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Gettysburg Seminar Papers

UNSUNG HEROES OF GETTYSBURG
 

PETTIGREW AND TRIMBLE:
The Rest of the Story
by Karlton Smith

In the historiography of the events of July 3, 1863, much has been written concerning Major General George E. Pickett and his division. At times, it seems as if they and they alone assaulted the Union line on Cemetery Ridge. There has not been the same interest concerning Major General Isaac R. Trimble and Brigadier General James Johnston Pettigrew and their troops except, for the most part, in a disparaging manner. For Trimble and Pettigrew, and their men, July 3, proved to be a "day of immortal glory as of mournful disaster." [1]

Isaac Ridgeway Trimble was born in Culpepper County, Virginia, on May 15, 1802. He graduated from the United States Military Academy in 1822 and resigned his commission on May 31, 1832. He spent most of the anti-bellum years working for the railroads. Trimble served as Chief Engineer on the York and Wrightsville Railroad (1836-1838) and as General Superintendent on the Philadelphia and Baltimore Central (1859-1861). This experience gave Trimble knowledge of the area between Harrisburg and Baltimore that may have proved useful to General Robert E. Lee in the summer of 1863. [2]

Pettigrew (left), Trimble (right)
(GNMP; Clark's North Carolina Regiments, vol. 5)

In April of 1861, following the attack on the 6th Massachusetts, Trimble accepted the command of a volunteer un-uniformed corps of Baltimore troops. He also became involved in bridge burning activities north of Baltimore. In May of 1861 Trimble accepted the appointment of Colonel of Engineers in the Virginia State troops and on August 9, 1861, he was commissioned a Brigadier General in the Confederate States Army. In September he was charged with constructing batteries along the Potomac River near Evansport, Virginia. In November he reported to General Joseph E. Johnston at Manassas and was assigned to the command of the Third Brigade, Second Division. Trimble, on March 3, 1862, was given control of all operations at Manassas during the Confederate evacuation and was assigned to Richard S. Ewell's Division. [3]

Trimble led his brigade with distinction during the Valley Campaign, the Seven Day's, Cedar Run, and Second Manassas. He was wounded at Second Manassas on August 29, 1862. This wound kept him out of active service for several months. During his convalescence he was promoted to Major General on January 17, 1863. [4]

On May 15, 1863, Trimble wrote to General Robert E. Lee from Shocco Springs, North Carolina, where he was recovering from an attack of camp erysipelas, respectfully requesting "to be placed in some command in your Army of Northern Virginia, where I may, in your opinion, be most useful to our cause." On May 20, Lee proposed to place Trimble in command of the Shenandoah Valley and on May 25 Trimble accepted. This appears to contradict the accepted version of events that Trimble had no command during the Gettysburg Campaign. However, when Trimble reported for duty at Staunton, Virginia, on June 22, he found that most of his forces had been moved or were under orders to leave for Maryland. Trimble joined Lee at Berryville, Virginia, on June 24 and at Lee's request joined Ewell at Carlisle, Pennsylvania, on June 28. Trimble remained with Ewell until about 11:00 a.m. on July 3, when he assumed command of Major General William D. Pender's Division for the attack on the Union center. [5]

James Johnston Pettigrew was born on July 4, 1828, at the family estate of "Bonarva", Lake Scuppernong, Tyrrell County, North Carolina. He entered the University of North Carolina at the age of 15 and graduated with such high marks that he was appointed an assistant professor at the U. S. Naval Observatory in Washington. He began the study of law in 1849 in Baltimore and later studied under his cousin, J. L. Petigru, in Charleston, South Carolina. In 1850 he studied civil law in Germany. Pettigrew's law studies led him to an acquaintance with the German, French, Italian, Spanish, Arabic, and Hebrew languages. In 1852, he was appointed Secretary of Legation to the U. S. Minister at the Court of Madrid. His experiences and observations in Spain led him to privately publish Notes on Spain and the Spanish in 1861. [6]

