The 5th Army Corps During the Gettysburg Campaign
On February 8, 1880, one chapter in the history of
the Fifth Corps, Army of the Potomac, came to a close. Colonel George
Sykes, former Major General of Volunteers and commander of the Fifth Corps at
Gettysburg, died at his post at Fort Brown, Texas, of cancer. He was 57.
The U. S. Congress appropriated $1,000 for the removal of his remains to
West Point. Among the subscribers to a memorial fund were Abner
Doubleday, Henry Hunt, George Gordon Meade and Henry Slocum. On a
monument of New England granite was engraved a Maltese Cross, the symbol
of the Fifth Corps, and the words "Honor-Duty-Courage"; a fitting
tribute to not only George Sykes but to the troops he had the honor to
lead at Gettysburg. 
George Sykes was born on October 9, 1822, at Dover,
Delaware. He graduated from West Point in 1842 and was able to count
among his classmates such future generals as William S. Rosecrans, James
Longstreet, Lafayette McLaws, and his roommate, D. H. Hill. He was
assigned to the Third U. S. Infantry and saw service in the Florida War
(1842) and in the Mexican War. He fought at the battles of Monterey,
Vera Cruz, Cerro Gordo, Contreras and Charubusco. Sykes was brevetted a
captain for gallant and meritorious conduct in the battle of Cerro
Known as "Tardy George" to his West Point classmates,
it has been noted that this was more of a mental tardiness than a
physical one. D. H. Hill, a future Confederate general and Sykes'
roommate, stated that Sykes was "a man admired by all for his honor,
courage, and frankness, and peculiarly endeared to me by his social
On May 14, 1861, Sykes was promoted to major of the
Fourteenth U. S. Infantry and led the battalion of Regulars (eight
companies from three regiments) at the battle of First Bull Run. As more
regular army units reported to Washington, Sykes' command grew into two
brigades of ten regiments and became known as the Regular Division. On
September 28, 1861, Sykes was appointed a brigadier general of
On March 8, 1862, President Abraham Lincoln ordered
the units of the Army of the Potomac, under Major General George B.
McClellan, to be organized into four army corps. A fifth corps was to be
commanded by Major General Nathaniel P. Banks, but this corps never
operated with the Army of the Potomac and was disbanded on April 4,
1862, and merged with the Department of the Shenandoah. Sykes'
command, known as the Infantry Reserve, was not
initially assigned to a corps. 
On May 18, 1862, General McClellan authorized the
creation of the Fifth Provisional Corps. This order was confirmed by the
War Department when the term "Provisional" was dropped. The Fifth Corps,
under Major General Fitz-John Porter, consisted of two divisions of
three brigades each. The First Division consisted of Porter's old
division taken from the Third Corps. The Second Division, under George
Sykes, contained two brigades of regular infantry and one brigade of
volunteer troops commanded by Colonel Gouverneur K. Warren. The Second
Division artillery, consisting of two batteries, was commanded by
Captain Stephen H. Weed. 
At this time, there were several officers already
serving with the Corps, besides George Sykes, who later played key roles
in the history of the Fifth Corps at Gettysburg.
The Second Brigade of the First Division was
commanded by Charles Griffin. Griffin, born in Granville, Ohio, on
December 18, 1825, was an 1847 graduate of West Point. He was assigned
to the Fourth U. S. Artillery and took part in the march to Pueblo,
Mexico, but missed seeing action due to illness. He served on garrison
and frontier duty with the Second Artillery until assigned as an
Assistant Instructor of Artillery at West Point in September, 1860. He
was directed to organize a light battery company from the enlisted
personnel assigned to the Academy. At first known as the West Point
Battery, it was redesignated as Battery D, Fifth U. S. Artillery and was
led by Griffin at the First Battle of Bull Run. Griffin was appointed a
brigadier general of volunteers on June 9, 1862. Griffin was described
as being "arrogant, self-confident, often perilously near to
insubordinate" and "more considerate of his subordinates than of his
superiors," but "stern in his sense of duty." 
The 18th Massachusetts of Griffin's brigade was
commanded by 61-year old Colonel James Barnes. Barnes, an 1829 graduate
of West Point (along with Robert B. Lee) stayed at the Academy as an
Assistant Teacher of French until August of 1830. He was stationed at
Charleston, South Carolina, with the Fourth U. S. Artillery, during the
Nullification Crises of 1832. He returned to West Point as an Assistant
Instructor of Infantry Tactics. He resigned in 1836 to begin a
successful career as an engineer and built several railroads between
1852 and 1857. 
The command of the Third Brigade, First Division went
to Brigadier General Daniel Butterfield. Born in Utica, New York, in
1831, he graduated from Union College in 1849. He served as
superintendent of the eastern division of the American Express Company.
He joined the 71st New York Militia as a captain and later became
colonel of the 12th New York. On September 7, 1861, he was appointed a
brigadier general of volunteers and assigned to the command of the Third
Colonel Gouverneur K. Warren, Fifth New York,
commanded the Third Brigade in the Second Division. Warren, born at Cold
Spring, New York, across the river from the academy, graduated from West
Point in 1850 and was assigned to the Topographical Engineers. His major
work, with Captain Andrew A. Humphreys, was in compiling the general map
and reports of the Pacific Railroad Explorations in 1854. He was also
involved in preparing maps and reports on both the Dakota and Nebraska
Territories. He served as an assistant of mathematics at West Point from
1859 to 1861. On May 14, 1861 he was named lieutenant colonel of the 5th
New York, and on August 31 was named colonel of the regiment. He was
placed in command of the Third Brigade on May 24, 1862. 
Stephen H. Weed, born in 1831 at Potsdam, New York,
was an 1854 graduate of West Point. Other, soon to be well-known
graduates, included Oliver O. Howard and J.E.B. Stuart. Weed, assigned
to the Fourth U. S. Artillery, fought against the Seminole Indians in
Florida (1858) and took part in the Utah Expedition (1858-1861). He was
promoted to captain in the Fifth U. S. Artillery on May 14, 1861. 
No history of the Fifth Corps, no matter how brief,
would be complete without Frederick T. Locke. At the age of 34, Locke
had enrolled on April 19, 1861 in the 12th New York Militia for three
months. He was mustered in as Adjutant, May 2, 1861, and detached as
brigade major and assistant adjutant-general of the 8th Brigade at
Martinsburg, Virginia (now West Virginia), on July 14. He was mustered
out with his regiment on August 5. Locke was reappointed as an assistant
adjutant-general with the rank of captain and assigned to duty as the
assistant adjutant-general, Fifth Corps, with the temporary rank of
lieutenant colonel on August 20, 1862. Colonel Locke held this position
with the Fifth Corps until he was relieved on August 1, 1865, and
mustered out as a captain on September 19, 1865. He was awarded the
brevet of colonel of volunteers (August 1, 1864) for brave, constant,
and efficient service in the battles and marches of the campaign and
brevetted a brigadier general of volunteers (to date from April 1, 1865)
Frederick Locke for gallant and meritorious service at the battle of
Five Forks, Virginia. 
On June 12 and 13, 1862, George McCall's division of
Pennsylvania Reserves (9500 strong) was temporarily detached from the
First Corps, Department of the Rappahannock, and on June 18 was assigned
as the Third Division of the Fifth Corps. Two of McCall's brigade
commanders were John F. Reynolds and George Gordon Meade. On May 31,
prior to McCall's joining, the Fifth Corps reported 17,546 present for
During the Seven Days' battles, June 26 to July 1,
the Fifth Corps suffered 7,601 casualties, accounting for half the total
casualties in the Army of the Potomac. The Pennsylvania Reserves were
detached and returned to the First Corps about August 20. At Second Bull
Run, Griffin's brigade was stationed at Centerville and was not present
on the battlefield. The Fifth Corps, which numbered about 6500 on the
field, lost an additional 2000. 
On September 26, 1892, Daniel Butterfield received a
Medal of Honor for action at Gaines' Mill on June 27, 1862, for
distinguished gallantry where he "seized the colors of the 83d
Pennsylvania Infantry Volunteers at a critical moment, and, under a
galling fire of the enemy encouraged the depleted ranks to renewed
exertion." Also at Gaines' Mills, Colonel Warren was wounded and Colonel
J. W. McLane, of the 83rd Pennsylvania, was killed in action. McLane was
succeeded in command by Lieutenant Colonel Strong Vincent who had been
stricken with malaria before the battle and did not rejoin the regiment
until Fredericksburg. 
At Antietam on September 17, 1862, the Fifth Corps
was in reserve and only lightly engaged until late in the day. The total
loss to the Corps during the Maryland Campaign was 472 casualties. On
September 18, a new Third Division was added to the Corps. This
division, made up mostly of nine-month units, was commanded by Brigadier
General Andrew A. Humphreys. 
Humphreys, born in 1810 in Philadelphia, graduated
from West Point in 1831. Although initially assigned to the Second U. S.
Artillery, Humphreys spent most of his career with the engineers. He
resigned in 1836 and served as a civil engineer for the U. S. Army. In
1838 he was reappointed to the Topographical Engineers. In 1854 he was
directed by the Secretary of War to take charge of the surveys, ordered
by Congress, "to ascertain the most practicable and economical route for
a railway from the Mississippi River to the Pacific Ocean." He served as
Chief Topographical Engineer, Army of the Potomac, March to August 1862,
and was appointed a brigadier general of volunteers on April 28, 1862.
By Presidential Order (September 5, 1862), Major
General Fitz-John Porter was relieved of command of the Fifth Corps on
November 5 and Charles Griffin was relieved of command of the Second
Brigade, First Division "until the charges against them can be
investigated by a court of inquiry." The charges stemmed from their
reported actions, or inactions, at the battle of Second Bull Run and
were preferred by Major General John Pope. Porter was court-martialed,
found guilty and cashiered from the U. S. Army. Although not "tried and
acquitted," Griffin was restored to duty. Butterfield, Griffin, Locke,
and Sykes were all called to give testimony during Porter's
On November 12, Major General Joseph Hooker assumed
command of the Fifth Corps. Four days later Hooker was placed in command
of the new Center Grand Division and Daniel Butterfield assumed command
of the Corps. The Fifth Corps crossed the Rappahannock River at
Fredericksburg at about 3:00 p.m. on December 13, preparatory to
attacking the enemy's works. However, "the attack was made against
positions so advantageous and strong to the enemy that it failed." The
troops held some advance positions until December 15 and 16, sustaining
over 2000 casualties. Warren had been given the duty "of arranging a
line of earthwork defenses,...battery epaulements and rifle-pits,
connecting with brick houses and walls, intended to be loop-holed, and
barracading all the streets..." 
