Fort Vancouver
Historic Furnishings Report: Bakery
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Campbell, D. (Great Britain, Department of the Environment). Letter to J. A. Hussey, London, November 2, 1973.

Creasey, John S. (Assistant Keeper, Museum of English Rural Life). Letter to J. A. Hussey, Reading, England, August 1, 1973.

Dudley, Caroline (Keeper of Archaeology, Art Gallery and Museums Department, Royal Pavilion). Letter to J. A. Hussey, Brighton, England, October 1, 1973.

Early, Richard (of Charles Early & Marriott, Ltd., England). Letter to Arthur Woodward, [n. p.], July 27, 1962. Copy in possession of J. A. Hussey through courtesy of Mr. Wayne Colwell.

Ermatinger, Edward. Note Book, 1826-1828. In Edward Ermatinger, Papers, vol. 4, in Public Archives of Canada, Ottawa.

Fleming, David (Historical Research Section, Research Division, National Historic Parks and Sites Branch, Parks Canada). Letter to J. A. Hussey, Ottawa, October 25, 1973.

Fort Vancouver. Correspondence Outward. Letters signed by John McLoughlin. In Provincial Archives of British Columbia, Victoria.

Goldring, Philip. The Doctor's Office, the Walls, and the North-West Bastion: Lower Fort Garry: the History of their Structures and Functions. Typewritten. Ottawa, Ontario: National Historic Sites Service, June 1, 1971.

Holmes, Silas. Journal Kept by Assistant Surgeon Silas Holmes During a Cruise in the U. S. Ship Peacock and Brigs Porpoise and Oregon, 1838-1839-1840-1841-1842 Exploring Expedition. 3 vols. In Beinecke Rare Book and Manuscript Library, Yale University Library.

Hudson's Bay Company. Records. Several series in the vast collections of the Hudson's Bay Company were consulted during the preparation of this report, both in the Company's Archives in London and through the microfilm copies in the Public Archives of Canada at Ottawa. These records were used through the kind permission of the Hudson's Bay Company.

Lowe, Thomas. Journals Kept at Fort Vancouver, Columbia River, 1843-1850. Typewritten transcript. In the Provincial Archives of British Columbia.

United States. Department of the Interior. General Land Office Records, Old Townsites Series, Docket I (165) [Vancouver], Box No. 31. In Division of Interior Department Records, the National Archives, Washington, D. C.

United States. War Department. Office of the Quartermaster General. Quartermaster Consolidated Correspondence File, "Bread," Box 103, R. G. 92. In the National Archives.


Collections of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, XIX (1910).

Dodman, A. E. "Hudson's Bay 'Point' Blankets," in The Beaver, Outfit 257, No. 3 (December, 1926), 22-24.

Elliott, T. C. "British Values in Oregon, 1847," in Oregon Historical Quarterly, XXXII (March, 1931), 27-45.

Jobson, Allan. "Art of Brick-Oven Baking," in Country Life (February 25, 1949), 420-421.

Mackay, Douglas. "Blanket Coverage," in The Beaver, Outfit 266, No. 1 (June, 1935), 45-52.

McKenzie, N. M. W. J. "Forty Years in Service of the Hudson's Bay Company Inland," in The Beaver, vol. I, no. 3 (December, 1920), 13-14, 32; no. 5 (February, 1921), 14-16; no. 7 (April, 1921), 14, 18-19.

Roberts, George B. "The Round Hand of George B. Roberts," in Oregon Historical Quarterly, LXIII (June-September, 1962), 101-236.

Schafer, Joseph (editor). "Documents Relative to Warre and Vavasour's Military Reconnoissance in Oregon, 1845-6," in Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, X (March, 1909), 1-99.

"Weovil Biscuit Manufactory," in Harper's New Monthly Magazine, III (September, 1851), 487-488.