In 1856, Pettigrew was elected to the South Carolina Legislature where he issued "a thoughtful, well-balanced" minority report against resumption of the slave trade. Perhaps because of this, he failed to win re-election in 1858. He returned to Europe in 1859 hoping to win a commission in the Sardinian army in their fight against Austria, but the war ended before he could take part. Upon returning to Charleston, Pettigrew was elected Colonel of the South Carolina First Regiment of Rifles of Charleston. [7]

Colonel Pettigrew was stationed on Sullivan's Island during the Fort Sumter crises. When his regiment was not accepted into Confederate service, he enlisted in the Hampton Legion. In July of 1861, without any solicitation on his part, Pettigrew was elected Colonel of the 22nd North Carolina (originally the 12th North Carolina). Pettigrew was stationed near Evansport, Virginia, from August 1861 to March 1862, helping to construct and man the batteries placed there. Pettigrew, at first, declined promotion to Brigadier General on the grounds that he had never led troops in action, the promotion would separate him from his regiment and that his services were of more value in furthering the reenlistment and reorganization of his regiment. He finally accepted the appointment on February 26, 1862. [8]

Pettigrew led his new command at the battle of Seven Pines on June 1, 1862, where he was wounded and captured. He was first sent to Baltimore and later transferred to Fort Delaware. On August 27, 1862, Pettigrew was ordered to be exchanged for Union Brigadier General Thomas Turpin Crittenden. [9]

Pettigrew reported for duty on August 11, 1862, and a week later was assigned to the former brigade of Brigadier General John G. Martin, operating in North Carolina under Major General D. H. Hill. On September 27, the North Carolina Senators and Representatives requested that the state be organized into a separate military district and suggested Pettigrew, who "possess the full confidence of the people," to command. The Confederate War Department agreed with the idea of a separate district, but pointed out that Pettigrew could not be assigned without removing a major general and three senior brigadiers. [10]

During the next several months Pettigrew led his brigade with distinction in the operations against the Union occupation of the North Carolina coast. In February, 1863, he was ordered to march to Washington County, North Carolina, "to drive the enemy out of the town of Plymouth and from the counties adjoining Washington." In March, he took part in the expedition against New Bern and was in action at Blount's Creek. While not involved in any "major" actions, this activity provided Pettigrew's Brigade with considerable field and campaign experience. By May 30, Pettigrew's Brigade had been assigned to Henry Heth's Division, A. P. Hill's Corps, Army of Northern Virginia. [11]

The Pickett/Pettigrew Charge, July 3, 1863
(Chester County (NY) Historical Society; click on image for a PDF version)

By June 29, Heth's Division had reached Cashtown, Pennsylvania, about nine miles west of Gettysburg. On the morning of June 30, Heth ordered Pettigrew to go to Gettysburg ostensibly to "search the town for supplies (shoes especially), and return the same day." Without cavalry to screen his front, Heth probably wanted to know what was in Gettysburg and used the "supplies" to justify his actions. Pettigrew, from Seminary Ridge, observed Brigadier General John Buford's Union Cavalry Division approaching Gettysburg from the south, along the Emmitsburg Road, and slowly withdrew towards Cashtown. Pettigrew's report was, apparently, discounted by Heth and Hill. Heth, with Hill's permission, decided to take his whole division to Gettysburg the next morning. [12]

Pettigrew's Brigade saw action on the afternoon of July 1. They advanced, with Brockenbrough's Brigade on their left flank, along the Chambersburg Pike from Herr's Ridge to McPherson's Ridge, striking parts of Meredith's and Biddle's Brigades. Pettigrew was able to drive both brigades from McPherson's Ridge, but at a high cost. (The job of driving Union forces off Seminary Ridge would fall to Major General William D. Pender's Division.) Pettigrew's Brigade, numbering about 2581 officers and men, lost about 800 men on July 1, including the commanding officer of the 26th North Carolina. [13]

At the end of the fighting on July 1, the brigade bivouacked on Herr's Ridge and on the evening of July 2 moved a mile to the right, behind A. P. Hill's guns on Seminary Ridge. [14]

