In Lasting Tribute:
The U.S. Army and Gettysburg - Post 1863
Director of the Center for the Study of the Civil War at Shepherd College
Army Field Manual 22-100 is the standard guide for
teaching leadership skills to the junior officers and non-commissioned
officers of our modern army. It is used at West Point, in ROTC
detachments, at the Officer Candidate School, and in all of the primary
leadership development courses for enlisted soldiers. One might be
surprised then to turn to the first page of the manual and see a picture
of Colonel Joshua Chamberlain followed by a case study of his actions
along the rock-strewn slope of Little Round Top. The question soon
arises: What is the relationship between a battle fought 132 years ago
and modern warfare? The answer is simple. Although weapons and tactics
change, the traits of a good leader remain the same, whether that leader
fought at Gettysburg, in the Ardennes Forest, or in Kuwait. Thus, the
United States Army of today seeks to instill in its leaders the skills
and values that enabled men like Joshua Chamberlain to overcome great
odds and lead soldiers to victory. Presently, those who wear the Army
green do not just read about this great battle and the men who fought
it. Through the use of historical staff rides, modern warriors have
returned to these once-bloody fields to teach senior officers and cadets
alike the successes and mistakes of their predecessors.
But the relationship between the U.S. Army and the
Gettysburg battlefield is not a recent manifestation. In fact, it has
been an intermittent affair since the initial days of July, 1863. During
the next century and more, American soldiers in blue, khaki, cadet-grey,
olive-drab, and camouflage uniforms descended upon these hallowed fields
to study, train for other battles, and commemorate the deeds of those
who went before them.
With the departure of the Army of Northern Virginia
and the Army of the Potomac from the area surrounding this little town
during the summer of 1863, the bond between the Army and Gettysburg
began to weaken. Winning the war and reconstructing the South would be
more important to the Army than memorializing its heroes or learning
from this great Civil War battlefield. Though invalid soldiers
recuperating from battle wounds remained in Gettysburg and its environs
into 1864, there were few other troops in the area thereafter, except
for units participating in the dedication of the National Cemetery in
November, 1863 and soldiers attending the 1865 dedication of the
Soldiers' National Monument.  The surrender of the
Confederacy in the spring of 1865 once again brought into focus the
irregular warfare between soldiers on the frontier and the Indian
nations they were trying to conquer. Subduing these formidable foes
would keep military minds occupied for the next few decades.
The first time a large body of troops "invaded"
Gettysburg after the war was when the Pennsylvania National Guard went
into division camp at Gettysburg for seven days in 1884.  What a sight these men from the Keystone State must
have been as they arrived dressed in their Civil War-vintage uniforms,
carrying the same muzzle-loading muskets used to such effect a
generation before! Many of the Guard's officers had fought in the war,
some even at Gettysburg, and surely there were Guardsmen whose fathers
had participated in the bloody struggle. Camped on the battlefield, the
part-time soldiers were reviewed by General Phil Sheridan, a Civil War
legend in his own right, who in 1884 was the Commanding General of the
United States Army. 
The National Guard of Pennsylvania would camp and
train at Gettysburg on several more occasions during the rest of the
nineteenth century and into the early years of the twentieth. Once in a
while the presence of guard units had little to do with training. In
1889 a Guard regiment from the Johnstown area went to Gettysburg to
support the veterans' encampment of the Grand Army of the Republic.
These guardsmen could not attend regular summer maneuvers with the rest
of the state forces because they had lost most of their arms and
equipment in the great Johnstown Flood. 
The first appearance of a large force of Regular
units at Gettysburg was not until 1894, when elements of the active Army
went into camp with the Pennsylvania National Guard. According to an
early historian of the Guard, "The Cavalry and artillery were encamped
with Regular Army artillery on the east side of the Taneytown Road.
General Headquarters and the rest of the troops were on Seminary Ridge
on the same ground occupied by General Lee's forces during the Battle of
On February 11th, 1895, Congress passed legislation
establishing Gettysburg National Military Park. The Gettysburg
Battlefield Memorial Association, founded less than a year after the
battle, thereupon transferred to the park the 600 acres it had acquired.