On November 17, Butterfield recommended Stephen H.
Weed and Strong Vincent for promotion to brigadier general of volunteers
"for gallantry and good services in the attack of December 13."
Butterfield added that Weed "seeks the post of honor and danger on the
field" and by his "judgement, energy, and bravery,...had proven his
capacity for the promotion." Vincent had long served under Butterfield
and "has by gallantry and devotion to duty richly merited promotion."
In the weeks following Fredericksburg several changes
took place in the command structure of the Fifth Corps. On December 24,
Butterfield was relieved of corps command by Major General George Gordon
Meade and on January 29, 1863, Butterfield assumed the duties of Chief
of Staff, Army of the Potomac, under Major General Joseph Hooker. Meade
also commanded the Center Grand Division until February 5, when the
grand divisions were abolished. During this time, George Sykes had
assumed temporary command of the Corps. On February 5, General Warren
was named Chief Topographical Engineer for the Army of the Potomac and
Colonel Patrick O'Rorke, 140th New York, assumed command of the Third
Brigade, Second Division. On April 19, Brigadier General Romeyn B. Ayres
was relieved from command of the Artillery Reserve (which he had
commanded for six days) and assumed command of the First Brigade, Second
Romeyn B. Ayres, born in Montgomery County, New York,
in 1825, graduated from West Point in 1847 (in the same class as Charles
Griffin). He served with the Fifth U. S. Artillery at Pueblo and the
City of Mexico. During the pre-war period he performed routine garrison
duties at various posts including the Artillery School of Practice at
Fort Monroe, Virginia. He was promoted to captain in the Fifth U. S.
Artillery on May 14, 1861, and served as Chief of Artillery of Smith's
Division (October 1861 to November 1862) and as Chief of Artillery of
the Sixth Corps. Ayres was "a tall man of distinguished presence, erect
and soldierly," "somewhat vain of his appearance and meticulous as to
dress," but nonetheless, an "energitic, determined, hard-fighting
commander." Since the War Department had decided that the army had
enough high ranking artillery officers, the only way for an artillerist,
to gain high rank was to transfer to another branch. As a result, the
artillery lost many fine officers to Romeyn B. Ayres the infantry. 
On March 21, 1863, a circular by General Hooker
announced the creation of corps badges. This was for "the purpose of
ready recognition of corps and divisions in this army and to prevent
injustice by reports of straggling and misconduct through mistake as to
its organization." Each division of a corps was to be designated by a
different color: red for the First, white for the Second, and blue for
the Third. The Fifth Corps was to be represented by a Maltese Cross. 
On May 1, 1863, Sykes' Division was the first to meet
Confederate resistance during the Chancellorsville Campaign. When Sykes
found the enemy in force and threatening to outflank him, he reported
this "to the major-general commanding the army, and by him was ordered
to withdraw." The rest of the Fifth Corps was also ordered to assume the
defensive. In his official report, Meade noted that Sykes' advance on
May 1 "was a brilliant operation, adding to the already well-earned
reputation of that gallant body of soldiers." He also reported that
Griffin's Division "proved by their steadiness and coolness that this
division only wanted a fair opportunity to show that the laurels
acquired on so many previous fields were still fresh and undimmed."
Because they were lightly engaged, the Fifth Corps only suffered about
700 casualties. 
By the end of May, the Corps lost, by muster-out,
eleven regiments. Six of these regiments came from Humphreys Third
Division. The remaining two regiments of the division (91st and 155th
Pennsylvania) were transferred to the Third Brigade, Second Division (to
replace the two regiments this brigade lost by muster-out), and the
Third Division was discontinued. General Humphreys was transferred to
the command of the Second Division, Third Corps. Charles Griffin went on
sick leave beginning May 15, and James Barnes assumed temporary command
of the First Division. On June 6, Captain Stephen H. Weed, commanding
the Second Division Artillery Brigade, was promoted to brigadier general
of volunteers and on June 13 relieved Colonel O'Rorke as commander of
the Third Brigade, Second Division. 
At the start of the Gettysburg Campaign, the Fifth
Corps would be composed of battle-tested leaders and veteran soldiers.
Many of these men had been associated with the Corps from the beginning.
It was time to see if the honor, duty and courage of the Maltese Cross
could stop General Robert E. Lee and his Army of Northern Virginia.
By May 25, the Fifth Corps was encamped along the
Rappahannock River, near Fredericksburg, from Potomac Creek, near High
Bridge, to the head of Clairburn Run, near the Telegraph Road where the
encampments of the First Division were also located. At 10:45 a.m. Meade
was ordered to send a division to relieve the cavalry pickets holding
Banks', Richards', Kelly's, and United States Fords and to "throw up
such defenses as will repel any attempt of the enemy to effect a
crossing" at the fords. 
Meade entrusted this task to the First Division,
under James Barnes. Barnes was to move without delay and take a position
covering the fords on the Rappahannock River and to make "such
dispositions as will enable you to check, and, if practicable, prevent
the crossing of that river by any body of the enemy's troops." Meade
gave Barnes very specific instructions on where and how to post his
division. He also instructed Barnes to take entrenching tools from the
supply wagons and direct his subordinate officers "immediately prepare
defenses, such as rifle-pits and epaulements for batteries, and to every
disposition to check, retard, and prevent the crossing of the river."
After completing an inspection of his lines on May
31, Meade reported that the river was very low and could be crossed at
numerous places by small bodies of troops. Barnes had to weaken his
forces at the main crossing points in order to try to cover all the
possible crossings. Meade also felt that Lee could not be stopped if he
was determined to force a passage. In a second message to headquarters,
Meade requested authority to move Sykes' division, plus three batteries
of 12-pound Napoleons, to help guard the fords. It is not clear why
Meade needed permission to move his Second Division, but headquarters
deemed it not advisible to move Sykes at this time. The difficulty of
supplying the artillery also made it "inexpedient" to send it to the
fords. Headquarters further "presumed that the forces now on duty will
be vigilant in the performance of their duties. It will be active in
obtaining and sending on information, so that any movements of the enemy
may be promptly reported to headquarters." 
While Meade and company were busy on the Rappahannock
River, events were transpiring on the Potomac River at Alexandria,
Virginia, that would eventually have an impact on the Fifth Corps during
the campaign. On June 1, Brigadier General Samuel W. Crawford assumed
command of the First and Third Brigades of the Pennsylvania Reserves
which were posted at Fairfax Station and Upton's Hill. 
Samuel W. Crawford, born in 1829, was the only Civil
War general born in Franklin County, Pennsylvania, only about 25 miles
west of Gettysburg. After graduating from the University of Pennsylvania
in 1846, he attended the university's medical school and received his
degree in 1850. On March 10, 1851, Crawford accepted an appointment as
an assistant surgeon in the army and served at various frontier posts
until 1860 when he was stationed at Fort Moultre in Charleston, South
Carolina. After Fort Sumter, Crawford was appointed a major in the 14th
U. S. Infantry (May 14, 1861). Promoted to brigadier general of
volunteers on April 25, 1862, he saw action in the Shenandoah Valley and
commanded the First Brigade, First Division, Twelfth Corps at Antietam.
Crawford's commander, Alpheus S. Williams, reported that Crawford had
been wounded "but not so severely as to oblige him to leave the field."
However, shorty after dark Crawford, "exhausted from the loss of blood
and state of my wound," reported his condition and left the field. His
wound kept him from the field until assigned to the Pennsylvania
On June 4, Sykes was ordered to move, without delay,
to positions on the Rappahannock. He was to post one brigade at Banks'
Ford and one brigade at United States Ford. Sykes, with his
subordinates, was directed to arrange "a plan of operations in case the
enemy should force a passage at any point" and to have his troops
"prepared for immediate movement." 
The pace of activity along the Rappahannock began to
increase as the month of June advanced. On June 6, Colonel Strong
Vincent reported strong enemy pickets at Kemper's Ford, and at Ellis'
Ford the enemy had made no attempt to conceal his movements. Meade was
asked if he could "feel the enemy, and cause him to develop his strength
and position at various points along" his front. Sykes objected to this
move on the grounds that Banks' Ford was exceedingly difficult and the
nature of the ground was such that once a Union force was across the
river it "could not get back if the enemy chose to prevent it." While at
United States Ford the enemy camps were so far back that it would be
difficult to determine their strength. Nonetheless, the next day Meade
was directed to feel the enemy strength at Banks' Ford without bringing
on a fight. 
At 1:00 a.m. on June 9, Meade expressed satisfaction
at the arrangements for cooperation between Barnes and the Cavalry
Corps. Barnes was also told that instead of having to send in reports
every three or four hours he could do so about every six hours. But that
"Very important information will of course be sent in as soon as
received." At 7:00 p.m. Meade started to direct Barnes to send 1000 men
to the cavalry's support at Brandy Station when a message from
headquarters suspended the movement. Meade did regret having to call
Barnes' attention "to the necessity of keeping me promptly and
frequently advised of what is transpiring in your front." Meade noted
that the last dispatch from Barnes at Kelly's Ford had been sent at 7:00
a.m. and that a fast horse could cover the distance in two hours. Meade
was also concerned about late reports from Colonel Jacob Sweitzer.
Sweitzer, who had returned from helping the cavalry at 5:00 p.m. on June
9, did not report his presence to Meade until 1:00 p.m., June 10. 
On June 13, the race to find Lee and bring him to
battle began. Sykes and Barnes were ordered in be in readiness "to move
tonight or early to-morrow morning." Sykes was told to concentrate his
division, including the trains and batteries, at Hartwood Church and as
soon as his pickets were relieved, he was to "proceed as rapidly as
possible to Warrenton Junction." The Fifth Corps was to rendezvous at
Manassas Junction with the First, Third, and Eleventh Corps. By the next
day, June 14, the Third and Fifth Corps were at Catlett's Station. 
On June 21, Barnes' Division was again sent to
cooperate with the Cavalry Corps. The Second Division was stationed at
Aldie, while the First Division moved to Middleburg where the Third
Brigade, under Colonel Strong Vincent, was sent to support Brigadier
General David M. Gregg's Cavalry Division. Vincent's Brigade aided the
cavalry in the engagements at Upperville and Goose Greek and was
relieved by Colonel William S. Tilton's First Brigade. 
Twice during this time, the Fifth Corps had an
opportunity to capture the Confederate cavalry leader John S. Mosby. The
first attempt, on June 22, under Captain W. H. Brown, 14th U. S.