Early on the morning of July 3, General Robert E. Lee held a conference with some of his senior officers to finalize plans for the day. Attending the conference were Lieutenant Generals James Longstreet and A. P. Hill, Major General Henry Heth and at least two members of Lee's staff. At this time Lee determined to launch an attack against the center of the Union line on Cemetery Ridge. The division of Major General George Edward Pickett, of Longstreet's Corps, was chosen because it was the only fresh division on the field. It was probably at this point, that Hill and/or Heth suggested Heth's Division to fill out the column, supported by two brigades from Pender's Division. These units just happened to be in the right position to join the attack. Lee agreed and placed Longstreet in overall command of the attacking forces. [15]

Heth had been slightly wounded on July 1 and had turned command of his division over to General Pettigrew. Pender had been severely wounded by artillery fire on July 2 and his place was initially assumed by Brigadier General James H. Lane. At about 11:00 a.m. on July 3 after the troops were in position, Lane was relieved of division command by Major General Trimble. The four brigades under Pettigrew numbered about 4500 and Trimble's two brigades numbered about 1800. [16]

Pettigrew's command was brought into line about 100 paces behind the line of Hill's guns on Seminary Ridge. His command, from the right, consisted of Archer's Brigade, under Colonel Birket D. Fry; Pettigrew's Brigade, under Colonel James Keith Marshall; the brigade of Brigadier General Joseph R. Davis; and the brigade of Colonel John M. Brockenbrough. There has been some debate over the years as to the exact formation of the division. Normally, a regiment would be deployed in two ranks, forming one line of battle. If the division numbered about 4500 men this would yield a line length of about 3,682 feet. This length would have placed Brockenbrough's left flank opposite the intersection of the Emmitsburg and Taneytown Roads, placing it too far north. I believe the regiments were organized into division columns. This consisted of deploying "the odd companies of the right, and the even companies of the left wing, in rear of the companies on their right and left respectively," and creating two lines of two ranks each. The division frontage would have been cut almost in half, to about 1,841 feet, placing Brockenbrough's left flank just north of the Bliss Farm (in the area of Lane's Brigade Tablet and near the entrance to McMillen Woods Youth Camping) and nearly opposite the Emanuel Trostle farm. [17]

Trimble's command, of about 1800 men, was formed about 150 paces to the rear of Pettigrew's line. Trimble's line, about 1,500 feet, would have added depth and striking power to the center of the attacking column while leaving the left flank, under Brockenbrough, uncovered. This line consisted, from right to left, of Scales' Brigade, under Colonel W. L. J. Lowrance, and the brigade of Brigadier General James H. Lane. Trimble's other two brigades, under Brigadier General Edward L. Thomas and Colonel Abner Perrin, were located along Long Lane, just north of the Bliss Farm and about 300 yards from the crest of Seminary Ridge. It is unclear what their role was to be in the attack. It may be, that they were intended to help support the left flank of the column and take advantage of any opportunity. [18]

Colonel Fry recalled that Pettigrew directed him to see Pickett "at once and have an understanding as to the dress in the advance...General Garnett, who commanded his left brigade, having joined us, it was agreed that he would dress on my command." Fry's brigade thus became the brigade of direction for the attacking column. [19]

At about 1:00 p.m. the artillery bombardment preceding the infantry attack began. Captain S. A. Ashe remembered that the artillery fire "caused the solid fabric of the hills to labor and shake, and filled the air with fire and smoke." General Davis stated that the fire was "heavy and incessant" and reported two men killed and 21 wounded. Colonel Fry remembered that several officers and men in his command were killed and wounded. Fry, himself, received a painful wound in the right shoulder from a shell fragment, but still led his brigade in the attack. [20]

Shortly before 3:00 p.m. the cannonade ceased. Colonel Edward P. Alexander, in charge of Longstreet's artillery, wrote that he sent word to Pickett and Pettigrew that the time had come to advance. Longstreet gave his consent to Pickett, and presumably to Pettigrew as well. Pettigrew rode to Colonel Marshall and said, "Now, Colonel, for the honor of the good old North State, forward." Trimble placed himself between the brigades of Lowrance and Lane. [21]