 Daniel S. Lamont, Grover Cleveland's Secretary of
War, meanwhile had appointed a commission for "purchasing of land for
avenues and marking the positions of troops, [supervising]...the
construction and fencing of the avenues...and [the procurement
of]...tablets...to mark the positions of troops." The three members of
the commission and the first park superintendent, Lieutenant Colonel
E.B. Cope, formerly of the Corps of Engineers, were all Civil War
Under the supervision of the War Department the
Gettysburg battlefield was transformed into one of the best known and
most manicured historical sites in the country. When an officer from the
Army Inspector General's Bureau examined the National Military Park in
1904, his report reflected the immense strides which Colonel Cope had
made. In the nine years since the Army assumed responsibility for the
battlefield, avenues had been constructed, wood and steel fences
erected, road gutters paved, and vegetation planted. Stone fences had
been reconstructed where they existed during the battle, 324 cannon and
462 tablets marking troop positions were erected, and five steel
observation towers were built, a few of which still exist. According to
the inspector, "The character of the work done and the general
conditions showed a very intelligent and thorough system as to
construction, care, and maintenance." In a comment that would surprise
anyone who has ever dealt with and "I.G.," the inspector wrote: "I have
nothing to suggest in the way of improvements upon the methods and
systems of the [Gettysburg National Military Park] Commission." 
About this time, around the turn of the century,
cadets from the United States Military Academy began making the 500-mile
round trip to Gettysburg during the spring of their senior year. This
"staff ride," made by the entire First Class of the Corps of Cadets,
became an annual occurrence and lasted through 1915.  During their excursion, cadets studied the lay of the
land, analyzed the strategy of commanders, and evaluated unit tactics
through the use of terrain walks and guided tours. For a bird's eye view
of the field, they could ascend one of the new steel observation towers.
Cadets who visited the field during these early years
of the twentieth century included many future commanders of the World
Wars and Korean War, such as "Vinegar Joe" Stillwell, George S. Patton,
and Omar Bradley. Some would pay the ultimate price of patriotism, just
as their predecessors had done at Gettysburg only a few decades earlier.
In 1905 one cadet wrote: "The [trips] have taught us many things which
are not in the books and which some of us never would have learned
otherwise."  Writing to his future wife from the
Eagle Hotel in Gettysburg on May 11th, 1909, Cadet Patton painted a
mystical portrait of the battlefield. Listen to his thoughts:
...There is to me strange fascination in looking at
the scenes of the awful struggles which raged over this country. A
fascination and a regret. I would like to have been there too.
This evening after supper I walk down to the scene of
the last and greatest struggle on Cemetery Hill. To get in a proper
frame of mind I wandered through the cemetery and let the spirits of the
dead, thousands laid there in ordered rows, sink deep into me. Then just
as the son [sic] sank behind the South Mountains I walked down to the
scene of Pickett's great charge and seated on a rock just where... two
of my great uncles died I watched the wonder of the day go out.
The sunset painted a dull red the fields over which
the terrible advance was made and I could almost see them coming growing
fewer and fewer while around and behind me stood calmly the very cannon
that had so punished them. There were some quail calling in the trees
near by and it seemed strange that they could do it where man had known
his greatest and last emotions. It was very wonderful and no one came
to bother me. I drank it in until I was quite happy. A strange pleasure
yet a very real one.
I think that it takes and evening like that to make
one understand what men will do in battle. It was a wonderful yet
foolish battle. 
Six years later, in the midst of World War I, Cadet
Edwin Kelton, Class of 1915, shared his impression of the
battlefield. Here's what he wrote:
We had a glorious time at Gettysburg. The weather
most of the time was ideal. Only when on top of the steel tower on Big
Round Top did the mist get so thick that we could not see the
battlefield. Monday morning we spent in driving over the field, reading
tablets and trying to get an idea of how the fighting did take place. I
can't say that we learned much in the way of tactics and how to lead
troops, but at least we gained a wholesome respect for those boys and
men who advanced in solid lines upon an infantry line that was hurling
death at them, besides artillery sending out a steady stream of
shrapnel.... No, I have not much desire to see this country go to war
again, but if the Germans don't wake up pretty soon I shall be forced to
become an Ally. 
The Germans, however, did not "wake up," and many of
these young West Pointers would be called upon to apply the lessons they
learned at the Academy and on their battlefield tours after America's
entry into the "war to end all wars."
The cadets thus sought to learn from Gettysburg and
the results were sometimes of considerable importance. One of Cadet
Kelton's classmates, a young Kansan names Dwight David Eisenhower,
returned three years after his spring trip.  He
and his new wife Mamie made their way to South-central Pennsylvania
where Ike would become commander of the Army's first training camp for
the fledgling Tank Corps. Located in an area over which the left flank
of Pickett's Charge came, the cantonment area already had been occupied
by soldiers of the Fourth and Seventh Infantry Regiments of the Regular
Army a few years before. The training ground was renamed Camp Colt in
honor of the revolver manufacturer. 
