I. FORT VANCOUVER: 1824-28 (continued)
7R. Harvey Fleming, ed., Minutes of the Council of Northern Department of Rupert Land 1821-31, Hudson's Bay Company Series, Vol. III, (Toronto: Publications of the Champlain Society, 1940), pp.334-336 (Hereafter referred to as HBRS III).
15"Copy of a Document Found Among the Private Papers of the Late Dr. John McLoughlin," in Transactions of the Eighth Annual Re-Union of the Oregon Pioneer Association for 1880 (Salem: R.M. Waite, 1881), p.46 (Hereafter referred to as TOPA 1880).
16Referred to as Belle Vue Point in Simpson's early correspondence regarding the site, apparently in the belief it was the same point of land named by Lieutenant Broughton of the British navy, when he surveyed the river in 1792; it is now believed Broughton's Belle Vue Point was further downstream.
28S.A. Clarke, Pioneer Days of Oregon History, Vol. I (Portland, Oregon: 1905), p. 185; Clinton Snowden, A History of Washington: The Rise and Progress of an American State, Vol. I (New York: 1904), p. 477.
33Charles Wilkes, Narrative of the United States Exploring Expedition During the Years 1838, 1839, 1840, 1841, 1842, Vol. IV (Philadelphia: C. Sherman printer, 1844), p. 358. In fact, the lower prairie--Fort Plain--did occasionally flood.
43Lieutenant Mervyn Vavasour of the Royal Engineers and Lieutenant Henry J. Warre of the Fourteenth Regiment were sent on a military reconnaissance expedition in 1845-46 by the Sir R.D. Jackson, commander of the British forces in Canada, in consultation with George Simpson of the Hudson's Bay Company. They traveled as tourists, assessing British positions from Sault Sainte Marie to the Pacific Ocean; they stayed at Fort Vancouver from August, 1845, through March, 1846, later preparing a report for the British Foreign Office. Warre prepared several illustrations of Fort Vancouver from this period, and Vavasour, maps of the stockade and the site.
44There are two maps dating from 1844, both of which show the line of a destructive fire in 1844. One is a map of most of the entire Fort Vancouver Farm, from Lower Plain to Mill Plain; this was delineated by Henry Peers, a Hudson's Bay Company clerk, and is hereafter referred to as the Peers map (Map 6, this report). The second, shows the vicinity of the stockade in more detail, and is hereafter referred to as the 1844 stockade area map (Map 4). There are also two maps which were prepared by engineer Richard Covington, a British emigrant who appears to have been hired to draft the maps for the Company. One is a map which shows most of the entire Fort Vancouver farm, like the Peers map, and is referred to hereafter as the 1846 Covington farm map. The second, like the 1844 stockade map, shows the stockade vicinity is some detail, including the area of Kanaka Village, and is hereafter referred to as the 1846 Covington stockade area map (Map 7). Covington also prepared a sketch of the stockade area in 1855 (Figure 6), and a map dated 1859, which shows land claims on the Fort Vancouver site (Map 10).
51David Douglas, "Sketch of a Journey to the Northwestern Parts of the Continent of North America During the Years 1824-25-26-27," Quarterly of the Oregon Historical Society, V (September 1904), p. 248.
55E.E. Rich, ed., Part of Dispatch from George Simpson, Esqr., Governor of Ruperts Land to the Governor & Committee of the Hudson's Bay Company, Landon, March 1, 1929, Continued and Completed March 24 and June 5, 1829, Hudson's Bay Company Series, Vol. X (Toronto: Publications of the Champlain Society, 1947), pp. 68-69 (Hereafter referred to as HBRS X); U.S. Congress, Senate, "J.S. Smith, D.E. Jackson, W.L. Sublette to J.H. Eaton, St. Louis, 29 October 1830." Ex. Doc. No. 39, 21st Congress, 2d sess., pp. 21-23.
56Lester Ross, Fort Vancouver 1829-1860: A Historical Archaeological Investigation of the Goods Imported and Manufactured by the Hudson's Bay Company (National Park Service, U.S. Department of the Interior, June 1976).
61H. Bingham to J. Everts, 16 February 1829, in George Verne Blue, "Green's Missionary Report on Oregon, 1829" Oregon Historical Quarterly XXX (September 1929), pp. 164-5. The former Royal Navy Lieutenant Aemilius Simpson became Captain Simpson after his appointment to the Company's maritime trade.
75McLoughlin to Simpson, 21 April 1825, B.223/e/3, folio 1, HBCA. In the 1830s and '40s it was common practice to temporarily fence sheep and cattle on portions of the land of Fort Plain to fertilize the soil, prior to planting.
83[George T. Allan] "Reminiscences of Fort Vancouver on the Columbia River, Oregon, as it Stood in 1832...," Transactions of the Ninth Annual Re-Union of the Oregon Pioneer Association, for 1881 (Salem: E.M. Waite, 1882), p. 75.
84Alice B. Maloney, "The Hudson's Bay Company in California," Oregon Historical Quarterly XXXVII, (March 1936), pp. 9-23; HBRS X, p. 69; John Hussey, History of Fort Vancouver, p. 53; HBRS IV, p. 207.
86In another report also dated in March of 1826 McLoughlin reported additional cattle: 3 bulls, 11 steers, 11 yearly heifers, Merk, Fur Trade and Empire, p. 270. Historian John Hussey suggests that some cattle may have been imported from England via the William and Ann, although it is unlikely steers would have been imported, Hussey, "Fort Vancouver Farm," p. 15.
98While McLoughlin later recalled it was in 1829 that Lucier applied to him a second time for assistance in establishing a farm in the Valley, there is some indication the year may have been 1830. For a more complete discussion of this and of early settlement in the Willamette Valley, see John Hussey, Champoeg: Place of Transition (Portland, Oregon: Oregon Historical Society, Oregon State Highway Commission, 1967), pp.43-61.
101Ibid., pp. 87, 105-6; U.S. Department of the Interior, National Park Service, Report on the Preliminary Inspection of the Proposed Old Fort Vancouver Reservation Project by Olaf Hagan (1936), pp. 48-49.
Last Updated: 27-Oct-2003