Infantry, failed partly because of "defective ammunition" due to rain in
the morning. Ayres, the brigade commander, expressed disappointment with
the results, while Sykes, somewhat more critical, believed that Brown
"should have had the foresight to see that his infantry were efficient
and their arms in firing condition before leaving camp,..." A second
attempt on June 24 also misfired when Mosby failed to show up as
The services of Crawford's Pennsylvania Reserves were
being requested by both Meade and Major General John F. Reynolds. Both
of these officers had held commands with the Reserves during the early
part of the war and knew their value as soldiers from first-hand
experience. However, Major General Samuel P. Heintzelman, commanding the
defenses of Washington, considered that the Reserves properly belonged
to him. Nonetheless, on June 23, Crawford was ordered to place his
command "in readiness to move at very short notice." Two days later he
was ordered to march with his command to Edwards Ferry and, if possible,
to cross the Potomac River. Major General Henry Halleck, the army's
Chief of Staff, however, had to verify that the Second Brigade of
Reserves formed no part of Crawford's command. 
At 4:00 a.m. on June 25 the Fifth Corps, with the
Artillery Reserve, crossed Goose Creek at Carter's Mill on its way to
Leesburg, Virginia. It crossed the Potomac River at the upper pontoon
bridge, located between Edwards Ferry and the mouth of the Monocacy
River, and followed the river road towards Frederick, Maryland. These
orders, issued on June 25, had been sent by General John F. Reynolds via
his cavalry escort. They were to have been sent by signal but the signal
camps had already been broken up. 
At 9:25 a.m., June 27, Crawford notified Meade that
his troops were crossing the Potomac at Edwards Ferry and would join
Meade that night. Crawford was having some difficulty on the road
because it was "encumbered by trains of Third Corps." This would not be
the last time that the Fifth Corps had trouble with the Third Corps
during the campaign. 
This march of the Fifth Corps, from the Rappahannock
River to Frederick, had not been an easy one. Lieutenant James P. Pratt,
11th U. S. Infantry, wrote to his parents on June 15, telling them that
his feet "are one complete blister. It was with the greatest difficulty
I kept along, but I was determined to do it. I don't think I could march
another hour though." On June 27, Pratt wrote that both his shoes and
stockings had worn out; his blistering feet unprotected. He did predict
that "we shall probably came upon the Rebels by to-morrow evening or
next day." 
Major changes in the command structure of the Fifth
Corps took place on June 28 at Frederick. Major General Hooker was
relieved of command of the Army of the Potomac and replaced by Major
General George G. Meade. Sykes, as the senior division commander,
assumed command of the Corps. Ayres assumed command of the Second
Division and Colonel Hannibal Day, sent from Washington, assumed command
of the First Brigade, Second Division.
On June 29, the march north resumed with the Fifth
Corps marching 15 miles from Frederick to Liberty. The next day Sykes
advised Ayres that a "long march is before us, and every effort must be
made to keep the command together and well closed up, and the enemy is
not far from us." "Strong exertions," Sykes stated, "must be made to
prevent straggling and to make the men keep in ranks." The march that
day covered 23 miles to Union Mills. 
At 6:30 p.m., June 30, Sykes reported that the First
and Second Divisions were at Union Mills and that the artillery was soon
expected. The Third Division had been directed to march until dark and
encamp between Frizellburg and Union Mills. Sykes stated that Crawford
"must have marched to-day in the neighborhood of 25 miles. I have not
had the corps concentrated since leaving Fredericksburg. My troops are
foot-sore and tired." Crawford's command, having spent several months in
the Washington defenses, were still trying to get their "campaign legs"
back in shape. 
On July 1, the Fifth Corps marched 11 miles to
Hanover, Pennsylvania. At 7:00 p.m. orders were received to march
towards Gettysburg. Colonel Jacob Sweitzer's Brigade, after being
ordered out, had an "exciting little run" with Colonel Strong Vincent's
Brigade, to see who would get back into the road first and lead the
division. Vincent won the race. Sweitzer not only reported having heard
a rumor that Major General George B. McClellan was in Gettysburg to take
command of the army but had met a citizen who had "seen the Genl.
there." The head of the Corps would reach Bonaughtown, on the Hanover
Road, by midnight after a march that day of 20 miles. Sykes reported
that he would "resume my march at 4 a.m. Crawford's division had not
reached Hanover at the hour I left there." The Pennsylvania Reserves
were still having a hard time keeping up. 
The Fifth Corps resumed its march on the Hanover Road
at about 3:00 a.m. After marching about 2 miles they turned left
(probably at the E. Deardorff farm on Brinkerhoff Ridge) toward the
Baltimore Pike and arrived in the area of Wolf's Hill by 8:00 a.m. (the
Third Division arrived about noon). At first stationed on the north side
of the Baltimore Pike, to support a proposed counterattack, the Corps
was moved to the south side in support of the Twelfth Corps on Culp's
Hill. The Corps took position between Rock Creek and the Granite
Schoolhouse Lane, near Power's Hill. In this position Sykes was directed
"to support the Third Corps,...,with a brigade, should it be required."
Sykes sent Colonel Locke, his assistant adjutant-general, and Captain
John W. Williams, aide-de-camp, to Major General Daniel Sickles,
commanding Third Corps, "to see where the left of the 3d corps would
rest" as Weed's Brigade was to be sent to the support of the First
Division (Brigadier General David B. Birney), Third Corps. According to
Captain Alexander Moore, of Sickles' staff, he was sent at 2:10 p.m. "to
request Sykes to send a brigade to support Birney." Sykes, according to
Moore, replied that he "would rather not send a brigade at once, but
would do so if any necessity arose"; or if he were notified by either
General Birney or Brigadier General J. H. Hobart Ward, of Birney's
Second Brigade. 
General Meade ordered a meeting of all his corps
commanders for 3:00 p.m. at his headquarters. The exact timing of events
at this meeting varies with the participants, but they did take place in
a short space of time. General Warren, now serving as Chief Engineer of
the Army of the Potomac, received a report that General Sickles and his
Third Corps were "not in the proper position." When cannonading was
heard in the direction of the Third Corps, Sickles had not yet reached
headquarters. Meade, not wasting any time, ordered Warren to the left to
survey the situation and ordered Sykes to march the Fifth Corps to the
left as quickly as possible and to "hold it at all hazards." Meade,
reportedly, also told Sykes that he would join him and see to the corps'
posting. Sykes believed this order "relieved my troops from any call
from the commander of the Third Corps." It does not appear, however,
that this impression was passed on to General Weed, as events will soon
Sykes, who had apparently left most of his staff and
the Corps flag near Power's Hill, directed Lieutenant George T. Ingham,
aide-de-camp, to instruct Captain William Jay, aide de-camp, to lead the
Corps toward the left. The rest of the staff was to wait on Power's Hill
for Sykes' return. Sykes, with one orderly, rode to the left to select
positions for his troops. He did not go directly to Little Round Top but
went, instead, to the area of Rose's Woods, near what became known as
the Stony Hill, to confer with General Birney. As a professional
soldier, Sykes could not have liked what he saw. The Third Corps,
instead of being on Cemetery Ridge with its left on Little Round Top,
had been advanced three-quarters of a mile west to the Emmitsburg Road
and the Peach Orchard. A one-half mile gap existed in the Third Corps
line from the south edge of the Peach Orchard to the Stony Hill with the
left flank of the Corps in and near Devil's Den. Sykes found a battery
(probably Captain James Smith's 4th New York Light) on the outer edge of
Birney's line without adequate support. Sykes, who now realized he would
not be able to fight his corps as a unit, suggested that if Birney
closed his division on the battery, Sykes would fill the gap with troops
from his corps. 
Meanwhile, Warren had arrived on Little Round Top and
found the hill bare of troops except for a detachment from the Signal
Corps. Warren sent a message to Meade requesting a division be sent to
the hill and also sent Lieutenant Ranald S. Mackenzie to request troops
from Sickles. Sickles refused the request stating "that his whole
command was necessary to defend his front, or words to that effect."
Approaching the field at about this time (4:30) was the First Division,
Fifth Corps. 
July 2, 1863 - 5:30-5:45 P.M. Ward's
Line collapses, Barnes in position, Kershaw goes in (click on image
for a PDF version)
The First Division (3417 men) had started its move
from the Power's Hill area at about 3:30 with Vincent's Brigade in the
lead, followed by Sweitzer and Tilton and three batteries: Battery D,
5th U. S., under Lieutenant Charles Hazlett; Third Battery (C),
Massachusetts Light, under Lieutenant Aaron Walcott; and Battery I, 5th
U. S., under Lieutenant Malborne Watson. (The two other batteries,
Battery L, 1st Ohio, Captain Frank Gibbs and Battery C, 1st New York,
Captain Almont Barnes, followed the Second Division.) The division had
about a two mile march via the Granite Schoolhouse Lane to the Taneytown
Road to the Wheatfield Road. As the head of the column entered the
Wheatfield, Warren found Sykes and Barnes on the Stony Hill and
requested assistance in holding Little Round Top. Sykes, also realizing
the importance of the hill, directed Barnes to supply a brigade. Barnes
"immediately directed Colonel Vincent,...,to proceed to that point with
his brigade." Sykes personally posted Sweitzer and Tilton (with 077 men)
on the Stony Hill and then rode back to the Taneytown Road to bring up
more troops. 
Captain Augustus P. Martin, commanding the Corps
Artillery Brigade, also arrived near the Stony Hill. Martin had
originally enlisted on April 20, 1861, in the 1st Massachusetts
Artillery Militia for three months. He was mustered out as a sergeant on
August 2, 1861. He was mustered back into service as a First Lieutenant
on September 5, 1861, with Battery C, 3rd Massachusetts, for three
years, and was promoted to captain on November 28. In October 1862,
General Porter recommended Martin for promotion to field grade officer.
Porter felt Martin had "earned the promotion suggested by gallant action
and by his general efficiency in all duties heretofore intrusted to his
Martin ordered Lieutenant Charles Hazlett to post his
battery, formerly Griffin's Battery, on Little Round Top. Martin ordered
Lieutenant Aaron F. Walcott and Lieutenant Malborne Watson to post their
batteries in the rear of Barnes' division and await further orders.
Martin then accompanied Hazlett to Little Round Top to reconnoiter for
the best position to locate the battery. By the time Martin returned to
the Stony Hill, both Walcott and Watson had been ordered away by staff
officers from the Third Corps, who claimed to have "orders to take away
any batteries..., no matter where they belonged." 
