Historic Structure Report
HISTORIC BASE MAP: BUILDING LISTINGS
First Fort Union was established by Major Edmund B.
Alexander on July 26, 1851 (Part I, p. 19-34). No plan is available of
its original layout, but a schematic made two years later shows it just
after the completion of many of its principle buildings. Although there
were a few changes and alterations in subsequent years, the plan saw no
significant changes until the onset of the Civil War in 1861.
In September, 1852, Captain E. S. Sibley, Assistant
Quartermaster, wrote a description of the condition of the Fort. He gave
the size of most of the buildings actually built or under construction
at the time, but no suggestion as to their locations. Colonel J. F. K.
Mansfield made a sketch-map during his visit a year later, August 1 to
August 6, 1853. This map, not drawn to scale, can only be used to
determine the relative location of the buildings shown, and perhaps very
Fortunately, there are several drawings of First Fort
that supply a great amount of additional information. The earliest was
made just before Mansfield visited the fort. This was Joseph Rice's
drawing of June, 1853, in Josiah M. Rice, A Cannoneer in Navajo
Country: Journal of Josiah M. Rice, 1851, ed. Richard H. Dillon
(Denver: Old West Publishing Company, 1970). Rice's drawing is
primitive, to be polite, but clearly shows a number of structural
details of importance. For example, he shows HS-126, the Commanding
Officers' Quarters, as still having a flat roof; he depicts a great deal
of detail about HS-182, the Quartermaster Depot; and may be the only
artist to show HS-137, the Dragoon Stablesthe structure seems to
be just visible north of HS-136, and was torn down before the end of
The next in time is an engraving of Fort Union in
William Watts Hart Davis, El Gringo; Or New Mexico and Her People
(New York: Harper and Brothers, 1857). This engraving was made from a
drawing executed before the construction of the east wing of the Post
Quartermaster Storeroom, HS-136, by August of 1853, when it appears on
the Mansfield map; and before the construction of the New Dragoon
Stable, HS-161, after the orders for its construction on November 4,
1853, by Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke. It appears, in fact, that the
Ordnance Depot is still under construction, the Ordnance Officer's
Quarters, HS-133, still has a flat roof, although the other eight seem
to have board roofs (four officer's quarters still had flat earthen
roofs in September, 1852), and HS-146, begun between September, 1852,
and August, 1853, may not be present at all, or under construction;
therefore, the drawing was probably made about the end of 1852.
Undoubtedly details visible on the original were obscured or
misconstrued by the engraver. Davis himself visited Fort Union for a
period of four hours in December, 1853, but apparently got this drawing
from one F. A. Percy of El Paso, mentioned as one of the sources of the
drawings in the book. The Dragoon Stable, HS-137, appears not to be
present on the drawing, leading Wayne Ruwet, in his reconstruction of
the events associated with the destruction of HS-137 and the
construction of HS-161, to argue that the drawing was made by Davis's
other source, a Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Eaton, who appears to have
been Joseph Horace Eaton of the Third Infantry, at Fort Union in 1855.
However, the other details visible on the engraving, and the documents
associated with the building of HS-161, make it clear that Eaton was at
Fort Union several years too late to have made the original drawing. It
seems that the drawing was made before the Dragoon Stable was built, or
while it was still under construction; again, a date of sometime in 1852
is implied. This will be called the Davis drawing, and a date of late
1852 will be used.
The best depictions of the First Fort are those by
Joseph Heger. Heger was a private in Company K of the Regiment of
Mounted Rifles, and was stationed at Fort Union from January, 1858, to
his discharge about September, 1860. He was an accomplished artist, and
a lithographer by profession. A number of Heger drawings and prints are
in various collections; it is likely that other views of Fort Union in
1858-1860 await discovery among these. See Campaigns in the West,
1856-1861: The Journal and Letters of Colonel John Van Deusen Du Bois,
with Pencil Sketches by Joseph Heger, ed. George P. Hammond (Tucson:
Arizona Pioneers Historical Society, 1949), p. v-vi, for a discussion of
the locations of the collected works of Heger. The first of the two
presently available drawings is a pencil sketch made on May 20, 1859
(Part I, p. 30, fig. 3). The undated and unattributed etching of Fort
Union in the Kansas State Historical Society Photograph Collection,
reproduced on the cover of this report, is virtually identical to Joseph
Heger's May, 1859, drawing in most details of the plan, layout,
perspective, depiction of building proportions and materials, the lines
of roads both in the middle ground and especially the far distance, and
the shapes of the Turkey Mountains. It is highly probable that the KSHS
etching was taken from a Heger drawing made about the same time as the
1859 sketch, but from a point about 480 feet further north along the
side of the hill, somewhat lower down beside HS-126. It is possible that
Heger, himself a professional lithographer, made the engraving of the
The Reconstruction of First Fort, 1859-1861
The structural evidence demonstrates that Fort Union
began a major construction effort in 1859-1861 that was ended by the
advent of the Civil War. This is in direct conflict with Leo Oliva's
study, and all other histories written before it, which unanimously
agree that Fort Union's repeated attempts to gain approval to rebuild
many of the First Fort were rejected.
