Fort Vancouver
Historic Furnishings Report: Bakery
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1. Ronald Sheppard and Edward Newton, The Story of Bread (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1957), 109.

2. Ibid., 34.

3. William G. Panschar, Baking in America (2 vols., Evanston, Illinois: Northwestern University Press, 1956), I, 36.

4. Panschar, op. cit., I, 38-39.

5. G. F. Zimmer, "Bread," in The Encyclopaedia Britannica (11th ed., 29 vols., New York, 1910-1911), IV, 472.

6. Bread and Bread Making (Washington, D. C., 1864), 27.

7. A. Edlin, A Treatise on the Art of Bread-Making . . . (London: Vernor and Mood, Poultry, 1805), 93; Panschar, op. cit., I, 36; Sheppard and Newton, op. cit., 34.

8. Bread and Bread Making, 34-35; Panschar, op. cit., I, 37; Zimmer, "Bread," in Encyclopaedia Britannica, 11th ed., IV, 472.

9. Sheppard and Newton, op. cit., 109.

10. Bread and Bread Making, 35.

11. Ibid., 37.

12. Bread and Bread Making, 34-35.

13. Edlin, op. cit., 90; Sheppard and Newton, op. cit., 109.

14. Bread and Bread Making, 32.

15. Edlin, op. cit., 93.

16. Bread and Bread Making, 31; Panschar, op. cit., I, 36; Sheppard and Newton, op. cit., 34.

17. "From an Interview with Mrs. Louise Pillisier, in Washington Pioneer Project, Told by the Pioneers: Reminscences of Pioneer Life in Washington (3 vols., [Olympia], 1937.1938), I, 144.

18. Panschar, op. cit., I, 36; Sheppard and Newton op. cit., 110. Sometimes the ashes were placed temporarily in the arch under the oven. Bread and Bread Making, 32.

19. Pen Pictures of Early Pioneer Life in Upper Canada, by a "Canuck" (facsimile ed., Toronto: Coles Publishing Company, 1972), 115.

20. Sheppard and Newton, op. cit., 110.

21. Bread and Bread Making, 34.

22. Panschar, op. cit., I, 36.

23. Bread and Bread Making, 11; Edlin, op. cit., 90-92.

24. Bread and Bread Making, 18.

25. Bread and Bread Making, 11, 19; Charles Tomlinson, Cyclopaedia of Useful Arts, Mechanical and Chemical, Manufacturing, Mining, and Engineering (2 vols., London and New York: George Virtue & Co., 1854, I, 180. The quantities of the ingredients used to make the ferment yeast differed greatly in different recipes. Most called for more water than mentioned here. The heat of the potatoes made it unnecessary to use warm water in preparing ferment yeast.

26. Panschar, op. cit., I, 36.

27. Tomlinson, op. cit., 180.

28. Edlin, op. cit., 93.

29. Arthur Wellington Brayley, Bakers and Baking in Massachusetts, Including the Flour, Baking Supply and Kindred Interests, from 1620 to 1909 (Boston: Master Bakers' Association of Massachusetts, 1909), 125.

30. This account of the bread-making process is based upon a number of sources, chief of which are Edlin (1805), op. cit., 90-94; Bread and Bread Making (1864), 12-14, 18-23; Brayley (1909), op. cit., 125; Panschar (1956), op. cit., I, 36-37; Sheppard and Newton (1957), op. cit., 12-13, 34-35; and Tomlinson (1854), op. cit., I, 179-181.

31. Sheppard and Newton, op. cit., 13, 35; Tomlinson, op. cit., I, 181.

32. Goldring, The Doctor's Office, the Walls, and the North-West Bastion: Lower Fort Garry, MS, 28-29.

33. Panschar, Baking in America, I, 29.

34. Brayley, Bakers and Baking in Massachusetts, 162.

35. Enclosure No. 1, Hard Bread [Com. Gen. Subsistence, 3260 Misc., 1893], MS, in United States, War Department, Quartermaster Consolidated Correspondence File, "Bread, Box 103, R.G. 92, Office of the Quartermaster General, National Archives (hereafter cited as Q.M.C.C.F.).

36. Brayley, op. cit., 162.

37. Panschar, op. cit., I, 32. It is said that mechanization of biscuit making began at the Royal Clarence Victualling Yard, Gosport, in 1833. John S. Creasey (Assistant Keeper, Museum of English Rural Life, University of Reading) to J. A. Hussey, Reading, August 1, 1973, MS. Mechanization began in the United States "about" 1840.

38. "Weovil Biscuit Manufactory," in Harper's New Monthly Magazine, III (September, 1851), 487-488.

39. Ibid., 488.

40. Enclosure No. 1, Hard Bread, MS.

41. This account of the biscuit-making process is based on Brayley, op. cit., 162; Office Purchasing Commissary, U. S. Army, San Francisco, California, "Hard-Bread," MS, in Q.M.C.C.F., "Bread," Box 103; "Weovil Biscuit Manufactory," 487-488. As the present report was being typed, it was learned that a "useful" discussion of sea biscuit manufacture is contained in a recent book by T. A. B. Corley, Quaker Enterprise in Biscuits: Huntley and Palmers of Reading, 1822-1972 (Hutchinsons, 1972). No copy of this work has yet been located by the present writer in the United States despite inquiries at the Library of Congress and the Harvard School of Business Administration Library. For much additional data see Appendix.

42. Goldring, op. cit., 29.

43. For example, see Capt. A. B. Eaton to General George Gibson, Brazos Island, Texas, July 7, 1847, MS, in Q.M.C.C.F., "Bread," Box 103. During the 1890's the U. S. Army packed biscuit in wooden boxes or in tin cans (each can weighing about 25 pounds).

44. Anthony F. M. Willich, The Domestic Encyclopaedia: or, a Dictionary of Facts, and Useful Knowledge . . . (4 vols., London, 1802), I, 266.

45. Willich, op. cit., I, 266-267.

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Last Updated: 28-Nov-2005