As Pettigrew started to advance, there was some confusion in the line. Fry and Marshall moved together, but Davis was a little late in starting. Brockenbrough had divided his brigade into two parts. Brockenbrough, commanding his right two regiments, moved after Davis. Colonel Joseph Mayo, of the 47th Virginia, in charge of the left two regiments, could not be found. His two regiments moved without him and had to run to catch up with the rest of the brigade. This staggered movement gave the impression of an echelon movement. Lieutenant Octavius A. Wiggins, 37th North Carolina, Lane's Brigade, had a fine view of the open field when Trimble led his men over Seminary Ridge. "It was a grand sight," Wiggins wrote, "as far as the eye could see to the right and to the left two lines of Confederate soldiers with waving banners pressing on into the very jaws of death." Captain Louis G. Young, of Pettigrew's staff, remembered that the "ground over which we had to pass was perfectly open and numerous fences, some parallel and others oblique to our line of battle, were formidable impediments in our way" [22]

Before reaching the Bliss Farm, Pettigrew found his line under Union artillery fire from guns on Cemetery Hill. Captain F. M. Edgell, 1st New Hampshire, reported that he opened fire with case shot. "I fired obliquely," Edgell wrote, "from my position upon the left of the attacking column with destructive effect, as that wing was broken and fled across the field to the woods." Most of this fire was being directed against Brockenbrough's small brigade of about 500 men. [23]

Brockenbrough's Brigade also found itself under fire from Colonel Franklin Sawyer's 8th Ohio Infantry, posted just west of the Emmitsburg Road and north of the Bliss Farm. Sawyer stated that he "advanced my reserve to the pickett front, and as the rebel line came within 100 yards, we poured in a well-directed fire, which broke the rebel line,..." While Brockenbrough's men would never admit to having their line broken, their advance was clearly stopped by the combined artillery and musketry fire. During this advance, there is no indication that any of the Confederate troops in Long Lane assisted in the attack. This non-involvement allowed Colonel Sawyer to advance. [24]

After stopping Brockenbrough, Sawyer "changed front forward on the left company" so he could now fire into the left flank of Davis' Brigade. As Davis approached to within about 500 yards of the main Union line, Woodruff's Battery I, 1st U. S. Artillery, stationed in Ziegler's Grove, opened fire with double rounds of canister. Second Lieutenant Tully McCrae reported that "the slaughter was dreadful. Never was there such a splendid target for Light Artillery." Colonel Sawyer had a close view of the effect of this fire

Arms, heads, blankets, guns and haversacks were thrown and tossed into the air. Their track, as they advanced, was strewn with dead and wounded. A moan went up from the field, distinctly to be heard amid the storm of battle, but on they went, too much enveloped in smoke and dust now to permit us to distinguish their line or movements, for the mass appeared more like a cloud of moving smoke and dust than a column of troops. Still it advanced amid the now deafening roar of artillery and storm of battle. [25]

At about this time, or a little before, General Longstreet sent a staff officer to warn Trimble about a threat to Pettigrew's left. Lane and Lowrance, conducting a left oblique, moved to take the place of Brockenbrough and reinforce Pettigrew's left flank. Lowrance reported that troops from his front came tearing through his ranks and caused many of the men to break until he ordered his men to charge bayonets. Pettigrew's left was stopped and his line shifted to the right to connect with Pickett's Division. This, along with a closing of the ranks due to casualties, uncovered Lane's Brigade. This caused it to advance more rapidly than Lowrance until it was corrected by Trimble [26]

Pettigrew's three remaining brigades (Fry, Marshall, and Davis) struck the plank fence along the Emmitsburg Road. By this time regimental organization in Pettigrew's Division was breaking down due to casualties, especially among the officers. Trimble wrote that Pettigrew's right brigade (probably both Fry and Marshall) crossed the fence but that the left halted in a deep ditch and went no further. Trimble's command continued to advance. It is probable that some of Davis' men became intermingled with Trimble's command as they started to advance from the Emmitsburg Road. [27]