Hazlett's Battery appears to have followed the same
route as Vincent's Brigade (see next paragraph) as one report states
that they went up at a trot. At some point, the guns had to be taken
onto the summit by hand, maybe with the help of some stragglers. On the
shelf, near the monument to the 140th New York, Hazlett was able to
place four guns. He may have succeeded in getting all six guns up but
there was room for only four guns so two were taken back down. Once in
position, Hazlett started "sending shells down the mountainside towards
Devil's Den." 
Vincent's brigade (1336 strong) marched from the
Wheatfield to the north slope of Little Round Top following the
Wheatfield Road and, probably utilizing an old logging road, moved along
the east side of the hill to the south slope. Vincent preceeded his
column to conduct a personal reconnaissance. He placed his brigade with
the 44th New York on the right, followed by the 83rd Pennsylvania, the
20th Maine, and the 16th Michigan on the left flank. The 16th Michigan
had just sent out skirmishers when it was ordered to the right of the
44th New York, probably because Vincent believed that would be the point
of greatest danger and not the left flank. Colonel N. E. Welch reported
that before the move was completed "we were under a heavy fire of the
enemy's infantry. We succeded, however, in securing our places after
some loss." The brigade was no sooner in position, then the 44th New
York and 83rd Pennsylvania were hit by Confederate attacks. The two
regiments returned fire at a range of forty yards. Colone James C. Rice,
44th New York, reported that the Confederates "tried for an hour to
break the lines of the 44th New York and 83rd Pennsylvania, charging
again and again within a few yards of those unflinching troops." While
the center of the brigade line held firm, Confederate troops were
beginning to threaten Vincent's flanks at the 20th Maine and the 16th
The fighting done by Colonel Joshua Chamberlain and
the men of the 20th Maine, on Vincent's left flank, has been well
documented. After being struck several times by the 15th Alabama, and
after the left flank of the Maine line had been thrown back, the
regiment mounted a make-shift counterattack. This attack came as the
Alabama troops were falling back and just before the arrival of fresh
troops from the Pennsylvania Reserves (see below). 
Colonel Welch reported that he was under heavy fire
(probably from the 4th and 5th Texas and 48th Alabama) for about a half
an hour "when some one", he thought either Sykes or Weed, although this
is doubtful, ordered him to fall back to a more defensible position. He
stated that these "orders" were not obeyed except by individuals and a
Lieutenant Kydd who took the regimental colors back to the summit.
However, the right two companies started to fall back while the rest of
the regiment "was thrown into confusion." Confederates started to lap
around the right flank of the 16th Michigan when Colonel Patrick O'Rorke
and the 140th New York appeared at the crest and launched a savage
counterattack. The attack succeeded in reestablishing the right flank of
the 16th Michigan and repulsing the Confederate attack but at the price
of O'Rorke's life. The 44th New York may have also fired obliquely at
the same time. It was while trying to rally the 16th Michigan that
Colonel Vincent was mortally wounded. 
During the initial attack against Vincent's line,
Warren was trying to get more troops to the hill. He spotted Weed's
Third Brigade, Second Division, part of Warren's old brigade, moving
west on the Wheatfield Road to join Sickles, Weed's Brigade (1484
strong) had, reportedly, been led to this arena by Captain Moore of
Sickles' staff, the same Captain Moore who at 2:10 p.m. had requested a
brigade from Sykes. Weed, and Captain Moore, had ridden ahead to confer
with Sickles at the Trostle Farm. It was "at this point the leading
regiment", the 140th New York under Colonel Patrick O'Rorke, was
redirected to Little Round Top by Warren. The rest of the brigade formed
line "in a narow valley", Plum Run, to support a portion of the Third
Corps and Watson's Battery. 
By this time Sykes was on the north slope of Little
Round Top after leading up "the remaining troops of the corps." He sent
a staff officer to find out why Weed had moved "away from the height
where it had been stationed, and where its presence was vital." Weed was
directed to retrace his steps, which he did at the double-quick. Sykes
gave instructions to Captain Jay for the posting of the Second and First
Brigades of the Second Division. Sykes also spoke briefly with Warren
before Warren left the hill with a slight wound. Sykes then proceeded up
the back side of the hill to Hazlett's position. 
Sykes' criticism of Weed may have been overly harsh.
Earlier in the day Meade had requested Sykes to have a brigade standing
by to help Sickles, and Sykes had designated Weed's Brigade for the
assignment, an order which most likely went through Romeyn B. Ayres,
Weed's division commander. As stated previously, when Meade ordered the
Fifth Corps to the left, Sykes believed that this relieved his troops
from any call by the Third Corps. But this change of orders does not
appear to have been transmitted to either Ayres or Weed. Both of these
regular army officers were too good to have deliberately disobeyed a
direct order from Sykes not to aid Sickles.
While fighting was occurring on Little Round Top it
was also breaking out on other parts of the Fifth Corps line. When
Vincent moved to Little Round Top, Barnes' other two brigades, under
Colonel Jacob B. Sweitzer and Colonel William Tilton, advanced through
the Wheatfield into Rose's Woods and onto the Stony Hill. They were
placed to the right and rear of the Third Brigade of Birney's division.
Sweitzer reported that his brigade was placed in a woods that fronted an
open field. The brigade fronted to the west towards the Peach Orchard.
As this threw the left regiment, 32nd Massachusetts, beyond the woods
into low, cleared ground, Sweitzer ordered it to change front to the
rear, placing it on more elevated ground, facing towards the south. This
placed the 32nd Massachusetts at a right angle to the Jacob Sweitzer
62nd Pennsylvania on its right. Sweitzer later stated that both Sykes
and Barnes were present "when this position was assigned me and the
point at which my right was to rest was designated." 
Tilton's Brigade was posted just to the right of
Sweitzer's (the 32nd Massachusetts next to the 22nd Massachusetts). The
18th Massachusetts, not having enough room in the front line, was
stationed in the rear of the 1st Michigan. As there was no infantry on
Tilton's right, he refused the right wing of the 118th Pennsylvania to
form a crotchet. 
Barnes was most concerned about his right. The only
unit to his immediate right was the 9th Massachusetts Artillery
(Bigelow's Battery) along the Wheatfield Road. The closest infantry
support on his right was the First Brigade, First Division, Third Corps
at the Peach Orchard about one-quarter mile away. The Third Brigade,
First Division, Third Corps was stationed on Barnes' left along with
Battery D, First New York Light. When Barnes stated his concerns to
Sykes, he remarked that some Third Corps troops, whom Barnes had passed
and were lying in his rear, were to be removed. What exactly Sykes meant
by this is unclear. Sykes then left Barnes to attend to affairs on
Little Round Top. 
Almost as soon as Sykes left, fighting erupted along
Barnes' line. The Confederate attack, the brigade of G. T. Anderson,
struck Tilton's line and the Third Corps troops on his left. Colonel Ira
C. Abbott, commanding the 1st Michigan, stated that he had his men lying
down while the rest of the line began to respond to Confederate fire.
When the Confederates were within forty rods Abbott ordered his men to
their feet and to fire by file "which made a dreadful confusion" in the
enemy ranks. Sweitzer ordered his other two regiments, the 62nd
Pennsylvania and the 4th Michigan, to change front to the left and form
lines behind the 32nd Massachusetts. There were now no Fifth Corps
troops facing west towards the Peach Orchard except for the right flank
of the 118th Pennsylvania. 
The Confederate attack (the brigades of G. T.
Anderson and Joseph B. Kershaw) was renewed against the Stony Hill and
commenced against the Peach Orchard. Three Confederate regiments started
to turn towards Barnes' right flank and towards the Union batteries
stationed along the Wheatfield Road. Colonel Tilton, anxious about his
right flank, reconnoitered personally and decided that the enemy was
trying to outflank him. The historian of the 118th Pennsylvania reported
that the batteries along the Wheatfield Road, except for two sections of
Bigelow's Battery, had retired. The enemy was "about to envelop the
entire exposed and unprotected right flank of the regiment." Tilton was
ordered to retire and take up a new position, in two lines "at the left
and rear of a battery (Bigelow) which had been posted about 300 yards to
my right and rear." This brought Tilton's Brigade into Trostle's Woods,
along the north side of the Wheatfield Road, facing towards the west.
The 118th Pennsylvania was on the right of the first line. Although it
is not clear, it is possible that the 1st Michigan was on the left of
the first line and the 18th and 22nd Massachusetts were on the right and
left of the second line. 
Sweitzer reported that there was no enemy on his
front except in front of the 32nd Massachusetts. Barnes had sent
Sweitzer precautionary orders "that when we retired we should fall back
under cover of the woods." When Colonel Prescott, 32nd Massachusetts,
was told this he responded, "I don't want to retire; I am not ready to
retire; I can hold this place..." When told this was only a
precautionary order, Prescott apparently calmed down, and was satisfied
that it was not a preemptory order. Shorty thereafter, however, Tilton
retired and Sweitzer received orders to do the same. Sweitzer's new
position placed him along the Wheatfield Road, to the left of Tilton in
Trostle's Woods. The two brigades thus formed a right angle to each
other, Tilton facing west and Sweitzer facing south. 
Trostle's Woods formed a rough triangle. It was about
200 yards south to north and about 500 yards east to west along the
Wheatfield Road. The Trostle Farm was about 150 yards further north from
the northwest corner of the woods. Tilton's Brigade, occupied a frontage
of about 100 yards. This left a gap, of about 250 yards, from Tilton's
right flank to the Trostle Farm. Sweitzer occupied a frontage of about
There are some unexplained actions, and perhaps some
lapses in judgement, by the Fifth Corps commanders on the Stony Hill.
Sweitzer does not explain why, when the right flank was threatened, he
did not order the 62nd Pennsylvania and the 4th Michigan to change front
to face west, as they were originally posted. Tilton did not explain why
the 18th Massachuestts was not moved to the right of the 118th
Pennsylvania to strengthen that flank. While the batteries along the
Wheatfield Road were vulnerable without direct infantry support, along
with Sweitzer and Tilton, they may have been able to catch the
Confederate infantry in a cross-fire, and been better able to stop the
attack. Also unexplained is why Barnes, when he ordered a withdrawal,
did not inform the Third Corps troops to his left. This withdrawal left
the Third Corps right exposed and forced them to retire as well.
Approaching the field, as Barnes and the Third Corps
troops were falling back, was Brigadier General John C. Caldwell's First
Division, Second Corps (3320 men). Caldwell had received orders from his
corps commander, Major General W. S. Hancock, to report to Sykes.