A number of new buildings were being built in
1859-1861; specifically, HS-157 was rebuilt as a large frame building
with a stone foundation in 1859, and HS-156 reached the stage of almost
complete foundations next to it. HS-165, 166, and possibly 167, all with
substantial stone foundations, may have been built in this period, while
HS-170 and 171 on the south side of the fort also reached the stage of
virtually completed stone foundations. It appears that these two were
laid out with the intent to construct a new group of structures arranged
around a second parade ground just south of the original post. This
would have produced a fort plan rather like that seen in many other
places on the western frontier where the 1850s fort plan survives beside
a later, enlarged and rebuilt fort (see, for example, Fort Davis and
Fort McKintosh in Texas.
Since HS-157 is apparently being completed in
mid-1859 (see the discussion below under this historic structure
number), and no trace of HS-156 can be seen in the drawing, suggesting
that it had not been begun, it seems reasonable to assume that HS-156,
and the other, similar buildings, HS-170 and 171, were all begun after
mid-1859. Then something stopped the rebuilding effort abruptly, leaving
a number of buildings as incomplete foundation outlines. The most likely
candidate for this halt is the start of the Civil War in 1861 and the
abrupt shift of effort to the Second Fort earthworks. Once the suspicion
arises that work did begin on some buildings, a few remarks in the
documents take on a different meaning. For example, on August 17, 1861,
work on constructing new storehouses "laid out as joining the old ones
was suspended" (Major Chapman of Fort Union Quartermaster as quoted in
Part I, p. 37). Similarly, in mid August, 1859, Captain Robert M.
Morris, Commander at First Fort, requested permission to hire "citizen
mechanics" to build more company quarters. In late August, 1859, he was
told to suspend all improvements until instructions came from Washington
(Part I, p. 36). Since some structures were begun, including what
appears to be new company quarters (HS-171), he must have received such
instructions soon afterwards.
These structures illustrate an interesting aspect of
historical vs. archeological research. The histories of First Fort based
entirely on the available documents agree that the reconstruction of
First Fort never was allowed to begin; the physical evidence makes it
clear that work did begin on rebuilding First Fort, and perhaps even on
a Second Fort on its south side. This is a strong demonstration of the
need for using both sources of information when writing the
history of a place. This previously unsuspected episode in the history
of the development of the Fort needs further definition through research
and archeological investigations.
Notes on Building Construction
by Laura Soulliére Harrison
The army's use of available materials around Fort
Union was an obvious choice. Several other factors also influenced
construction. In First Fort construction, for instance, the army's
arrival during the summer forced the troops to construct buildings
quicklybefore the onset of winterso the cutting of trees for
the log structures was carried out in haste. To save time, the logs were
not peeled or cured or even placed on foundations; these factors
resulted in early deterioration problems in the buildings.
Considering that the army had only occupied New
Mexico for five years before Fort Union was established, adobe was a
building material with which few army builders were familiar. As the
army spent more time in New Mexico and settled certain areas, including
Fort Union, the employment of local laborers and the adoption of local
building traditions greatly increased the use of adobe in army
construction. When the army stayed in one place long enough and things
were quiet enough on the frontier, there was time to have the troops or
locally hired men make the adobes and allow them to cure. The adoption
of, or improvement upon, local buildings techniques increased the
quality of the structures and the length of the serviceable use of the
buildings at Fort Union.