The Union infantry had been ordered to hold their fire until the enemy reached the Emmitsburg Road. (Because the road does not run parallel to Cemetery Ridge the distance varies - about 165 yards from the Bryan Farm to the road, but about 250 yards from the Angle to the road.) The Confederate troops were "mowed down like grain before the reaper." The 126th New York, plus detachments from the 125th New York and the 1st Massachusetts Sharpshooters, moved out of line to join the 8th Ohio in firing into the left flank of Lane's troops. This would eventually force Lane to detach the 23rd and 28th North Carolina to cover the flank. When Brigadier General William Harrow and Colonel Norman J. Hall moved their Union troops towards the copse of trees to reinforce the Union line, they began firing towards the north across the Angle. As there were no Confederate troops in the Angle at that time, they had to be firing into Pettigrew's right flank. At one point then, Pettigrew's command was receiving fire from three directions. [28]

Despite this fire storm, Pettigrew's and Trimble's men continued to advance. Some men reached the stone wall but there were not enough of them to break the Union line. By this time, Trimble's command had been reduced to about 500 men. [29]

Fry's Brigade hit the Union line just north of the Angle, with some men possibly getting into the Angle itself. All but two regimental flags were captured. The 1st Tennessee, 7th Tennessee, and 13th Alabama lost three color bearers, the last ones at the enemies' works. Captain Norris, 7th Tennessee, saved his flag by tearing it from the flag staff and hiding it under his shirt. The 1st Delaware and the 14th Connecticut, of Brigadier General Alexander Hays' Division, launched counterattacks as the Confederate troops started falling back. [30]

Assistant Surgeon George C. Underwood, 26th North Carolina, recalled the capture of First Sergeant James M. Brooks and David (or Nathaniel) Thomas, both of Company E, 26th North Carolina. As they neared the stone wall, with Thomas carrying the flag, Union troops (possibly from the 12th New Jersey) "called out to them, 'Come over on this side of the Lord', and took them prisoners rather than fire at them." [31]

Joseph G. Marble, 11th Mississippi, Davis' Brigade, planted his regimental colors on the stone wall before he and the colors were captured. Captain W. T. Magruder, Davis' Brigade adjutant, was killed on the north side of the Bryan barn while urging his men on. The loss of four color bearers in the 111th New York bears testimony to the scale of the fighting at the wall. [32]

Trimble recalled that Lowrance's Brigade had been firing from the Emmitsburg Road for about ten minutes before falling back. Captain R. W. William, 13th North Carolina, remembered his cousin, First Lieutenant W. H. Winchester, had his right foot shot off except for the heel string. Colonel Lowrance reported that there were no supports for the attacking column and that "without orders, the brigade retreated, leaving many on the field unable to get off, and some, I fear, unwilling to undertake the hazardous retreat." General Lane reported that he was forced to withdraw because of the threat to his left flank but, he later recalled, that his "was the last command to leave the field and it did so under orders." [33]

Trimble had positioned himself between the brigades of Lowrance and Lane and had reached a large elm tree on the west side of the Emmitsburg Road. As Lowrance's men started to fall back Trimble was hit in the left leg. His aide, seeing the troops falling back, asked if he should try to rally the men. Trimble, realizing that the attack had failed replied, "It's all over! let the men go back." When Lowrance and Lane returned to Seminary Ridge, Trimble directed that the troops be reformed immediately in rear of the artillery, to be prepared to met any Union counterattack. [34]

Pettigrew, who was probably near Marshall's Brigade, had his horse shot from under him and his left hand was shattered by a "grape shot" (or more likely a piece of shell). Pettigrew, like Trimble, directed his division to reform behind the guns on Seminary Ridge. General Lee, after talking with Lieutenant Colonel Shepard, now commanding Archer's Brigade (Colonel Fry having been wounded and captured), met with Pettigrew. Lee directed him to rally his men and added, "General, I am sorry to see you wounded; go to the rear." [35]

Major General George E. Pickett was also met by General Lee and told to rally his men for a possible Union counterattack. As some of Lee's staff were trying to rally Pickett's men on the reverse slope of Seminary Ridge, Pickett ordered his men to fall back to their bivouac of the night before, almost three miles in the rear. Pickett usually does not receive much criticism for seemingly disobeying Lee's orders; while Trimble and Pettigrew never seem to receive much credit for rallying their men to prepare for a possible counterattack. [36]