Caldwell sent an aide, Lieutenant Daniel K. Cross, to find Sykes "but he
did not succeed in finding him." While Caldwell did state he met a staff
officer, who he thought was Lieutenant Colonel Locke, Sykes" assistant
adjutant-general, at least one historian believes that it could just
have easily been Major Henry E. Tremain, of Sickles' staff. It is known
that Major Tremain did lead Caldwell's Third Brigade into position.
Caldwell's Division cleared the Wheatfield and established a line about
600 feet south and west of the position held by Barnes. 
"The Second Day at Gettysburg: Day of
Decision," 1992 Association of Licensed Battlefield Guide Battlefield
Seminar. (click on image for a PDF version)
It is not clear whether or not Sykes knew that
Caldwell was supposed to report to him for orders. With elements from
three different corps (Second, Third and Fifth) now fighting along
Sykes' front, Menade had not placed anyone in overall command. Sykes, in
corps command only since June 28, may have been hesitant to give orders
to any but his own troops without clear authority from Meade. This was a
point Sykes would have been sensitive about considering the actions of
Third Corps staff officers trying to issue orders to Fifth Corps troops
without authority. Sykes was probably in the process of bringing up the
rest of his Corps when Caldwell arrived on the field.
As Caldwell was advancing through the Wheatfield,
Romeyn B. Ayres was advancing his two brigades of Regulars from the
north slope of Little Round Top across Plum Run to Houck's Ridge and a
stone fence on the east edge of the Wheatfield. Lieutenant James P.
Pratt described the advance "over rocks and in the marsh. A dozen paces
forward, and we came within this enfilading fire. Men began to fall very
fast, but the line kept steadily on. We gained the other side, and lay
down." Colonel Sidney Burbank led the Second Brigade (958 strong)
followed by Colonel Hannibal Day's First Brigade (1574 strong). The
enfilade fire described by Pratt was coming from Confederate soldiers
in Devil's Den and on the south end of Houck's Ridge. Once on Sidney
Burbank the ridge, the 17th U. S.. Infantry, Burbank's left flank
regiment, had to refuse part of its line to try to cover this fire.
Because Caldwell was in his front, and probably because Sweitzer was
marching across the Wheatfield, Ayres could not advance. 
Caldwell, meanwhile, was looking for some aid for his
hard-pressed division. He asked Sweitzer if he could advance across the
Wheatfield in support. Sweitzer referred Caldwell to Barnes, who was
close by. Barnes then asked Sweitzer if he would take his brigade in. "I
would", Sweitzer said, "if he wished me to do so." Barnes said he did,
and then gave "a few patriotic remarks", probably to the 32nd
Massachusetts, to which the command responded with a cheer before
advancing. Sweitzer advanced to the stone fence on the south side of the
Wheatfield to support the troops he supposed were in his front. The 4th
Michigan extended beyond the wall to near the position held by the 32nd
Massachusetts earlier in the afternoon. Ayres, after consulting with
Caldwell, also prepared to move through the Wheatfield and "occupy the
woods in my front." Sykes, at about the same time, sent Lieutenant
Ingham with similar orders for Ayres but Ingham did not reach Ayres in
time. Events in the Wheatfield were starting to happen too fast. 
The Union positions at the Peach Orchard had
collapsed and Third Corps troops began streaming towards the rear.
Confederate troops, under Brigadier General W. T. Wofford, began
advancing down the Wheatfield Road. This became part of a general
Confederate advance south of the Wheatfield Road with portions of four
Confederate brigades (Wofford, Kershaw, Semmes, Anderson) converging on
the Wheatfield itself. Three Fifth Corps brigades were about to be
caught in the middle of this advance.
Tilton, in Trostle's Woods, reported "squads of men
belonging to the 2d & 3d Corps breaking through the ranks in their
hurry to the rear..." Some skirmishers from the 118th Pennsylvania were
trying to assist in keeping Confederate skirmishers from Bigelow's
Battery. Watson's Battery was temporarily stationed near the Trostle
Farm before moving to a position about 800 feet east of the farm.
Tilton, whose horse had been shot, was unable to maintain his position
and retired from Trostle's Woods. Tilton assumed a new position just
north of Little Round Top and reported to Sykes. 
Barnes may have been wounded while trying to direct
Tilton in Trostle's Woods. The historian of the 118th Pennsylvania
remembered that Barnes rode "valiantly amid the thickest of the fray,
encouraging, persuading, directing, with that same courageous judgement
which had ever been his distinguishing characteristic." Sweitzer
reported that after he had retreated from the Wheatfield, and shortly
after dark, he was placed in command of the division as Barnes was
reported missing. He also stated that Barnes "returned about midnight or
afterwards and assumed command of the Divn." 
At the stone wall in the Wheatfield, Sweitzer's
color-bearer suddenly remarked: "Colonel, I'll be _____if I don't think
we are faced the wrong way; the rebs are up there in the woods behind
us, on the right." This was soon confirmed by reports from the 62nd
Pennsylvania and the 4th Michigan. These units were ordered to change
front to met this new threat. Sweitzer sent an aide to communicate with
Barnes but he was no longer in Trostle's Woods, as the enemy had reached
his position and "as far back as where we had started from, and along
the road in rear of the wheat-field." Most of Sweitzer's brigade, now
finding themselves in hand-to-hand combat, started to pull out. Colonel
Harrison Jeffords, 4th Michigan, was killed trying to rescue his
regimental colors. 
Once Sweitzer had cleared his front, Ayres also tried
to move into the Wheatfield, Burbank's brigade, using the crotchet made
by the left flank of the 17th U. S., tried to do a left wheel to connect
with Sweitzer's left flank. Burbank, after completing a half-wheel,
reported that at first he received no fire on his front, but suddenly
was receiving a heavy fire on his right flank. Burbank was forced to
withdraw from the field under this heavy fire. When Burbank reached the
stone wall on Houck's Ridge, after Day's Brigade had started to fall
back, the brigade realigned itself before continuing the withdrawal to
Little Round Top. 
This Confederate attack seems to have taken place
while both Sweitzer and Burbank were in the Wheatfield. With all the
smoke and confusion it is possible that neither Sweitzer nor Burbank
realized exactly where the other was in the Wheatfield. It also appears,
from the flow of events, that Burbank may have had a chance to withdraw
before Sweitzer. Burbank and Day retreated directly to Little Round Top,
Sweitzer headed toward Tilton's position, and Confederate troops started
moving into Plum Run.
Captain Frank C. Gibbs, Battery L, 1st Ohio Light,
responding to orders from Sykes, placed two guns on the right (north)
slope of Little Round Top and four guns north of the Wheatfield Road. To
Gibbs' right was Captain Almont Barnes, Battery C, 1st New York, who was
not in a very good position to use his guns. Burbank and Day withdrew
through Gibbs' guns on the slope. As soon as the front was cleared, "the
enemy put in his appearance, and we received him with double charges of
canister, which were used so effectively as to compel him to retire."
While Gibbs' Battery was in action, Captain August P.
Martin was notified that General Weed had been mortally wounded. Weed
had asked to see Charles Hazlett. Weed gave him instructions for the
payment of some small debts and, as Hazlett drew closer to receive a
confidential message, he was shot in the head. 
Company K, 1st Pennsylvania Reserves
Also helping to compel the Confederates to retire was
Crawford's Third Division, the Pennsylvania Reserves. The ever present
Captain Moore, of Sickles' staff, stated that he met Crawford at Power's
Hill. Crawford, who, for some unexplained reason, thought Moore was on
Meade's staff, moved toward the Round Tops under Moore's direction.
Crawford stated that he "followed through the woods in my front to a
road which, starting at the Baltimore turnpike, runs in a Southerly
direction, crossing the Taneytown Road and skirtng the foot of the
Northern slope of Round Top, becomes a cross road from the Taneytown to
the Emmittesburg road." 
Arriving near Little Round Top, Sykes ordered
Crawford to mass his command to the right (north) side of the Wheatfield
Road. Crawford was no sooner in position than he received a new order to
cross the road to the north slope of Little Round Top. At the same time,
he was ordered to detach one brigade to aid Vincent on the south slope.
This was just before Ayres withdrawal from the Wheatfield, The Third
Brigade, under Colonel Joseph W. Fisher, minus the 11th Reserve, was
sent to Vincent's aid. Fisher's Brigade took position behind the 20th
Maine and the 83rd Pennsylvania, just prior to Chamberlain's advance.
The 11th Reserve became temporarily attached to the First Brigade, under
Colonel William McCandless. Crawford formed McCandless into two lines,
the 6th, 11th, and 1st, in front and the 13th and 12th Reserves in the
rear. Coming up behind Crawford, and passing to his left flank was the
98th Pennsylvania from the Third Brigade, Third Division of the Sixth
The 98th Pennsylvania charged past Crawford's line
and into Plum Run. Who ordered Crawford forward is open to
interpretation. Sykes, in his official report, said he ordered the
charge. Crawford maintained that when he asked Sykes for orders, he was
authorized "as I was upon the ground, to act as I deemed proper."
Whoever issued the orders, the Reserves now fired two
well-directed volleys, gave a cheer and charged forward at a run. George
Swope, 1st Reserves, remembered this as "a moment of great excitment -
Every member of the Reserves (were) anxious to advance - General
Crawford amid tremendous cheers seized our Regimental flag and ordered
the charge. I saw him wave the colors and advance with them down Little
Round Top, probably half the distance to Plum Run." The Confederates
were forced out of Plum Run Valley and driven back to the stone wall,
previously occupied by Ayres, "for the possession of which there was a
short but determined struggle." The Confederates were driven from the
wall and across the Wheatfield to Rose's Woods. 
Watson's and Walcott's Batteries were caught between
the advancing Confederates and the Union line. Watson's Battery was
overrun east of the Trostle Farm, but Lieutenant Samuel Peeples "having
procured the services of the Garabaldi Guards..." (39th New York of the
Second Corps) led a counterattack, recaptured the guns and took
everything safely to the rear. Walcott, on the north side of the
Wheatfield Road, along the lane leading to the Jacob Weikert Farm, had
no infantry support nearby. When Walcott saw the Confederates emerge
from Trostle's Woods he ordered his guns spiked and one was before they
were abandoned. Three regiments from the Sixth Corps, the 62nd New York,
and the 93rd and 139th Pennsylvania, delivered two volleys into the
Confederate ranks before advancing, recapturing Walcott's guns and
taking position along the Weikert lane. 