Information presented in the army correspondence of
the period was often confusing or conflicting, in part because of
changing functions of structures. Sometimes a building would be built
for one purpose, and then after a few years of use its function would
change. Also, few pieces of military correspondence, when considered as
a whole, dealt specifically with building construction. Luckily, a
considerable amount of information did exist in the correspondence on
the arsenal for two reasons. William Rawle Shoemaker had to request
separate appropriations for his arsenal buildings, and he was a
thoughtful man who wanted his structures to be built in the best
possible way with the best possible materials available to him. He
commented, for instance, on the suitability of certain materials to the
climate of New Mexico, and he criticized the quartermaster corps for
using cement in the roof structures of the buildings it constructed. In
general, though, the information on the building construction and on
specific buildings is relatively spotty and very open to interpretation.
The discussion below of the probable construction histories of
individual buildings presents one such interpretation.
FIRST FORT BUILDINGS
The Sumner House: Commanding Officers' Quarters,
First Fort (the adjacent office north of the Quarters is HS-197, Office
of the Commanding Officer and Courtmartial Room). The building is
referred as "the Sumner House" in 1863. The quarters served as a
hospital during the Civil War, based on a remark in the same letter of
This building was begun in early August, 1851 (Part
I, pp. 20-22), and enlarged to approximately its present plan by June,
1853; but by that date it still had a flat roof and apparently only
three chimneys. It was first occupied by Lieutenant Colonel (brevet
Colonel) Edwin V. Sumner, Commander of the Ninth Military Department
(effectively all of New Mexico) until he transferred his headquarters to
Albuquerque in February, 1852 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 109). All
commanding officers of Fort Union after February, 1852, probably lived
in the Sumner House. After Sumner left, the house undoubtedly stood
empty for ten months until the arrival of the new commander, Major
Gouverneur Morris, and his wife Anna Maria, in December, 1852. Morris
left the post in June, 1853, and the building again stood empty until
the arrival of Captain Nathaniel C. Macrae in August, 1853. Two other
officers commanded for short periods during 1852 and 1853, but they were
already at the post and probably did not move from their quarters into
the Commanding Officer's Quarters.
The house was constructed of unpeeled logs. In the
Rice drawing of June, 1853, the building still has a flat roof and a
rectangular plan with chimneys on the north and south ends, and two
smaller chimneys on the rear additions. It is reasonable to assume that
the building received its board roof during 1853. In the Heger drawing,
showing the building in 1859, the building has a pitched board roof, and
the gable-end chimneys appear forward of the roof ridge. During 1861 and
1862, this building was apparently used as the hospital (Oliva,
"Frontier Army," p. 508, 515).
In February, 1863, the order came through to tear
down this building and reuse the lumber, doors, and windows for a new
set of officer's quarters "at the redoubt," the Second Fort. It was
torn down in March, 1863. The quarters constructed using the material
salvaged from HS-126 was probably HS-78, apparently the residence of the
commanding officer of the fort (see AC cards 110, 112).
Officers' Quarters, First Fort. Constructed beginning
August, 1851, this building was a structure of unpeeled logs like the
Commanding Officer's Quarters, again with three rooms and a kitchen.
Note: until February, 1852, this building was probably referred to as
the "Commanding Officer's Quarters," and HS-126 was called the
"Department Commander's Quarters." This structure was probably torn down
with most of the other Officer's Quarters in March and April, 1866
(Oliva, p. 569).
It had a flat, earthen roof at first, and had a board
roof by 1853. The written evidence indicates that the earthen roofs
remained in place even after the board gable roofs were put in place. It
is likely that this building was first occupied by Captain (brevet
Lieutenant Colonel) Edmund B. Alexander, first commander of Fort Union,
and his wife, name unknown. Alexander left the post in April, 1852.
Officers' Quarters. Begun in August, 1851, and
probably first occupied by Captain (brevet Major) James H. Carleton,
second commanding officer of Fort Union, and his wife Sophia. Captain
Carleton served as post commander from April 1852 until August, 1852,
when Captain (brevet Major) William T. H. Brooks took over until Major
Gouverneur Morris arrived at the post. Major Carleton and Sophia were
transferred to Albuquerque in October, 1853.
Officers' Quarters. Built after the higher-ranking
officers' quarters, therefore probably in September-October, 1851. In
1859 this building still had only one gavelled rear wing and chimney;
its simpler form indicates that it and HS-132 were probably for junior
officers such as lieutenants and low-seniority captains. The front north
and south chimneys contain brick in addition to field stone, indicating
large-scale remodelling late in the life of the building, after
brick-making began in the area about September, 1860 (Part I, p. 71).