(Incidentally, this was not the first time the Army used a battlefield
park as a major training area prior to embarking on a campaign. In 1898,
the Army trained on the Chickamauga battlefield, the first of the Civil
War battlefields to become a National Park, prior to sailing for Cuba in
the war against Spain.)
As Mamie tried to make a home out of the residence
the Eisenhowers had rented adjacent to the Gettysburg College campus,
Lieutenant Colonel Eisenhower and his staff attended to the
administration and logistics of running an army training camp. During
the first months of his command the camp grew from an initial contingent
of 500 men to a population, by the end of July, of 10,000 enlisted men
and 600 officers.  Temporary barracks sprang up
west of the Emmittsburg Road across the fields over which Pickett's
Charge occurred, and I am told that chunks of cement from the camp's
in-ground swimming pool, which was located in front of the High Water
Mark Memorial, can still be found in the ravine there.
Eisenhower soon issued orders to saloons and bars in
town not to sell liquor to his troops. He was authorized to close all
such establishments within five miles, but opted to keep them open and
have his provost marshal "keep an eye on them." 
In the words of young Eisenhower, "Things seemed to be working out until
I got a report that a man who owned a sizable hotel with a bar had been
surreptitiously serving liquor to men in uniform." Eisenhower thus had a
decision to make: he either could close the hotel and run the risk of
angering the local politicians, or he could ensure that his soldiers
could not sneak in for drinks. Ike chose the latter course. He posted
guards at the front of the hotel to prevent any soldiers from entering.
The hotel owner complained to his congressman. Eisenhower would not lift
the guard. The owner wrote to the War Department. Ike received a letter
from the Assistant Secretary of War commending him. The owner gave up,
and even apologized to Eisenhower. Threatening to shut him down if
anything happened again, Ike removed the guards. 
Tanks were not available in the United States in the
summer of 1918, so Ike drilled his men by practicing with machine guns
and small-caliber naval cannon, the former mounted on truck beds. Years
later, the man who became the 34th President reminisced about those
days. Listen to what he said:
The only satisfactory place for firing was Big Round
Top, a terrain feature that has a prominent place in the history of the
Battle of Gettysburg. Its base made a perfect backstop. Soon, soldiers
were shooting from moving trucks at all kinds of targets there and the
firing might have been heavier than during the great battle fifty-five
years earlier. 
But the principal problem Eisenhower faced at Camp
Colt was not lack of tanks; it was an invisible killerSpanish
Influenza. In September, 1918, Colt received a group of drafted men from
another camp. Eisenhower reported that soon after, some of the men were
"registering high fevers and were obviously very ill. The camp surgeon
immediately took countermeasures. Before noon, 'Spanish Flu' was
recognized." As in 1863. the town's churches were again converted to
make-shift hospitals, and army doctors treated soldiers and civilians
alike. By the end of the first week, 175 of Eisenhower's soldiers were
Gradually, things returned to normal. The Army was
planning on transferring Eisenhower's troops to North Carolina before
colder weather, as there were no suitable winter quarters at Camp Colt.
Before the move could occur, however, November 11th rolled around and
the war was over. Tank training was discontinued on November
18thone day before the 55th anniversary of the Gettysburg Address.
The camp was abandoned on August 15th, 1919.  But
the Eisenhowers could not totally abandon Gettysburg. As we all know,
Ike and Mamie would return years later to purchase a house and pass
their remaining years in the solitude of the old battlefield.
The end of World War I and departure of the doughboys
from Camp Colt did not end relations between the U.S. Army and
Gettysburg. The War Department administered the National Military Park
until 1933, when it was transferred to the National Park Service. In
1938 the Army returned, this time as part of the 75th anniversary
celebration of the battle. But before discussing the Army's role in the
1938 celebration, let's back up a bit and take a look at the 50th
anniversary in 1913. This indeed was the celebration to end all
celebrations. It marked Gettysburg as a great meeting place of American
history and patriotism, and it was a grand success largely because of
the efforts of the officers and soldiers of the U.S. Army.
