3. A photograph labeled "Old bake oven, Lower Fort Garry, 1935," in the Library, Hudson's Bay Company, Winnipeg, indicates that fairly extensive physical remains of at least one oven in a bastion at Fort Garry survived beyond 1911. Unfortunately the caption does not indicate which bastion is shown in the photograph (see Plate II). Perhaps this was the Southwest Bastion which was said to have contained a "large oven." James V. Chism, Excavations at Lower Fort Garry. 1965-1967: A General Description of Excavations and Preliminary Discussions (Canadian Historic Sites: Occasional Papers in Archaeology and History No. 5, Ottawa: National Historic Sites Service, 1972), 40.
5. John Claudius Loudon, An Encyclopaedia of Cottage, Farm, and Villa Architecture and Furniture; Containing Numerous Designs for Dwellings . . . (New ed., London: Frederick Warne & Co., , 719-720. A still earlier "new edition" of this work was published in 1835, but it and the original edition were not available to the present writer.
7. In fact Loudon himself states that ovens such as he described, "but most frequently without the funnel, e i, in fig. 1368, were almost the only kind used in Britain, till about fifty years ago when an improvement was made in them, in order to admit of heating them with coal, by Powell, an oven-builder in Lisle Street, London. A subsequent improvement has since been made by Waugh . . . which consists in the introduction of a register or damper for the oven flue. That this damper should not have been introduced sooner is a proof that very few have looked at the oven with a scientific eye. We have examined a great number in London, and found most of them of a very crude construction; but, crude as this construction is, we have found no one acquainted with it, but a particular description of bricklayers, whose exclusive business is that of building ovens." Loudon, op. cit., 721.
8. Denis Diderot, Encyclopédie; ou. Dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers: Recueil de planches sur les sciences, les arts libéraux et les arts méchaniques avec leur explication (6 vols., Paris: Circle du livre précieux, 1964-1966), I, section on "Boulanger," figures 1 and 2.
9. Major George Bell, Notes on Bread Making, Permanent and Field Ovens and Bake Houses ([Washington, D. C.?]: Commissary General of Subsistence, 1882), as reproduced in James Sheire and Charles S. Pope, Historic Structures Report, Part II, The 1876 Bakery. HB#10. Fort Laramie National Historic Site (processed, [Washington, D. C.]: National Park Service, May, 1969), 21-22.
Last Updated: 28-Nov-2005