These quarters were gone by August-December, 1866.
Officers' Quarters. Begun September-October, 1851.
Probably a captains' quarters, like HS-131, below. No brick is visible
in the chimney bases. This building continued in use through at least
August, 1866, when it was shown on the Enos and Lambert map as enclosed
by a wall or fence. It was gone by May, 1868.
Officers' Quarters. Begun September-October, 1851.
Probably a captains' quarters, like HS-130, above. Three of the chimney
bases contain brick, so the structure was part of Shoemaker's brick
experiment in September, 1860. The building was still standing as
of ca. September, 1865, when it can be seen in the Farnsworth
photograph, but was torn down by the time the Enos and Lambert
map was made in August-December, 1866.
Officers' Quarters. Begun September-October, 1851.
Because of its simpler plan, probably a lieutenants' or junior captains'
quarters. Visible in the Farnsworth photograph in ca. September,
1865, but gone by August-December, 1866.
Ordnance Officers' Quarters. It was begun in
August 1851, and first occupied by Military Storekeeper William R.
Shoemaker, in charge of the Ordnance Depot established at Fort Union,
and his wife Julia. It continued in use longer than any of the other
Officers' Quarters of the First Fort. This may be the "Commanding
Officer's Quarters" (presumably referring to Captain Shoemaker) that
were to be torn down in March, 1866, but instead may have been given to
Shoemaker (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 569). It was described as still
acceptable as a dwelling in October, 1868 (Part I, p. 77), and standing
but needing to be replaced in 1869 (Part I, p. 79; Third Fort Union,
p. 121). It was torn down about 1872, after completion of the new
Arsenal Commanding Officer's Quarters the same year. The 1866 proposal
plan gave the old Arsenal Commanding Officer's Quarters the number 1.
Ruwet considered this building to have stood about the same distance
north of the central group of quarters as HS-129 was to the south,
placing it just south of the compound wall around the later Commanding
Officer's Quarters, HS-114, with its north wall would have been against
the south wall of the compound. He assigned the numbers 7a through 13a
to the various outbuildings behind (west of) the main house. Bleser
concluded that the Ordnance Officers' Quarters of the First Fort was on
the same site as the Commanding Officer's Quarters of the Arsenal, and
assigned his number 21 to the site. Neither of these locations
appear to be correct; the First Fort Ordnance Officers' Quarters was
located just south of the south wall of the new Commanding Officer's
Quarters. Its southern chimney, containing a large percentage of brick
(probably added during repairs as part of Shoemaker's brick experiment
of 1860), stood at the location of the south compound wall, which is
built across it, and its north chimney was on the wall line of
Shoemaker's new quarters.
Mansfield's map, although only a schematic, showed
the northernmost Officers' Quarters to be a little further north than
symmetry would have required. The southernmost Officers' Quarters,
HS-129, has a distance of exactly 250 feet between the outer face of its
northern chimney and the southern face of the chimney of HS-130, the
next Officers' Quarters north. If the Ordnance Officer's Quarters were
exactly the same separation to the north, then the center of its
northernmost chimney should fall about 6 feet north of the southern
compound wall around HS-114. The chimney base located in this area
fell, instead, on the location of the compound wall. Since the
available evidence indicates that it was a little north of its
symmetrical location, the chimney under the compound wall must be the
southern chimney of the Ordnance Officer's Quarters. The distance from
the northern chimney of HS-132, the next Quarters south, to the south
chimney of HS-133, is therefore 295 feet, or 45 feet further north than
symmetry would place it. This is also the location of HS-133 shown on
the proposal plan of 1866. The northern chimney would then be partly
under the location of the southernmost chimney of HS-114; again, this
is supported by documents: in September of 1870, Shoemaker wrote that
the chimneys along one side of his house, HS-133, had to be removed and
the windows closed in order to continue construction on his new
Quarters, HS-114. This indicates that the north wall of HS-133 was
against the south wall of HS-114.
After the construction of the Ordnance Officer's
Quarters in 1851, Shoemaker began the development of his Ordnance
establishment. This took the form of a series of buildings constructed
west, north, and east of HS-133. Several of the buildings were built in
an extension of the yard behind HS-133. The first of these was probably
the log gunshed constructed in mid-1853 (Part I, pp. 66-67). This is
the compound visible in the Heger depictions of the Shoemaker complex.