As early as January 1912, War Department officials
had met with representatives of the Pennsylvania Commission, 50th
Anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg, and the Joint Special Committee
of the Congress to make provisions for the anniversary celebration. An
Act of Congress of August 26th, 1912 authorized $150,000 to the War
Department, matched by an equal amount from the Commonwealth of
Soon after Congress gave the nod of approval, the
Army set up a "joint headquarters" in Gettysburg with the Pennsylvania
Commission.  The bulk of administrative and
logistical matters concerning the anniversary became the responsibility
of the Quartermaster Department, which possessed expertise in
transportation, supply, and food service for large numbers of men. The
task would be monumental, with requirements to feed, shelter, and
transport 53,000 elderly Northern and Southern veterans "whose average
age was probably well over 70 years."  An army
physician who served during the celebration guessed that "never before
in the world's history... [had] so great a number of men so advanced in
years been assembled under field conditions." 
The Army sent nearly 1,500 soldiers to the "Great
Camp," as the cantonment of the reunion would be called. The War
Department deemed these soldiers "necessary for... proper administration
of its many . . . details, and to police and protect the camp. . . [and]
the avenues throughout the battlefield."  When the
reporters (155invited as guests of the government) and the
civilian cooks, bakers, and kitchen police (2,170) were added to the
list, the total number of "campers" came to over 57,000. 
To command the Great Camp, the Army detailed
Brigadier General Hunter Liggett, who would become well-known during
World War I as Commanding General of the American Expeditionary Force's
First Army. Liggett's career would be remembered when the Army named a
post in California after him, but two junior officers who served under
him at Gettysburg were destined to surpass him in the annals of American
military history: lieutenants in 1913 were Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr.
and George S. Patton, Jr. The son of the Confederate general who
surrendered Fort Donelson to General U.S. Grant in 1862, Buckner rose to
the rank of lieutenant general, and became the ranking American soldier
to die in combat during World War II when he was killed while commanding
on Okinawa in 1945. In 1913 Patton accompanied the 1st Squadron, 15th
Cavalry Regiment. This unit, along with two battalions of the 5th
Infantry; Battery D, 3rd Artillery; Company C, 1st Engineers; and 288
officers and enlisted men of the Medical Department comprised the bulk
of the Regulars at Gettysburg that year. 
Remarkably, the usually long-winded Patton had little to note on this
"visit" to Gettysburg. From his letters, he obviously wasn't enamored
with his role as a "park policeman," as he called it. Commenting on the
elderly veterans, he wrote: "They are a disgusting bunch, dirty and old,
and of the people who 'God Loves.' One old hound has been beating a drum
ever since he got here. Two others have a cannon which they fire as
often as possible." 
From June 29th until July 6th the Union and
Confederate veterans took part in the celebration honoring their deeds
from fifty years before. Many of the addresses and official functions of
the reunion took place in the "Great Tent" that the Army troops erected
just east of the Emmittsburg Road. To truly appreciate the magnitude of
the army's responsibilities during the reunion, consider the following
statistics: camp dimensions247 acres; tents erected-6,592; mess
kits issued54,000; meat consumed156,410 pounds; telephone
wire laid90 miles; medical cases treated9,986.  Complicating matters was the heat, exceeding 100
degrees on July 2. There was the confusion created by thousands of
wandering tourists. And, as mentioned, the frailty of the honored
guests. Yet the celebration went off without a hitch. 
Twenty-five years later the U.S. Army was once again
called upon to assist with another anniversary, this time the last
reunion of Northern and Southern veterans. The Park Service had taken
over the administration of Gettysburg National Military Park five years
earlier, so the Army's responsibility during the 1938 Battle Anniversary
was far less than in 1913. In fact, the presence of the soldiers was
more theatrical than practical. According to the official report, "a
large, active United States Army representation... would do much to
indelibly impress upon the minds of all that Americanism is the only
form of 'ism' patriotically sanctioned in this country."  During an era racked by fears of Communism, Naziism,
and Fascism, with the country still in the grips of the worst depression
in its history, the presence of the Army at the anniversary of the
battle, more than anything else, was symbolic of a strong central
Infantry, artillery, cavalry, armor, and coast
artillery did stage maneuvers, to the delight of the old warriors and
hundreds of thousands of spectators. An equipment exhibit was set up,
and the Air Corps undertook a fly-over. 
Construction and administration of the Veteran's camp was accomplished
by the 28th Division, Pennsylvania National Guard. But there were only a
few old veterans this time. Attendance was 1,800. Average age was 91.