After the fighting, and as darkness was setting in,
Colonel James C. Rice, commanding Vincent's brigade, ordered the 20th
Maine to advance and occupy Big Round Top. Fisher also detached two
regiments, the 5th and 12th Reserves, from his brigade to aid in this
occupation. By the day's end, the Fifth Corps occupied both Big and
Little Round Tops in force, with McCandless Brigade occupying an
advanced position near the Wheatfield, Sykes was able to state that "the
key of the battlefield was in our possession intact. Vincent, Weed, and
Hazlett, chiefs lamented throughout the Corps and army, sealed with
their lives the spot intrusted to their keeping, and on which so much
At 3:00 a.m., July 3, Walcott's and Almont Barnes'
Batteries were assigned to the Second Division, Sixth Corps and helped
to guard the extreme left flank of the army. Although the batteries did
not fire a shot on July 3, they did come under enemy fire. At 1:45 p.m.,
Sykes received a report from Colonel Kenner Garrard, commanding Weed's
Brigade, and Tilton that Confederates were advancing on their left and
front. Sykes was subsequently told by headquarters that if he was
attacked, it was not Meade's "purpose to withdraw any portion of your
troops from the positions they now occupy." At no time on July 3 did
Sykes receive orders to advance his whole corps. 
Crawford received orders at 5:00 p.m. "to advance
that portion of my command which was holding the ground retaken on the
left, and which still held the line of the stone wall in front, to enter
the woods, and, if possible, drive out the enemy. It was supposed that
the enemy had evacuated the position." Crawford ordered McCandless, with
the 11th Reserves, to advance. He also requested support from Brigadier
General Joseph J. Bartlett, commanding both the Third Brigade, Third
Division and Second Brigade, First Division, Sixth Corps, who sent
Colonel David J. Nevin (Third Brigade, Third Division) to Crawford's
support. Nevin's main line advanced about 200 yards behind McCandless as
he crossed the Wheatfield. The 6th Pennsylvania and 139th Pennsylvania
(Nevin) sent skirmishers to the right to clear out Confederate
skirmishers. The 139th Pennsylvania also claimed to have recaptured one
brass Napoleon and three caissons belonging to Bigelow's Battery. 
McCandless discovered a line of the enemy in the
woods to his left and at a right angle to his line. This was Brigadier
General Henry L. Benning's Brigade from Hood's Division, Longstreet's
Corps, which had been left in the woods by a misunderstanding of orders.
By the time the orders were resolved Colonel D, M. Dubois, 15th Georgia,
found himself almost trapped between McCandless and Nevin and had to
fight his way out. The rest of the brigade managed to get out with
slight loss. This armed reconnaissance found the enemy to be in force
and still willing to fight. 
On July 3, Brigadier General Charles Griffin, the
regular commander of the First Division, arrived on the field. For some
reason not fully explained, Griffin did not relieve the wounded Barnes
until July 4. One source has Griffin stating: "To you General Barnes,
belongs the honor of the field; you began the battle with the division,
and shall fight it to the end." Whether this was Griffin's real reason
is not known. It is also speculated that Griffin had talked with Sykes
about the division's performance on July 2 and that Griffin did not want
to assume any responsibility for the division's actions on the field.
Sweitzer reported that after he had retreated from the Wheatfield, and
shortly after dark, he was placed in command of the division as Barnes
was reported missing. He also stated that Barnes "returned about
midnight or afterwards and assumed command of the Divn." 
At 7:00 a.m. on July 4, Day's Brigade was ordered out
on a reconnaissance. After crossing Plum Run the skirmishers were
ordered to advance and drive in the enemy pickets. The 3rd, 4th, and 6th
U. S. formed the first line supported by the 12th and 14th U. S. Major
Grotius Giddings, 14th U. S., received orders to move his regiment
through a small piece of woods on the left to see who occupied the house
(probably the Rose Farm): Captain Guido Ilyes, commanding the
skirmishers, reported that the house contained wounded from both sides
plus "a large quantity of arms." At the same time, two Confederate
cannons opened fire with shell at an easy range. Giddings received
orders to fall back and rejoin the brigade and then the brigade moved
back to the east side of Little Round Top to the rear of Hazlett's
The was some confusion associated with the Fifth
Corps on July 5. If Sykes had no troops with Sedgwick's Sixth Corps or
in Sedgwick's support, he was authorized to "move out on the road to
Emmitsburg, the left-hand road, going a short distance on the Taneytown
road, and leaving it before it crosses Rock Creek." After moving out
four or five miles, Sykes was to wait for further orders from Major
General O. O. Howard, commanding Eleventh Corps. At 4:30 a.m. Sykes
reported that his men were in hand and as soon as his pickets were
recalled he would move. At 10:20 a.m. headquarters wanted an explanation
of a report that Sykes was in readiness to move with the Sixth Corps; no
orders for such a movement having been issued. This confusion was
apparently not straightened out until much later when at 7:30 p.m. Meade
informed Sedgwick that he had not remembered directing Sykes to support
Sedgwick but instead had authorized his moving with the Eleventh Corps.
Sykes reported at 9:30 p.m. that he was encamped on the south side of
Marsh Creek along the Emmitsburg Road and would march at 4:00 a.m. "in
order to pass through Emmitsburg before any of the troops behind me can
reach the rear of my column." 
On July 6, Crawford requested, through Meade, that
his Second Brigade, left at Alexandria, be ordered to re-join the
division. "Its separation," Crawford noted, "was merely temporary..."
The brigade never rejoined Crawford. 
By July 10, the Fifth Corps had marched 55 miles and
had reached the Antietam at Delaware Mills. The Corps had marched
through Emmitsburg, Creagerstown, Utica, and Middletown, crossing the
Catoctin and South Mountain ranges at High Knob and Fox's Gap. Sykes
reported that the Antietam was "very high and swift." A scout from the
Cavalry Corps reported no Confederates at Sharpsburg and that they had
"ceased crossing at Williamsport." 
Between July 10 and 14, Sykes maneuvered in the face
of the enemy. His men also set to work constructing breastworks and
rifle-pits. On July 13, Sykes was directed to place the Fifth Corps to
the right of Hays (Second Corps) and the left of Sedgwick in the area of
Williamsport. Sykes felt the interval was not large enough for two
divisions. Crawford was placed on the right of Hays and one brigade from
Griffin's Division was placed to the right and rear of Crawford. On July
14, the Corps pursued the Confederates two miles beyond Williamsport. On
that date, the Gettysburg Campaign came to an end. It was now time to
asses the costs of the campaign. 
According to the June 30 muster report, the Fifth
Corps numbered 10,907 officers and men. By the end of the campaign, the
Corps had sustained 2,187 casualties, about 20% of its total strength.
But the casualties were not evenly distributed among the various units.
Crawford's Division had 210 casualties out of 2862 engaged. Barnes lost
904 out of 3417 and Ayres lost 1029 out of 4021. Burbank's brigade of
Ayres division had some of the highest casualties in the Corps. The 17th
U. S., for example, lost 58% of its men (150 out of 260 engaged).
Sweitzer's Brigade officially lost about 30% of its strength (427 out of
1423) but one regiment, the 9th Massachusetts, was only lightly engaged
in skirmish duty near Wolf's Hill, while the other regiments were caught
in the maelstrom of the Wheatfield. The Artillery Brigade, as a whole,
had few casualties, although Watson's Battery had the highest percentage
loss of any Union battery during the battle (22 lost out of 71 engaged).
Colonel Patrick R. Gurney, 9th Massachusetts, stated
that when he rejoined Sweitzer's Brigade, it seemed "more appropriate to
say that we constituted the Brigade...The Brigade -except ourselves, had
been fought nearly to extinction." The 4th Michigan lost 165 out of 342
and the 62nd Pennsylvania lost 175 out of 426 engaged. The 9th
Massachusetts was, therefore, ordered to join Tilton's Brigade. 
Captain James A. Bates, Chief Ambulance Officer,
reported that he was "kept constantly running from the hospital to the
battle-field until 4 a.m. July 3." The 81 ambulances had transported
1300 wounded. At 10:00 a.m. July 3, J. J. Milhau, the Fifth Corps
Medical Director, ordered the wounded to be moved one mile to the rear
"as the enemy had commenced to shell the hospital." This time the 81
ambulances moved 2600 wounded one and a half miles. 
Sykes, in his after-action report, stated that the
Corps buried 404 Confederate dead, captured 13,351 small arms, and one
Napoleon. Sykes was happy to report that "the Fifth Corps sustained its
reputation. An important duty was confided to it, which was gallantly
performed....Prompt response and obedience to all orders characterized
How did Sykes, himself, perform during the campaign
- Sykes assumed command of the Corps on June 28, the day Meade assumed
command of the Army of the Potomac.
- On the march from Frederick to Gettysburg, Sykes kept the First and
Second Divisions moving together and left aides and guides for the Third
Division with instructions to close-up as soon as possible.
- By noon of July 2, the Corps was united on the battlefield. On
receipt of Meade's orders, Sykes moved the Corps to the left in a timely
manner. (Even Birney admitted this.) When called on, by Warren, for a
brigade, Vincent was sent immediately to Little Round Top. Sweitzer and
Tilton were posted on the Stony Hill to help support the Third Corps in
- Sykes appears not to have given Barnes any specific orders after
posting him, but, instead, allowed Barnes to use his own discretion in
the handling of the First Division.
- Sykes, also, presumably, saw to the posting of his Second and Third
- When he saw Weed moving to join Sickles, he promptly ordered it back
to Little Round Top.
- It is not clear that Sykes was aware that he had authority over
Caldwell's Division. Sykes, as a career officer, was probably reluctant
to issue orders to troops not under his immediate command, without clear
authorization. When he realized that Caldwell's left was in danger, he
did order in the best troops he had, the two brigades of Regulars. Sykes
allowed, or ordered, Crawford to advance while he helped to rally the
First and Second Divisions.
Sykes, who may have partially still been in the
mind-set of a division commander, seems to have done as good a job as
could have been expected. He did carry out his assignment from Meade to
hold the left and by the end of the day the key to the battlefield was
firmly in the grasp of the Fifth Corps.
The Fifth Corps would continue to serve as a unit
with the Army of the Potomac, but as with most of the units, the
Gettysburg Campaign would bring changes to the Corps organization.
On August 14, the two brigades of Regulars, much
reduced in numbers, were ordered to Alexandria, and thence to New York
City to help quell the draft riots. Although some of these units would
return to the Army of the Potomac, they did so as a mere shadow of their
former selves. 
