3It is understood that an unpublished report by Governor Simpson for the year 1826/27 contains descriptive matter concerning Fort Vancouver. J. Chadwick Brooks to J. A. Hussey, London, January 21, 1948.
6Merk, Fur Trade and Empire, 122-124. In the possession of the Vancouver Historical Society, Vancouver, Washington, is an old Hudson's Bay Company flagwhite with the arms of the Company painted on it in colorswhich, it has long been claimed, was used at the dedication of Fort Vancouver in 1825. The documentation on this point, however, is not all that could be desired. Oregon Historical Quarterly, XXXIX (September, 1938), 327. (See plate XXXIX).
11G. Simpson to J. McLoughlin, March 10, 1825, as quoted in H. B. S., III, xxxv; H. B. S., IV, lii-liii. McLoughlin's extended powers were later confirmed by a resolution of the Council for the Northern Department.
12Merk, Fur Trade and Empire, 122. A valuable picture of the freighting operations is given in Nellie B. Pipes, ed., "The Journal of John Work, March 21-May 14, 1825," in Oregon Historical Quarterly, XLV (June, 1944), 138-146.
15S. A. Clarke, Pioneer Days of Oregon History (2 vols., Portland, Ore., 1905), I, 184-185; Clinton A. Snowden, History of Washington; the Rise and Progress of an American State (4 vols., New York, 1904), I, 477.
22J. S. Smith, D. E. Jackson, W. L. Sublette to J. H. Eaton, St. Louis, October 29, 1830, in 21 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate, Ex. Doc. No. 39, pp. 21-23. Smith's statement regarding the armament is interesting in view of the fact that two years before his visit the fort is known to have had two 18-pound cannon. The Fort Vancouver inventory for 1826 listed the following items of artillery as being "in use": 2 carronades, "9 pdrs. p. William & Ann"; 2 18-pound guns with carriages; 4 6-pound guns with carriages; 4 4-pound guns with carriages; 7 iron swivels; 2 wall pieces; 1 iron cohorn; and 2 brass 1/2-pounders. Donald H. Clark, "Iron Interpreters," in The Beaver, outfit 285 (September, 1954), 51.
23This account of crop raising at Fort Vancouver is based largely upon contemporary letters, to be found in the following sources: H. B. S., IV, 31, 44, 50-51, 66-67; Merk, Fur Trade and Empire, 270, 291, 301; 21 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate, Ex. Doc. No. 39, p. 22. See also "Copy of a Document Found among the Private Papers of the Late Dr. John McLoughlin," in Transactions of the . . . Oregon Pioneer Association; for 1880, 46; Scouler, "Journal," in Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, VI (September, 1905), 174.
2421 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate, Ex. Doc. No. 39, p. 22; J. R. Cardwell, "The First Fruits of the Land. A Brief History of Early Horticulture in Oregon," in Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, VII (March, 1906), 28.
37G. Simpson to H. U. Addington, London, January 5, 1826, in Merk, Fur Trade and Empire, 264-266. It should be borne in mind that in this letter Simpson was giving the government material to be used in the boundary negotiations, and he probably magnified the case for the Columbia and against the Fraser to suit the requirements of the occasion.
60A. G. Harvey, "David Douglas in British Columbia," in British Columbia Historical Quarterly, IV (October, 1940), 221-243. Accompanying Douglas to the Columbia in the William and Ann was Dr. John Scouler, surgeon of the vessel. He, too, was a botanist, but his chief interest was the fauna of the region. Before the ship sailed for England in the fall, Scouler made two visits to Fort Vancouver, and upon his final departure he recorded in his journal his obligation to "every individual connected with the establishment" for the kind and polite reception he had received. Since he was on the Company's payroll, however, he can scarcely be described as a visitor.
61Douglas, Journal, 242. For a biography of Douglas, with an extensive account of his work in the Northwest, see Athelstan George Harvey, Plant Explorer: Douglas of the Firs: A Biography of David Douglas, Botanist (Cambridge, Mass., 1947).
62J. S. Smith, D. E. Jackson, W. L. Sublette to J. H. Eaton, St. Louis, October 29, 1830, in 21 Cong., 2 Sess., Senate, Ex. Doc. No. 39, pp. 21-23. For the story of Jedediah Smith and his stay at Fort Vancouver, see H. B. S., IV, 68-70, and the authorities cited therein. A good account of the incident is in Francis A. Wiley, Jedediah Smith in the West (unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1941). See also Dale L. Morgan, Jedediah Smith and the Opening of the West (Indianapolis and New York, 1953), 267-289.
63For a journal of this journey see Archibald McDonald, Peace River, A Canoe Voyage from Hudson's Bay to the Pacific by the Late Sir George Simpson . . . in 1828: A Journal of the Late Chief Factor, Archibald McDonald . . . (Ottawa, 1872).
76The fate of the old fort on the hill remains somewhat in doubt. Probably some of the buildings were dismantled and reconstructed on the new site. Titian R. Peale, who visited Fort Vancouver with the Wilkes Expedition, later testified that no trace of the old fort was visible in 1841. Br. & Am. Joint Comm., Papers, [IX], 345-346. On the other hand, Dr. H. A. Tuzo, Hudson's Bay medical officer at Vancouver, swore that some remains could still be seen at the time of his arrival at the post in 1853. Ibid., [II], 177-178.
Last Updated: 18-Feb-2008