Ballantyne, Robert Michael. Hudson Bay: or, Everyday Life in the Wilds of North America, During Six Years Residence in the Territories of the Hon. Hudson Bay Company. London: Thomas Nelson and Sons, 1908.

______. The Young Fur-Traders: Snowflakes and Sunbeams. London, Melbourne and Toronto: Ward, Lock & Co., Limited, [n. d.].

Beaver, Herbert. Reports and Letters of Herbert Beaver, 1836-1838. Chaplain to the Hudson's Bay Company and Missionary to the Indians at Fort Vancouver. Edited by Thomas E. Jessett. Portland, Oregon: The Champoeg Press, 1959.

Bell, Major George. Notes on Bread Making, Permanent and Field Ovens and Bake Houses. Prepared by direction of the Commissary General of Subsistence. [Washington, D. C.], 1882. (Only a partial copy of this work was available for use in preparing the present report.)

Braun, Emil. The Baker's Book: A Practical Hand Book of the Baking Industry in all Countries. Translated, edited and published by Emil Braun. 2 vols. New York: D. Van Nostrand Company, 1903

Brayley, Arthur Wellington. Bakers and Baking in Massachusetts, Including the Flour, Baking Supply and Kindred Interests, from 1620 to 1909. Boston: Master Bakers' Association of Massachusetts, 1909.

Bread and Bread Making, Washington, D. C., 1864.

Caywood, Louis R. Excavations at Fort Vancouver. 1948 Season. Mimeographed. [San Francisco, California]: United States, Department of the Interior, National Park Service, [1949].

______. Final Report, Fort Vancouver Excavations. Mimeographed. San Francisco: United States, Department of the Interior, National Park Service, July 1, 1955.

Chism, James V. Excavations at Lower Fort Garry, 1965-1967: A General Description of Excavations and Preliminary Discussions (Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History — No. 5). Ottawa: National Historic Sites Service, 1972.

Diderot, Denis. Encyclopédie: ou, dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers: recueil de planches sur les sciences, les arts libéraux et les arts méchaniques avec leur explication, 6 vols. Paris: Circle du livre précieux, 1964-1966.

Eaches, Albert R. Scales and Weighting Devices: An Aid to Identification (American Association for State and Local History Technical Leaflet 59). Nashville, Tennessee: American Association for State and Local History, 1972. (A detachable portion of History News, vol. 27, no. 3 March, 1972]).

The Edinburgh Encyclopaedia, Conducted by David Brewster. First American ed. 18 vols. Philadelphia: Joseph and Edward Parker, 1832.

Edlin, A. A Treatise on the Art of Bread-Making: Wherein, the Mealing Trade, Assize Laws, and Every Circumstance Connected with the Art, Is Particularly Examined. London: Vernor and Hood, 1805.

Encyclopaedia Metropolitana; or Universal Dictionary of Knowledge . . . 29 vols. London: B. Fellowes, et al., 1845.

Gay, Theressa. Life and Letters of Mrs. Jason Lee. First Wife of Rev. Jason Lee of the Oregon Mission. Portland, Oregon, 1936.

Good, John Mason, et al. Pantologia: A New Cyclopaedia . . . Presenting a Distinct Survey of Human Genius, Learning, and Industry . . . 12 vols. London: G. Kearsley, et al., 1813.

Gregory, G. A New and Complete Dictionary of Arts and Sciences . . . 3 vols. First American ed. Philadelphia: Isaac Peirce, 1816.

Hoffman, J. J., and Lester A. Ross. Fort Vancouver Excavations — I. Processed. Vancouver, Washington: National Park Service, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, May, 1972.

______. Fort Vancouver Excavations — IV: Chief Factor's House and Kitchen. Processed. Vancouver, Washington, National Park Service, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, September, 1973.

Hussey, John A. Historic Structures Report, Historical Data, Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, Washington. Vol. I. Processed. Denver, Colorado: Denver Service Center, National Park Service, June, 1972.