James Barnes went on sick leave after his wounding on
July 2. He served on court-martial duty and commanded the defenses of
Norfolk and Portsmouth, Virginia. He ended the war in command of the
prison camp at Point Lookout, Maryland. He was brevetted a major general
of volunteers on March 13, 1865, for meritorious services and mustered
out of volunteer service on January 15, 1866. He died on February 12,
1869 in Springfield, Massachusetts. 
Charles Griffin resumed command of the First Division
on July 4 and led it through the rest of the war. On April 1, 1865, he
assumed command of the Corps and served as one of the officers assigned
to carry out the terms of Lee's surrender. During the battle of the
Wilderness, Lieutenant General U. S. Grant heard Griffin utter some
remarks that Grant took to be mutinous. When Grant told Meade that
Griffin ought to be arrested, Meade merely replied "...its only his way
of talking." Griffin was brevetted major general, U. S. Army, on March
13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious services in the field. In 1866 he
served on a board to determine the kind of small arms to be used by the
Army and on July 28, 1869, was appointed colonel of the 35th Infantry.
While in temporary command of the Fifth Military District (Texas and
Louisiana), Griffin refused to leave his post when yellow fever broke
out. He died at Galveston, Texas, on September 15, 1869, at the age of
Romeyn B. Ayres remained with the Fifth Corps to the
end of the war. He received the brevets of major, lieutenant colonel,
and colonel in the regular army for gallant and meritorious services at
Gettysburg, the Wilderness and Weldon Railroad. He was brevetted a major
general, U. S. Army, on March 13, 1865, for gallant and meritorious
services in the field during the Rebellion. Upon the reorganization of
the army in 1866, he was appointed lieutenant colonel of the 28th
Infantry. On July 15, 1879, he was promoted to colonel of the 2nd
Artillery. He died at Fort Hamilton, New York, on December 4, 1888,
still on active duty after 41 years of service. 
Samuel Wylie Crawford also continued with the Fifth
Corps in command of the Third Division until the end of the war. He
received the Regular Army brevets of colonel, brigadier general and
major general for the battles of Gettysburg and Five Forks, Virginia,
and for gallant and meritorious services in the field. He was named
colonel of the 16th Infantry on February 22, 1869, but was transferred
to the 2nd Infantry on March 15. He retired from the service on February
19, 1873, and in 1875 was placed on the retired list with the rank of
brigadier general. He purchased the land in Plum Run valley, the scene
of the charge of the Pennsylvania Reserves, and served as a director of
the Gettysburg Battlefield Memorial Association from 1880 to 1892. He
died at his home in Philadelphia on November 3, 1892. 
Gouverneur K. Warren was placed in temporary command
of the Second Corps from August 1863 to March 1864. When the Army of the
Potomac was reorganized he was given command of the Fifth Corps on March
24, 1864, replacing George Sykes. Warren led the Corps through the
campaigns against Richmond until the battle of Five Forks, Virginia, on
April 1, 1865, when he was summarily relieved of command by Major
General Philip H. Sheridan. In the post-war years Warren served as a
member of the commission to examine the Union Pacific railroad and was
in charge of a survey of the Gettysburg battlefield. He made repeated
requests for a board of inquiry into the causes of his relief at Five
Forks. When the request was finally granted in 1879 he was fully
exonerated. Warren died at his home in Newport, Rhode Island, on August
8, 1882. 
Of the seven Union infantry corps commanders at
Gettysburg only two do not have monuments, Daniel E. Sickles and George
Sykes. Although not a brilliant strategist, there is nothing in the
contemporary records to indicate any dissatisfaction with Sykes'
handling of the Fifth Corps. In September 1863 Sykes and several other
officers became involved in raising funds for a testimonial to Major
General George B. McClellan. This was stopped by Meade, presumably on
orders from Washington. Rumors at headquarters told how Secretary of War
Edwin Stanton had drawn up an order dismissing Sykes and the other
officers from the service but that the order had been stopped by a
leading Republican member of Congress. 
The years of campaigning were beginning to take their
toll on Sykes' health. He was plagued by sciatica and on March 23, 1864,
his Corps medical inspector recommended an immediate leave of absence.
Whether this prompted the move or not, on March 24, Sykes was relieved
of command of the Fifth Corps and ordered to report to the Department of
Kansas at Fort Leavenworth. Several other officers were relieved at the
same time, but one artillery officer believed that Sykes was "the only
one I should think any loss." A staff officer felt Sykes had been
relieved because the authorities at Washington "disliked his rough
manners." Meade wrote his wife that he had tried very hard to retain
Sykes, at least as a division commander, "but without avail." 
Sykes commanded the District of South Kansas during
Sterling Price's Missouri raid late in 1864 until he was relieved
because the department commander, Major General Samuel R. Curtis,
believed he was unable to take the field. In March, 1865, Grant
requested Sykes as a division commander, but this request was not
granted. At the end of the war, Sykes reverted to his regular army rank
of lieutenant colonel, Fifth Infantry. Sykes was brevetted a brigadier
general and a major general on March 13, 1865, for gallant and
meritorious services at Gettysburg and in the field during the
Rebellion. He was promoted colonel, Twentieth Infantry on January 12,
1868. He was still serving in this capacity when he died of cancer on
February 8, 1880. 
Sykes' Civil War career will always be linked to that
of the Second (Regular) Division and the Fifth Corps. He never commanded
volunteer troops exclusively, which may partially explain the lack of a
monument to Sykes at Gettysburg. In his farewell address to the Fifth
Corps, Sykes wrote that the soldiers' "manly virtues, courage, and
patriotism will still be conspicuous in campaigns to come" and that the
Maltese Cross "will in the shock of battle always be found in the thick
of your country's foes." He felt that the achievements of the Fifth
Corps added a luster to the country's history and "in the great battle
of the war, on the 2d of July, 1863, your heroism and valor indesputably
saved the day." 
1. Reese, Timothy J. Sykes'
Regular Infantry Division, 1861-1864: A History of Regular United States
Infantry Operations in the Civil War's Eastern Theater. Jefferson,
NC: McFarland and Company, Inc, 1990, page 352. (cited hereafter as
2. Malone, Dumas, ed. Dictionary
of American Biography. New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1946, Vol.
XVII, page 255 (cited hereafter as DAB). Cullum, George W.
Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U. S.
Military Academy from 1802 to 1867. New York: J. Miller, 1879. Rev.
ed. with suppl. containing the roster of graduates to January 1, 1879,
Volume 2, page 62 (cited hereafter as Cullum.)
3. Reese, page 17; Johnson, Robert
U., and Buel, Clarence C. Battles and Leaders of the Civil War,
Volume II, page 359.
4. Cullum, page 62; The War of the
Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official Records of the Union and
Confederate Armies. Washington, DC: 1880-1901. Series I, Vol. 2,
page 390 (cited hereafter as O.R. and unless otherwise noted Series
5. O.R., Vol. 5, page 18; Powell,
William H. The Fifth Army Corps. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons,
1896, page 25-26 (cited hereafter as Powell); Welcher, Frank J. The
Union Army, 1861-1865: Organization and Operations. Volume I: The
Eastern Theater, Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1989, page
364 (cited hereafter as Welcher).
6. O.R. Vol. 11(2), page 30-32, Vol.
11(3), page 183; Vol. 51(1), page 619; Powell, page 29, 45-46; Welcher,
8. DAB, Vol. VII, page
617-618; Cullum, Vol. II, page 196-197.
9. DAB Vol. I, page 630-631;
Cullum, page 339.
10. DAB, Vol. II, page
11. DAB, Vol. XIX, page 473;
Cullum, Vol. 2, page 254-255.
12. Cullum, page Vol. 2, page 382;
Warner, Ezra J. Generals in Blue: Lives of the Union Commanders.
Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1964, page 547 (cited
hereafter as Warner.)
13. Phisterer, Frederick, compiler.
New York in the War of the Rebellion, 1861 to 1865. Albany: J. R
Lyon Company, 1912, Vol. I, page 583, Vol. V, page 4291; Heitman,
Francis B. Historical Register and Dictionary of the United States
Army, from its Organization September 29, 1789 to March 2, 1903.
Washington, DC: Government Printing Office, 1903, page 637 (cited
hereafter as Heitman); Hunt, Roger D, and Brown, Jack R. Brevet
Brigadier Generals in Blue. Gaithersburg, MD: Olde Soldier Books,
Inc., 1990, page 362.
14. O.R. Vol. 11(2), page 30-32;
Powell, page 46-47; Welcher, page 365-366; Fox, William F. Regimental
Losses in the American Civil War, 1861-1865. Albany: Albany
Publishing Co., 1889, page 74 (cited hereafter as Fox).
15. O.R. Vol. 12(2), page 259-260;
Welcher, page 366-367; Fox, page 75; Powell, page 244-245.
16. The Medal of Honor of the
United States Army. Washington, DC: Government Printing Office,
1948, page 112; Warner, page 528; DAB, Vol. II, page 373; DAB,
Vol. XIX, page 473.
17. O.R. Vol. 19(1), page 174-176;
Welcher, page 367-368; Powell, page 306.
18. Cullum, Vol. 1, page 384-385;
DAB, IX, page 371.
19. O.R. Vol. 19(2), page 188, 545;
Vol. 12(2), page 18; Vol. 12(2) Supplement, page 824-827.
20. O.R. Vol. 21, page 400, 429;
Vol. 19(2), page 569; Welcher, page 369.
21. O.R., Vol. 51(1), page 959.
22. O.R. Vol. 21, page 882; Vol.
25(2), page 190, 205, 230; Cullum, page 195; Powell, page 418.
23. Cullum, Vol. 2, page 194-195;
DAB, Vol. I, page 453-454. See Henry Hunt's article in Battles and
Leaders of the Civil War, Vol. 3, page 259.
24. O.R. Vol. 25(2), page 152.
25. O.R. Vol. 25(1), page 507, 509;
Fox, page 75.
26. Welcher, page 371; Powell, page
502; Cullum, Vol. 1 page 197, 382. Weed's promotion meant the lose of
another outstanding artillery officer to the infantry.
27. O.R. Vol. 25(2), page
28. O.R. Vol. 25(2), page 535.
29. O.R. Vol. 25(2), page 572-573,
30. O.R. Vol. 51(1), page 1043.
31. Heitman, page 337; Warner, page
99; O.R. Vol. 19(1), page 179, 478, 486.