Because most of Trimble's and Pettigrew's troops fought on both July 1 and July 3, exact casualty figures for July 3 are hard to determine. But it is possible to get a sense of the losses sustained. The 11th Mississippi, Davis' Brigade, which was not engaged on July 1, had entered the battle with 592 officers and men and lost 102 killed, 168 wounded, and 42 missing or captured, nearly 53% of the troops engaged. Colonel Fry, leading Archer's Brigade, and Colonel Marshall, leading Pettigrew's Brigade, were both wounded and captured. Major J. Jones, 26th North Carolina, was the only field officer left in Pettigrew's Brigade and assumed command despite having been struck by a piece of shell on the first day and knocked down and stunned on the third. Lane's Brigade reported losses for the two days at 178 killed, 376 wounded and 238 missing or captured out of 1734 engaged, nearly 46% losses. The Scales'/Lowrance Brigade, reported 175 killed, 358 wounded and 171 missing or captured, out of 1351 engaged. Union Brigadier General Alexander Hays, whose division bore the brunt of Trimble and Pettigrew's attack, reported, "The angel of death alone can produce such a field as was presented." [37]

Trimble, whose left leg had to be amputated by Confederate surgeons, decided to stay behind when Lee left Gettysburg and was captured by Union troops on July 6. Trimble was first taken to the home of Robert McCurdy and later transferred to the Lutheran Seminary. Some Union authorities expressed concern about Trimble's ability to communicate with rebel sympathizers. They also emphasized that he was a notorious bridge burner. Trimble was eventually transferred to the U. S. General Hospital, Newton University, in Baltimore. [38]

On July 4, Lee's army began its retreat from Gettysburg. On July 12, Pender's and Heth's Divisions were consolidated under the command of General Heth. On the evening of July 13, Heth received orders to move his command from Hagerstown to the pontoon bridge at Falling Waters. On reaching an elevated range of hills about a mile and a half from Falling Waters, Heth placed his command in line of battle on either side of the road. At about 11:00 a.m., July 14, Heth received orders that he was to follow Anderson's Division across the river. Shortly afterwards, the rear guard was attacked by a portion of the 6th Michigan Cavalry. Because of his wounded hand, Pettigrew was unable to control his horse which reared and fell on him. While trying to rise, Pettigrew was hit in the left side and seriously wounded. Rather than take the chance of being captured again (as at Seven Pines), Pettigrew insisted that he be taken along with the rest of his command. He was carried by stretcher to the home of a Mr. Boyd at Bunker Hill, Virginia, a distance of 22 miles. He died on the morning of July 17, quietly and without pain. His remains were originally buried at Raleigh, North Carolina, but in 1866 the remains were removed to the family home at "Bonarva." In announcing Pettigrew's death to the Secretary of War, General Lee stated that "The army has lost a brave soldier and the Confederacy an accomplished officer." [39]

By November 9, General Trimble had been sent to Johnson's Island, Ohio. In January, 1864, an effort was made to effect a special exchange between Trimble and Major Harry White, 67th Pennsylvania. Major General Benjamin F. Butler, Union Commissioner of Exchange stated, "We shall only be spit upon for the offer." It seems that Major White was a member of the Pennsylvania State Senate and the Republican majority in the Senate depended upon the inclusion of Major White. This request was turned down by the Confederate authorities as a violation of the established cartels. [40]

On June 26, 1864, Trimble addressed a letter to Brigadier General Henry D. Terry, Commanding Post Sandusky, complaining of conditions on Johnson's Island. Among the complaints cited were officers having to do hard labor, green wood for fuel and the poor quality of the meat and water. Most of the complaints were judged to be "without substantial foundation." [41]

In November of 1864, the Confederate government was permitted to deliver 1000 bales of cotton to Mobile "to be forwarded to the city of New York and there sold, the proceeds to be applied to the benefit of our prisoners..." Trimble, then at Fort Warren, Boston Harbor, had been selected, by the Confederate government, as to whom the consignment was to be made and the officer responsible for the purchase of supplies. While General Grant seems to have agreed with this assignment, Secretary of War Stanton did not. "He cannot be trusted," Stanton said, "and is the most dangerous rebel in our hands." [42]