In June-August, 1859, Shoemaker built a magazine and probably part or all of a protective
enclosing wall of adobe (Part I, p. 69); Heger's pencil drawing is in
fact dated May 22, 1859, just before Shoemaker began the construction.
Also clearly visible north of and on line with Shoemaker's quarters is
a small building that was undoubtedly the Ordnance Clerk's office,
apparently a log building. This appears to have become the southern
third of the log and adobe building shown on the 1866 plan, the
precursor of the present HS-115. The plan of the back buildings
as shown by Heger strongly resembles some parts of the back buildings as
they appear on the present plan. Shoemaker put up a flagstaff just north
and perhaps a little east of the north end of HS-133 by 1859, when Heger
shows it on both his drawings. This flagstaff may have been placed as
early as the beginning of the development of the Ordnance complex in
By August-December, 1866, Shoemaker's house and yard,
the buildings out back, the Clerk's Office with the Clerk's Quarters
added in adobe to its north end, the Storeroom (HS-102), the Armorer and
Blacksmith shops (HS-105/06), the Artillery Storehouse (HS-199), and the
Main Storehouse (HS-101), were all enclosed by a series of walls and
fences connecting the ends of the various buildings; this enclosure was
joined to a large rectangular wall enclosing the two large Magazines
(HS-109 and 110). The structures that had been the Magazine and Gunshed
were apparently converted to stables and outbuildings for Shoemaker's
Officers' Quarters. Ruwet gives this building and the
adjacent quarters the same number. The survey was unable to locate the
second rear chimney, even though one was undoubtedly present. Begun in
September, 1851, this seems to be the house wherein Captain Isaac Bowen
and his wife Katie were the first occupants, living in these quarters
from the time of their construction until October, 1853. Captain Bowen
was in charge of the Subsistence Commissary stores for the Department.
Katie reported that they moved in to this building about the end of
October, and that the third room was finished by the end of November
(Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 327). The third room was used as the
bedroom, and Isaac kept the funds for the Department Quartermaster here,
as well as the Commissary funds.
In Katie Bowen's letters, she describes a number of
the structures she and her husband built in the back yard of the house,
as well as details of the interior. The Bowens kept several cows, three
pigs, one or more horses, as many as 80 chickens, and a team of mules in
their yard. Isaac built a "cow house," a barn, and several chicken
coops; they may also have dug several small cellars for keeping milk,
and had a small garden plot (Part I, pp. 24-25, Oliva, "Frontier Army,"
p. 327). Undoubtedly the other officers' quarters had similar buildings
and usages in their yards.
The house appears to be still standing as of ca.
September, 1865, when it is just visible behind HS-132; it was probably
torn down about November, 1865, during the construction of the magazines
and enclosing compound.
Officers' Quarters. The survey was unable to locate the second rear
chimney of this house, even though one is clearly visible in both Heger
These quarters, closer to the Commanding Officer's
Quarters, HS-126, were begun in August, 1851 and probably first occupied
by Captain (brevet Major) Ebenezer Sprote Sibley and his wife Charlotte.
Sibley was Assistant Quartermaster in charge of the Department
Quartermaster Depot (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 153) as well as being
the Post Quartermaster. Sibley's quarters were built first because his
brevet rank was higher than that of Captain Bowen, and it is usual for
higher ranked officers to be housed closer to the commanding officer.
The Sibleys lived here until August, 1853.
The building appears to have stood until about
November, 1865, when it was probably removed as part of the construction
of the magazine compound, the west wall of which passes across the west
wall of this house.
Post Quartermaster's Storehouse.
Note that this is different from the Department Quartermaster's Depot,
located in HS-182. HS-136 was apparently built originally as the Post
Hospital. As of August 20, 1851, the walls of the hospital were
completed, but it had no roof (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 112). In
December, 1851, Major E. S. Sibley said that "the building designed for
the hospital does not exactly answer the purposes for which it was
intended;" another building was to be built (HS-140)
and the hospital would be converted to a storehouse to get the stores
out of the tents where they had been since the post was founded. The new
hospital was built and the old hospital converted to Post Quartermaster
Storehouse in the first half of 1852. It was shared by the commissary
and quartermaster departments (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 120).