32. O.R. Vol. 51(1), page 1044.
33. O.R. Vol. 51(1), page 1045,
1046; Vol. 27(3), page 17, 24.
34. O.R. Vol. 27(3), page 40, 47;
Vol. 51(1), page 1048.
35. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 38,
36. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 598, 614.
For more information see: O'Neill, Robert F., Jr. The Cavalry Battles
of Aldie, Middleburg and Upperville. Lynchburg, VA: H. E. Howard,
1993, pages 119-130.
37. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 641-643;
Vol. 51(1), page 1063.
38. O.R. Vol. 27(3), page 214, 273;
Vol. 27(1), page 56-57; Thomson, O. R. Howard, and Rauch, William H.
History of the "Bucktails" Kane Rifle Regiment of the Pennsylvania
Reserve Corps (13th Pennsylvania Reserves, 42d of the Line).
Philadelphia: Electric Printing, Co., 1906, page 260 (cited hereafter as
39. O.R. Vol. 27(3), page 314, 316,
40. O.R. Vol. 27(3), page 353.
41. Merrill, Catherine. The
Soldier of Indiana in the War for the Union. Indianapolis: Merrill
and Company, 1869, page 102-103 (cited hereafter as Soldier of
42. O.R. Vol 27(1), page 595; Vol.
51(1), page 1065.
43. O.R. Vol 27(3), page 424. Sykes
probably meant he had not had the corps concentrated since Frederick not
44. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 595;
27(3), page 483; Sweitzer to Chamberlain, no date, Joshua L. Chamberlain
Papers, Library of Congress. It was estimated the the Reserves marched
30 miles on June 26, 15 miles on June 28, 20 miles on June 29, 18 miles
on June 30 and 15 miles on July 1. From "Bucktails", page
45. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 595, 653;
Vol. 51(1), page 200; Locke to Chamberlain, 5 July 1886, Box 3, April -
December 1886 Folder, Frost Family Collection, Yale University Library;
Pfanz, Harry W. Gettysburg: The Second Day. Chapel Hill:
University of North Carolina Press, 1987, page 62 and 207 (cited
hereafter as Pfanz).
46. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 592;
Meade, George Gordon, With Meade at Gettysburg. Philadelphia:
John E. Winston, Co., 1930, page 108-109.
47. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 592-593;
Pfanz, page 207. Locke rejoined Sykes just prior to Meade's conference.
The staff, on their own initiative, joined Sykes on the field. General
Birney stated that Sykes "reached my left opportunely", O.R., Vol.
27(1), page 483.
48. Pfanz, page 206; O.R. Vol.
27(1), page 138. For marching rates see: Scott, H. L. Military
Dictionary. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1864, page 403 note. The rate
of march was usually two to two and half miles an hour.
49. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 596, 600,
659; Survivors' Association. History of the Corn Exchange.
Philadelphia: J. L. Smith, 1888, page 240 (cited hereafter as Corn
Exchange); Sweitzer to Chamberlain; Powell, page 526; Nash, Eugene
A. History of the Forty-fourth Regiment New York Volunteer Infantry
in the Civil War, 1861-1865. Chicago: R. R. Donnelly and Sons,
Co., 1910 (Reprint: Morningside House, Inc., Dayton, OH, 1988), page 143
(cited hereafter as Nash).
50. Massachusetts Soldiers,
Sailors, and Marines in the Civil War. Compiled by The Adjutant
General. Norwood, MA: Norwood Press, 1932, Volume 5, pages 338, 378;
O.R., Vol. 51(1), page 891-892.
51. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 659-660;
Gettysburg Compiler, October 24, 1899; Pfanz, page 239.
52. Bandy, Ken, and Freehand,
Florence. The Gettysburg Papers. Dayton, OH: Morningside
Bookshop, 1978, Vol. 2, page 521 (cited hereafter as Gettysburg
Papers); O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 651; O. W. Damon diary, photocopy in
GNMP Files; Nicholson, John P., editor. Pennsylvania at
Gettysburg. Harrisburg: Wm. Stanley Ray, 1914 Vol. 2, page 777
(cited hereafter as PA at Gbg); 155th Regt. Assn. Under the
Maltese Cross. Pittsburgh: 155th Regt. Assn., 1910, page 170; White,
Russell C., ed. The Civil War Diary of Wyman S. White.
Baltimore:Butternut and Blue, 1991, page 166.
53 O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 617, 628.
The troop strengths and casualty figures are from Busey, John W., and
Martin, David G. Regimental Strengths and Losses at Gettysburg.
Hightstown, NJ: Longstreet House, 1986, page 247-250 (cited hereafter as
Busey & Martin).
54. O.R. 27(1), page 617. See also
Desjardin, Thomas A. Stand Firm Ye Boys From Maine: The 20th Maine
and the Gettysburg Campaign. Gettysburg Thomas Publications,
55. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 617, 628;
New York Monuments Commission for the Battlefields of Gettysburg and
Chattanooga, Final Report on the battlefield of Gettysburg. Albany:
J. B. Lyons, Co., 1900, Vol. I, page 371 (cited hereafter as NY at
56. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 651; Vol.
51(1), page 201; PA at Gbg, Vol. I, page 502.
57. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 593;
Pfanz, page 298-299.
58. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 610;
Sweitzer to Chamberlain.
59. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 607; PA
at Gbg, Vol 2, page 634-635.
60. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 601.
61. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 601; Ladd,
David L., and Ladd, Audrey J. The Bachelder Papers: Gettysburg in
Their Own Words. Dayton, OH: Morningside House, Inc., 1994, Vol. I,
page 665. This placed the three regiments on slightly different
elevations, one above and behind another.
62. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 603, 608;
Corn Exchange, page 242-245; PA at Gbg, Vol. 2, page 634-635.
63. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 601,
64. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 379, 593;
Coddington, Edwin B. The Gettysburg Campaign: A Study in Command.
New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1968, page 401.
65. Soldier of Indiana, page
116; O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 634, 645. The marker for the 17th U. S. is
about 140 feet east of the monument for the Fifth New Hampshire at the
intersection of Ayres and Sickles Avenues.
66. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 612, 634;
Pfanz, page 298-299. The Fourth Michigan probably advanced to the area
of the present Irish Brigade Monument.
67. Parker, John L. History of
the Twenty-second Massachusetts Infantry, the Second Company
Sharpshooters, and the Third Light Battery, in the War of the
Rebellion. Boston: Regimental Association, 1887, page 339; Tilton to
Barnes, 14 March 1864, GNMP Files 4-10n; O,R. Vol. 27(1), page 608.
68. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 605;
Corn Exchange, page 272-273; Sweitzer to Chamberlain.
69. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 612; James
Houghton Journal, copy in GNMP Files, 6-4MI.
70. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 645, 646.
For the general principles of wheeling, see: Casey, Silas. Infantry
Tactics. New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1862, Reprint, Dayton, OH:
Morningside House, Inc., 1985, pages 88-94.
71. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 645, 661,
662; NY at Gbg, Vol. 2, page 1189. It is also possible that Gibbs' fire
may have hit some of the Regular Division's "walking wounded" trying to
get back to Little Round Top. Martin's only orders to Barnes had been to
"Follow the Regulars and don't let Sickles get you!" (NY at Gbg: Vol. 3,
72. Gettysburg Papers Vol. 2,
page 523-524; Pfanz, page 240.
73. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 653;
51(1), page 200-201; Crawford, Samuel W. "Pennsylvania Reserves at the
Battle of Gettysburg". Philadelphia Weekly Press, September 8,
1886. Crawford started his move on the Granite Schoolhouse Lane but at
the fork in the road appears to have turned left to follow present day
Hospital Road. The First and Second Divisions probably followed Granite
Schoolhouse Lane to the Taneytown Road.
74. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 653, 657,
658; PA at Gbg. Vol. 2, page 525.
75. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 593 and
653; Philadelphia Weekly Times, September 8, 1886.
76. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 653;
"Bucktails", page 266; George Swope to Philip J. Rau, August 31,
1892, copy in GNMP Files 6-1PA.
77. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 235, 660,
685; Parker, page 313. For more information on Watson's Battery see:
Woods, James A. "Defending Watson's Battery"; Gettysburg
Magazine, #9, July 1993.
78. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 593, 618,
79. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 500, 661,
675. The two batteries served with Colonel Lewis A. Grant and were posted
on the east side of Big Round Top.
80. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 654, 657,
81. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 75, 654,
657; 27(2), page 416-417, 423-424.
82. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 605;
Corn Exchange, page 272-273.
83. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 637, 639,
641, 643; Reese, page 258-260.
84. O.R. Vol. 27(3), page 530, 534,
85. O.R. Vol. 27(3), page 563.
86. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 595;
27(3), page 615.
87. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 595;
27(3), page 672.
88. See Busey and Martin, page
247-250, for a complete breakdown of casualties for each regiment.
89. Gurney to Chamberlain, October
26, 1865, Joshua Chamberlain Papers, Library of Congress, copy in GNMP
90. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 597.
91. O.R. Vol. 27(1), page 594.
92. O.R. Vol. 29(2), page 39-40;
Reese, page 266-268.
93. Cullum, Vol. 1, page 340;
DAB, Vol. 1, page 630-631.
94. Cullum, Vol. 2, page 197;
DAB, Vol. 7, page 617-618.
95. Cullum, Vol. 2, page 195-196;
Warner, page 14.
96. Heitman, Vol. 1, page 337;
Warner, page 99-100; Vanderslice, John M. Gettysburg: Then and
Now. New York: G. W. Dillingham, 1899, page 395.
97. Cullum, Vol. 1, page 255; DAB,
Vol. 9, page 473-474.
98. Nevins, Allan, editor. A
Diary of Battle: The Personal Journals of Colonel Charles S.
Wainwright. New York: Harcourt, Brace, World, Inc. 1962, page 284
and 286; O.R. Vol. 29(2), page 227, 261-262; see also Revised
Regulations for the Army of the United States, 1861, page 38 for the
regulations regarding memorials (Article XXVI).
99. Reese, page 293-294; Letters,
Vol. 2, page 185; Wainwright, page 335; Lyman, Theodore. With Grant
and Meade from the Wilderness to Appomattox. Boston: Atlantic
Monthly Press, 1922, Reprint: Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press,
1994, page 80.
100. O.R. Vol. 41(3), page 12,
763; Vol. 46(2), page 925 Cullum, Vol. 2, page 63 and Supplemental, page
156; DAB, Vol. 17, page 255; Reese, page 351.
101. O.R. Vol. 33, page 724.