______. The History of Fort Vancouver and its Physical Structure. Portland, Oregon: Washington State Historical Society, [1957].

Jago, William, and William C. Jago. The Technology of Bread-Making, Including the Chemistry and Analytical and Practical Testing of Wheat, Flour, and Other Materials Employed in Bread-Making and Confectionary. American ed. Chicago: Bakers' Helper Company, [c. 1911].

Jefferys, C. W. The Picture Gallery of Canadian History. 3 vols. Toronto: The Ryerson Press, 1942-1950.

Loudon, John Claudius. An Encyclopaedia of Agriculture: Comprising the Theory and Practice of the Valuation, Transfer, Laying Out, Improvement and of Landed Property; and the Cultivation and Economy of the Animal and Vegetable Productions of Agriculture, Including All the Latest Improvements . . . Second ed. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1831.

______. An Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture and Furniture; Containing Numerous Designs for Dwellings . . ., New ed. London: Frederick Warne & Co., [1844].

Nicolson, William. The British Encyclopedia, a Dictionary of Arts and Sciences . . . . 6 vols. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1809.

Panschar, William G. Baking in America. 2 vols. Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1956.

Parker, Samuel. Journal of an Exploring Tour Beyond the Rocky Mountains, under the Direction of the American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, in the Years 1835, '36, and '37 . . . . Second ed. Ithaca, N. Y., 1840.

Pen Pictures of Early Pioneer Life in Upper Canada. By a "Canuck." Facsimile ed. Toronto: Coles Publishing Company, 1972.

The Penny Cyclopaedia of the Society for the Diffusion of Useful Knowledge. 27 vols. London: Charles Knight, 1833-1843.

Pope, Charles, and James W. Sheire, Historic Structures Report, Part II, The 1883 New Bakery, HB#115, Fort Laramie National Historic Site, Wyoming. Washington, D. C.]: Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, National Park Service, June, 1969,

Rich, E. E. (editor). The Letters of John McLoughlin from Fort Vancouver to the Governor and Committee, Second Series, 1839-1844 (Publications of the Champlain Society, Hudson's Bay Company Series, vol. VI). Toronto: The Champlain Society, 1943.

Robinson, H. M. The Great Fur Land or Sketches of Life in the Hudson's Bay Territory. Fifth ed. New York: G. P. Putnam's Sons, 1879.

Sheire, James, and Charles S. Pope. Historic Structures Report, Part II, The 1876 Bakery, HB#10, Fort Laramie National Historic Site. Processed. [Washington, D. C.]: Office of Archeology and Historic Preservation, National Park Service, May, 1969.

Sheppard, Ronald, and Edward Newton. The Story of Bread. London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957.

Thompson, Erwin N. Historic Resource Study, Spalding Area, Nez Perce National Historical Park, Idaho. Processed. Denver, Colorado: Denver Service Center, National Park Service, September, 1972.

Tomlinson, Charles. Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts, Mechanical and Chemical, Manufacturing, Mining, and Engineering. 2 vols. London and New York: George Virtue & Co., 1854.

Warner, Mikell De Lores Wormell (translator), and Harriet Duncan Munnick (annotator). Catholic Church Records of the Pacific Northwest: Vancouver. Volumes I and II, and Stellamaris Mission. St. Paul, Oregon: French Prairie Press, 1972.

Washington Pioneer Project. Told by the Pioneers: Reminiscences of Pioneer Life in Washington. 3 vols. [Olympia, Washington], 1937-1938.

Willich, Anthony F. M. The Domestic Encyclopaedia; or, a Dictionary of Facts, and Useful Knowledge: Comprehending a Concise View of the Latest Discoveries, Inventions, and Improvements, Chiefly Applicable to Rural and Domestic Economy . . . . 4 vols. London, 1802.

Zimmer, G. F. "Bread," in The Encyclopaeia Britannica (11th ed., 29 vols., New York, 1910-1911), IV, 465-473.

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Last Updated: 28-Nov-2005