 The torch was being passed to a newer generation
During World War II, Gettysburg was not heard from
much, and nearly slipped from public notice. Few people had time or
gasoline to visit, and the Army had better things about which to worry
than teaching officers the problems of Lee and Meade. The Eternal Light
Peace Memorial, lit by President Franklin D. Roosevelt during the 75th
anniversary, had to be extinguished to preserve the natural gas it
consumed. Then in 1944, a POW camp was established on the battlefield to
detain German prisoners who provided agricultural labor for Adams
County's many farms, orchards, and food processing plants. Housed first
in the National Guard Armory on Seminary Ridge and the relocated to the
fields adjacent to the "Home Sweet Home" Motel, the camp housed up to
500 POWs and 90 guards. Better housing for the American soldiers
eventually was located in the old Civilian Conservation Corps camp
located near McMillan Woods, and came to be called "Camp Sharpe." But
when the demand for labor diminished as winter approached, the prisoners
were moved and the camp was closed in January, 1945.  (Mention the escapes and the curiosity displayed
toward the Nazis by some of the local girls; also discuss the
relationship and escape plan by the Ortanna girl that was thwarted by
In 1951, in the midst of yet another war, the Army
War College moved to Carlisle Barracks, only twenty-eight miles from
here. Ever since, the senior officers who attend the school have made
annual battlefield tours.  Jay Luvaas and
Brigadier General Hal Nelson, two historians who authored a book on this
subject and continue to lead staff rides for military personnel, have
this to say about what modern-day officers strive to learn:
It seeks to enable the professional soldier to learn
more about his trade through the study and analysis of an old
battlefield in areas involving leadership, battle intelligence, the use
of terrain, unit cohesion, tactics, the psychology of man in combat, or
any other aspect of the military art that will always be applicable....
Senior officers are not the only students who still
learn from Gettysburg. While I was an ROTC cadet at Gettysburg College
in the mid-1970s, I trudged up Oak Ridge and through McPherson's Woods
along with my fellow cadets. Armed with a topographical map, compass,
and binoculars, our military science instructors endeavored to show the
problems of battlefield leadership in 1863 so American soldiers in
future battles might benefit.
In 1986, cadets of the United States Military Academy
one again began making the annual Gettysburg visit. Since then, cadets
enrolled in "History of the Military Art" are offered a weekend staff
ride to enhance classroom instruction. The week before the trip they
receive a classroom introduction to the battle and read The Killer
Angels. Upon arrival at the park, the cadets set out for the field
in small groups, employing maps and first-hand accounts of the fighting
to get a "feel" for what it might have been like to wage combat during
those three terrible days in July so long ago.
During a staff ride several years ago, one cadet
group was told to make its way up the rocky front slope of Little Round
Top. As the cadets struggled over the boulders and through the brush, I
reminded them that Confederate soldiers who attempted the same climb in
1863 were carrying muskets and equipment, were wearing wool uniforms in
90-degree heat, and were probably hungry, thirsty, and scared out of
their witsthousands of lead balls were whizzing past their heads,
the smoke and noise deadened their senses, and comrades lay dead and
wounded all around them. Afterward, when questioned how a young officer
might have inspired his men under those circumstances, here's what one
cadet said: "Sir, I've seen pictures of this place and read about it
before, and if I was asked that question in class I probably would have
given a textbook response." Pausing for a moment he reflected, "But out
here, actually climbing up the hill and imagining what those guys went
through... well, I just don's know. We had a tough time getting to the
top with nobody shooting at us." Another cadet just shook his head and
remarked "Those men sure had guts." Perhaps the real lesson of the staff
ride was similarily made by another cadet on a staff ride two years
later she said "Looking back now I realize that the most important thing
that I learned was how it must feel to stand on a piece of terrain and
make a decision that will affect the lives of soldiers and their
In recent years, especially since the Ken Burns
series and Ted Turner's movie, the American people have gained a
renewed interest in Gettysburg. But gone are the vestiges of Camp Colt,
although a housing development and city park occupy part of the site and
bear the camp's name. Ike Eisenhower is still remembered though, as
droves of sightseers board buses which take them to his retirement
house, now known as Eisenhower National Historic Site. They gaze at his
bed and remark on the color of Mamie's drapes, but few know, or even
care, that the thirty-fourth president first came to Gettysburg as a
young soldier, long before D-Day or the White House.
