2This account of maritime explorations and the opening of the Northwest coastal fur trade is based upon Charles Henry Carey, A General History of Oregon Prior to 1861 (2 vols., Portland, Ore., 1935-1936), I, 17-99; George Washington Fuller, A History of the Pacific Northwest (New York, 1931), 42-56; Oscar Osburn Winther, The Great Northwest: A History (New York, 1947), 21-32.
3The best general summaries of the operations of the North West Company in the Columbia region are Gordon Charles Davidson, The North West Company (University of California Publications in History, VII, Berkeley, 1918); and, particularly, Marion O'Neil, The North West Company on the Pacific Slope (unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Berkeley, 1940). Also useful in preparing the above account was Clark, History of the Willamette Valley, I, 121-152. See also A. Kennedy to G. Simpson, "Spokan," April 12, 1823, in Frederick Merk, ed., Fur Trade and Empire; George Simpson's Journal . . . 1824-1825 (Harvard Historical Studies, XXXI, Cambridge, Mass., 1931), 193-194.
4Frederick Merk, "Snake Country Expedition, 1824-1825," in Oregon Historical Quarterly, XXXV (June, 1934), 93-95; J. H. Pelly to Lords of the Committee of the Privy Council for Trade, London, February 7, 1838, in Merk, Fur Trade and Empire, 339-344. If the trade did not produce actual losses, at least the profits during those years were so low as to lead Pelly to describe the operations as "unprofitable."
8R. Harvey Fleming, ed., Minutes of Council Northern Department of Rupert Land, 1821-31 (Publications of the Champlain Society, Hudson's Bay Company Series, III, Toronto, 1940) (hereinafter cited as H. B. S., III), xxx, 412; E. E. Rich, ed., The Letters of John McLoughlin from Fort Vancouver to the Governor and Committee, First Series, 1825-1838 (Publications of the Champlain Society, Hudson's Bay Company Series, IV, Toronto, 1941) (hereinafter cited as H. B. S., IV), xvi; Merk, Fur Trade and Empire, 176-177, 339-340; Winther, The Great Northwest, 48.
11H. B. S., III, xi. For a somewhat different appraisal of the situations of the two companies, see Davidson, North West Company, 168-174. See also E. E. Rich and R. Harvey Fleming, eds., Colin Robertson's Correspondence Book, September 1817 to September 1822 (Publications of the Champlain Society, Hudson's Bay Company Series, II, Toronto, 1939) (hereinafter cited as H. B. S., II), c-cvi.
12The results of the most recent research on the background of the coalition are utilized by Dr. W. Kaye Lamb in his splendid introduction to H. B. S., IV. See pp. xli-xlvii. There are a number of general histories of the Hudson's Bay Company. Probably still the best is George Bryce, The Remarkable History of the Hudson's Bay Company (London, 1900).
13The actual terms of the merger were much more involved than can be represented in this summary. As a matter of fact, it took several years to work out all the details of the organization as described below. The texts of the indenture and Deed Poll can be found, among other places, in H. B. S., II, 302-344. Another important document, the Deed of Dissolution of September 15, 1824, is printed in British and American Joint Commission for the Final Settlement of the Claims of the Hudson's Bay and Puget's Sound Agricultural Companies, [Papers] (14 vols., Washington; Montreal, 1865-1869) (hereinafter cited as Br. & Am. Joint Comm., Papers), [II], 277-312. Summaries of the merger details may be found in H. B. S., III, xi, xiii-xv; Merk, Fur Trade and Empire, xi-xviii; William Stewart Wallace, ed., Documents Relating to the North West Company (Publications of the Champlain Society, XXII, Toronto, 1934), 26-34.
16As a matter of fact, the administration of the fur trade in North America was a bit more complicated than indicated here. For several years after 1821 the trade of the Canadian provinces centering about Montrealthe exact districts covered varied from time to timewas in the hands of the agents of the North West Company. Due to various difficulties, the agents were eliminated from their special position in the new Hudson's Bay Company, and the Montreal Department was placed under the jurisdiction of George Simpson in 1826. For a time thereafter the Montreal trade was under the direction of the Northern Council, although it appears, generally, to have been under the Southern Department. See H. B. S., III, xi, xlvii-liv, 141, 204, 271, 284.
17H. B. S., II, cxvii; H. B. S., III, lxxiii; Merk, Fur Trade and Empire, xv; Edmund Henry Oliver, The Canadian North-West (Publications of the Canadian Archives, no. 9, 2 vols, Ottawa, 1914-1915), I, 630.
19The text of the license of 1838 maybe found, among other places, in Great Britain, Parliament, House of Commons, Select Committee on the Hudson's Bay Company, Report from the Select Committee on the Hudson's Bay Company [London, 1857] (hereinafter cited as Select Committee, Report), 414-416.
42Merk, Fur Trade and Empire, 257-260; also Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, XX, 25-34. A letter written by Deputy Governor N. Garry to R. W. Hay, British under secretary for colonial affairs, May 7, 1828, repeats the assertion that the move was made "by the desire of Mr. Canning" and to avoid risk of collision with the Americans, whose government claimed the site of Fort George. Merk, Fur Trade and Empire, 297.
56There are a number of biographies of John McLoughlin, among which may be mentioned Frederick Van Voorhies Holman, Dr. John McLoughlin, the Father of Oregon (Cleveland, O., 1907); Robert Cummings Johnson, John McLoughlin; Patriarch of the Northwest (Portland, Ore., 1935); and Richard Gill Montgomery, The White-Headed Eagle, John McLoughlin, Builder of an Empire (New York, 1934). All accounts of McLoughlin's career prior to the time he left the employ of the Hudson's Bay Company in 1846, however, have largely been superseded by the splendid introductions written by Dr. W. Kaye Lamb for the three volumes of The Letters of John McLoughlin from Fort Vancouver to the Governor and Committee, edited by E. E. Rich and published by the Champlain Society and the Hudson's Bay Record Society (Toronto; London, 1941, 1943, 1944).
All of the above works contain descriptions of McLoughlin and estimates of his character. In addition, the present sketch is based upon the following: Neil M. Howison, "Report of Lieutenant Neil M. Howison on Oregon, 1846," in Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, XIV (March, 1913), 22-23; H. S. Lyman, "Reminiscences of F. X. Matthieu," in ibid., I (March, 1900), 95; and Oscar Osburn Winther, Book Review of Douglas MacKay's The Honourable Company, in ibid., XXXVIII (September, 1937), 371-372. See also J. Quinn Thornton, "History of the Provisional Government of Oregon," in Constitution and Quotations from the Register of the Oregon Pioneer Association . . . 1874, 51.
79Merk, Fur Trade and Empire, 87, 105-106; G. Simpson to Governor and Committee, Fort Vancouver, March 1, 1829, as quoted by the Hudson's Bay Company in an enclosure to a letter to Fay G. Peabody, July 5, 1935, which enclosure may be found in Olaf T. Hagen, Report on the Preliminary Inspection of the Proposed Old Fort Vancouver Restoration Project (typescript, National Park Service, 1936), appendix, 48-49.
Last Updated: 18-Feb-2008