On March 8, 1865, General Grant directed that Trimble be sent to City Point, Virginia, to be exchanged. Trimble left Fort Warren on March 10. He apparently did not arrive in time to join Lee at Appomattox as his name does not appear on the list of parolees. Trimble returned to his home in Baltimore where he died on January 2, 1888. [43]

While they rarely receive the recognition they deserve for their services on July 3, it is clear that Major General Isaac R. Trimble and Brigadier General J. Johnston Pettigrew performed to the best of their abilities. Pettigrew assumed command of Heth's depleted division on July 1, and Trimble assumed command of Pender's reduced division only two hours before the cannonade opened. By almost all accounts, except those left by Pickett's Virginians, both officers gallantly led their troops in Longstreet's assault. If they were unable to break the Union line it was through no fault of theirs or their troops. Both were wounded while leading their men and both succeeded in rallying their commands on Seminary Ridge, in obedience to Lee's orders. Pettigrew was wounded on July 3 and mortally wounded at Falling Waters on July 14. Trimble was also wounded on July 3 and was later confined as a prisoner of war until March of 1865. While the casualties incurred by their commands would make July 3, 1863, a day of "mournful disaster," Trimble's and Pettigrew's leadership would also make it a "day of immortal glory."

NOTES

1 Captain S.A. Ashe, "The Pettigrew-Pickett Charge." Histories of the Several Regiments and Battalions from North Carolina, ed. Walter Clark, 5 volumes, 1901 (reprint by Broadfoot Bookmark, 1982), Vol. V, 159; hereafter cited as Clark.

2 Dictionary of American Biography (Charles Scribners Sons, 1946), Vol. XVII, 641-42. Hereafter cited as DAB; George W. Cullum, Biographical Register of the Officers and Graduates of the U S. Military Academy at West Point, NY (Houghton-Mifflin, Co., Boston, 1891), Vol. 1, 228.

3 Bert Rhett Talbert, Maryland: The South's First Casualty (Berryville, VA, Rockbridge Publishing Co., 1995), 124; DAB, 641-42; Southern Historical Society Papers (Richmond, VA; reprint: Millwood, NY: Kraus Reprint Co., 1977), Vol. 2, 70; hereafter cited as SHSP; U.S. Department of War, The War of the Rebellion: A Compilation of the Official records of the Union and Confederate Armies (Washington, 1880-1901), Series I, Vol. V, 961; Vol. LI, part 2, 730; hereafter cited as OR. One of the regiments at Evansport was the 22nd NC commanded by Col. James Johnston Pettigrew.

4 Ezra J. Warner, Generals in Gray (Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge and London, 1957), 310. For more information on Trimble's actions in 1862 see his official reports in OR, I, Vol. XII (2), 557 and 646.

5 OR, I, Vol. XXV (2), 801-2, 812, 822; SHSP, Vol. XXVI (1898), 118-121; OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 659; David L. and Audrey J. Ladd, eds, The Bachelder Papers (Dayton, OH: Morningside House, Inc. 1994), Vol. II, 932, cited hereafter as Bachelder.

6 DAB, Vol. XIV, 516; Warner, 237-8; W.R. Bond, Pickett or Pettigrew? (Scotland Neck, NC: W.L.L. Hall, 2nd ed., 1888), 5-6, hereafter cited as Bond.

7 Ibid.

8 OR, I, I, 35-6, 268, 297; OR, I, LI (2), 234, 478; DAB, 516; Clark, Vol. II, 161, 167; Bond, 7; SHSP, Vol. II, 60.

9 OR, Series II, Vol. III, 645, 891; Vol. IV. 18, 25-6, 450. Warner, Generals in Blue (Louisiana State University Press, Baton Rouge and London, 1964), 101.

10 OR, I, Vol. IX, 480; Vol. LI (2), 627-8.

11 Ibid., Vol. XVIII, 750, 788, 807, 874-5, 974; Vol. XXV (2), 840.

12 Ibid., Vol. XXVII (2), 637; Clark, Vol. V, 115; SHSP, Vol. IV, 1879), 157.

13 Edwin B. Coddington, The Gettysburg Campaign (Dayton, OH: Morningside Bookshop, 1979), 293; John W. Busey and David G. Martin, Regimental Strengths and Losses at Gettysburg (Hightstown, NJ: Longstreet House, 1964) 290; OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 637-8, 642-3.