In the many years since the end of the Battle of
Gettysburg, the U.S. Army has changed dramatically. M-1 Tanks, Apache
Attack Helicopters, Patriot Missiles, and automatic weapons have
replaced horses and muzzle-loading weapons; artillerymen no longer have
to see their targets to hit them; and battlefield computers are
commonplace. But there are still lessons to be learned from places like
Devil's Den, the Peach Orchard, and Culp's Hill. That is why the current
and future leaders of the United States Army continue to return to this
hallowed ground, like Antaeus of Greek mythology, to touch the earth and
renew their strength.
1. William A. Frassanito.
Gettysburg: A Journey in Time. New York: Charles A. Scribner,
1975. p. 123
2. Charles M. Clement, ed.
Pennsylvania in the World War. Pittsburgh: States Publication
Society, 1921. Volume 1, p. 101.
4. Ibid., p. 102. This was the 12th
5. Ibid., p. 104.
6. Frederick Tilberg.
Gettysburg. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1954
(rev. ed., 1962). Pp. 46-47.
7. United States Government.
Annual Reports of the Gettysburg National Military Park Commission to
the Secretary of War, 1893-1904. Washington: Gov's Printing Office,
1905. Pp. 7-10
8. Ibid., pp. 103-107
9. Richard Rowe. "Gettysburg Staff
Ride." Assembly, vol. XLV, no. 2, September, 1986. Pp.
10. Ibid., pp. 30-31.
11. Quoted in Rowe, "Gettysburg
12. Martin Blumenson, ed. The
Patton Papers, 1885-1940 (Boston, 1972). Volume 1, pp. 191-192.
13. Cadet Edwin C. Kelton to
Florence Hatton, May 5, 1915. Kelton Papers. USMA Special Collections,
USMA Library, West Point, NY.
14. Dwight D. Eisenhower. At
Ease. Garden City, NY: Doubleday, 1967. In a footnote on p. 145,
Eisenhower acknowledges that he was present "when my class came down
from West Point in 1915 for our pre-graduation visit."
15. Eisenhower, At Ease. p.
137. Robert B. Roberts. Encyclopedia of Historic Forts. New York:
MacMillan Publishing, 1988. p. 677. The information concerning the 4th
and 7th Infantry was provided by Kathy Harrison, chief historian of
Gettysburg National Military Park.
16. Eisenhower, At Ease.
17. Ibid., p. 144
18. Ibid., pp. 144-145
19. Ibid. Camp Colt eventually
received three small French tanks manufactured by Renault. They arrived,
however, without weapons (At Ease, p. 147).
20. Ibid, pp. 148-9.
21. Eisenhower, At Ease. p.
149. Roberts, Historic Forts. p. 677.
22. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Fiftieth Anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg:Report of the
Pennsylvania Commission. Harrisburg: William S. Ray, State Printer,
1914. Pp. 11-14. The total amount of money allocated by the various
state governments and veterans' organizations for the anniversary came
to over $1,175,000 (Report of the Pa. Commission, p. 37).
23. Ibid., p. 14.
24. Ibid., p. 60.
26. Ibid., p. 40. In addition to
soldiers of the Regular Army, officers and men of the Penna. National
Guard also took part in the anniversary celebration.
28. Ibid., pp. 42-45.
29. Patton Papers. Vol. 1, p.
30. Ibid., pp. 40-42, 64.
31. Ibid., pp. 55, 232-234. Nine of
the old veterans died during the celebration, but considering the
advanced age of participants and the problems associated with the heat
and general excitement, the mortality rate was quite low.
32. Commonwealth of Pennsylvania.
Report of the Pennsylvania Commission of the Seventy-fifth
Anniversary of the Battle of Gettysburg. Gettysburg: Times &
News Publishing Co., 1939. Vol. 4, p. 341.
33. Ibid., pp 324, 341-42.
34. Ibid., p. 325. On p. 444 there
is and excerpt from the Milwaukee Journal which claimed that the
youngest veteran was 86, the oldest 99, and the average age was 91.
35. "The Prisoner of War Camps
located in or Near Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, During World War II,
1944-46." No date or author. Historical Files at GNMP, Gettysburg,
36. Jay Luvaas and Harold W. Nelson.
The U.S. Army War College Guide to the Battle of Gettysburg.
Carlisle: South Mountain Press, 1986. p. x.
37. Ibid., pp x-xi. One officer who
attended the War College said that there "is something to be gained from
walking those fields that will never on a computer terminal or Pentagon
briefing chart" (p. xi).
38. Ibid. (1989).