Black-chinned Hummingbird1 Pacific Black-headed Grosbeak3
Western Kingbird2 Lazuli Bunting1
Western Wood Pewee14 Rocky Mountain Orange-crowned Warbler4
Traill Flycatcher14 Yellow Warbler34
Nevada Cowbird3 Townsend Warbler2
Nevada Red-winged Blackbird22 Tolmie Warbler4
Western Meadowlark6 Western Yellowthroat3
Brewer Blackbird16 Pileolated Warbler57
Nevada Savannah Sparrow1 Western House Wren3
Western Lark Sparrow1 Western Robin13
Hudsonian White-crowned Sparrow4 Mountain Bluebird5
Brewer Sparrow2
Total: species 27, individuals 293.


Animal Life in the Yosemite
©1924, University of California Press
Museum of Vertebrate Zoology

grinnell/census.htm — 19-Jan-2006