14 OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 643.

15 Armistead A. Long, Memoirs of Robert E. Lee (New York, 1886), 288; OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 308, 359.

16 OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 659.

17 Silas Casey, Infantry Tactics (New York: D. Van Nostrand, 1862; reprint, Dayton, OH: Morningside House Press, 1985), 202-09; OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 359.

18 OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 659.

19 SHSP, Vol. V, 140; SHSP, Vol. VII, 92; OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 650.

20 Clark, Vol. V, 140; OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 650; SHSP, Vol. VII, 92.

21 E.P. Alexander letter to his father, dated July 17, 1863, in the "Alexander-Hillhouse Papers," Southern Historical Collection, University of North Carolina (copy in GNMP files); OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 360; Clark, Vol. II, 365.

22 Clark, Vol. II, 651; OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 644.

23 OR, I, Vol. XXVII (1), 750 and 893.

24 Ibid., 462. Although there is no official indication that the brigades in Long Lane did anything more than watch the charge, at least one unofficial source indicates that General Thomas did issue an order to advance, but only the 35th GA did so (see Heroes and Martyrs of Georgia by James Madison Faban (1864), 138-9).

25 Ibid. Franklin Sawyer, A Military History of the 8th Regiment Ohio Vol. Inf'y (Cleveland, OH: Fairbanks & Co., 1881; reprint, Huntington, WV: Blue Acorn Press, 1994), 131. "Reminiscences about Gettysburg, 30 Mar 1904" by Tully McCrae, MS in private collection, George Stanly Smith, Sacketts Harbor, NY (copy in GNMP files).

26 G. Moxley Sorrel, Recollections of a Confederate Staff Officer (Jackson, TN: McGowat-Mercer Press, Inc., 1958), 164; OR, I, XXVII (2), 659, 671-2.

27 Bachelder, Vol. II, 933.

28 William P. Seville, History of the First Regiment Delaware Volunteers (Wilmington, DE, 1884; reprint, Baltimore, MD: Longstreet House, 1986), 81; Clark, Vol. V, 190; Bachelder, Vol. I, 408; OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 651.

29 OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 672.

30 Ibid., 647; OR I, Vol. XXVII (1), 467, 469, 480.

31 Clark, Vol. II, 374.

32 New York Monuments Commission for the Battlefields of Gettysburg and Chattanooga, The Final Report on the Battlefield of Gettysburg (cover title New York at Gettysburg; Albany, NY: J.B. Lyon Company, 1900), Vol. 2, 803; Mississippi Historical Society, Vol. II (1918), 561.

33 Clark, Vol. I, 672; Vol. II, 478; OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2) 666, 672; Bachelder, Vol. II, 934.

34 Bachelder, Vol. II, 933-4; Gregory A. Coco, A Vast Sea of Misery (Gettysburg, PA: Thomas Publications, 1988), 36; OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 667.

35 Clark, Vol. II, 366; Bond, 7; George R. Stewart, Pickett's Charge (Cambridge, MA: Riverside Press, 1959), 256.

36 Jacob Hoke, The Great Invasion (New York: Thomas Yoseloff, 1959), 426-7.

37 Busey and Martin, 290, 292; Clark, Vol. V, 111; OR, I, Vol. XXVII (1), 454; Vol. XXVII (2), 645.

38 Coco, 36; OR, II, Vol. VI 103, 107-8, 451; I, Vol. XXVII (1), 646, 663.

39 OR, I, Vol. XXVII (2), 667, 639-41; I, Vol. XXVII (3), 1016. Clark, Vol. II 376-7; DAB 642.

40 OR, II, Vol. VI, 486, 839, 871; Vol. VIII, 380.

41 Ibid., Vol. VI, 900-01.

42 Ibid., Vol. VII, 1117, 1131

43 Ibid., Vol. VIII, 366, 375; SHSP, Vol. XV; DAB, 642.

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