In his report on the condition of the post in
September, 1852, Sibley stated that the storehouse had only one wing;
his description said that the building was 100 x 22 feet with one wing
of 45 x 22 feet, with a sawn board gable roof (Part I, p. 23). The Davis
drawing of late 1852, shows the west wing, and clearly shows no east
wing (see the exceptionally clear print of the engraving in MNM #82350).
The Rice drawing of June, 1853, shows the west wing, but unfortunately
the area of the east wing is obscured. Mansfield shows two wings
standing by August, 1853; therefore, the east wing was added sometime in
the first half of 1853. In September, 1853, this storehouse was reported
to be in "deteriorated condition," and it was proposed to build a new
structure. It must have been repaired instead, and is probably the
Quartermaster storehouse where a ball was held in September, 1858.
According to the rather detailed description by Major John
S. Simonson, the building had a Quartermaster's
office with a small room on either side, all probably in one of the
wings. The Quartermaster Storehouse proper, with a packed earthen floor,
was probably located in the main east-west wing (Oliva, "Frontier Army,"
p. 356-57). The building continued in use through 1859, but was gone by
The traces of the building consist of four
clearly-defined firehearths of stone, and the visible outline of the
building in the form of rubble mounds and vegetation lines. A massive
rectangular area of stone, 19.5 x 8.5 feet, was located just west
of the east wing of the storehouse, and was probably a loading dock. If
its eastern edge was against the west wall of the east wing, as is
likely, then the east wing was 19 feet wide rather than 22 feet. A large
mound of rubble and midden-like debris is just east of the east wing,
and may have been cleared from the area of HS-137 by the Fort Union
Ranch prior to the creation of the National Monument.
Dragoon Stables (see also HS-161, HS-148,
HS-149). This building is not visible in the Davis drawing of late 1852,
but may be one of the two corrals, each 100 feet square, described by
Sibley in the inspection of September, 1852. It seems not to be on the
Rice drawing of June, 1853; but is shown on the Mansfield map in early
August, 1853. The building is gone by 1859, and the date of its
disappearance is as uncertain as the date of its construction. However,
planning for a new stable began in July, 1854 (Part I, p. 34), and
Colonel Thomas T. Fauntleroy stated in July, 1855, that "the
stables for one Company have to be rebuilt entire." Ruwet suggests that
it was the Dragoon Stables needing replacement (Ruwet, "Fort Union," pp.
40, 42; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 184); this seems a reasonable
suggestion, and indicates that HS-137 was in bad shape by mid-1854, but
was probably used through mid-1855. Ruwet further suggests that the
stables were rebuilt on a new site, which he considered to be the
complex he called number 24 (see HS-148, 149 below). Ruwet is very
likely correct in thinking that the new stable built after Fauntleroy's
evaluation was probably HS-148 and 149 (Ruwet's no. 24), since this
group of corrals and stables were built sometime between 1853 and 1859.
However, it was probably HS-161, built in 1853 as an additional Dragoon
stable, that replaced HS-137 (see HS-161, below).
The building has a fairly clear presence on aerial
photographs, and there is a great mass of burned debris and trash
deposits on the site. The appearance of the area of HS-137 is consistent
with destruction by fire and subsequent use as a trash-dumping area, or
abandonment and later trash-dumping including ashes and charcoal from
Soldiers' or Dragoons' Quarters. One
of the two company quarters with walls finished as of August 20, 1851.
The roof of this or HS-139 was being built as of that date. The
structure continued in use through at least the end of 1866, when it
appears on the 1866 Enos and Lambert map; it was gone by March, 1868.
The 1852 description of this building listed it as being 100 x 18 feet
with two wings of 50 x 16 feet with board roofs. A walkway, 2-1/2 feet by
10-1/2 feet and made of flagstone, led to a doorway in the center of the
south side of the main wing; an extra fireplace stood at the north end
of the west wing.
Soldiers' Quarters. Built in 1851, it stood through
May, 1859, and may have been torn down in August, 1859 (Part I, p. 37).
It was certainly gone by the time of the photograph of ca. September,
1865. The building was 100 x 18 feet with two wings of 50 x 16 feet,
with board roofs. The four stone fireplace bases are clearly visible
today, and the general outline of the building can be seen by
differences in vegetation.
Hospital. Built 1852, stood through 1868, gone by
1882. This is the second building built for the Post Hospital; the first
hospital constructed was not satisfactory. As a result, in December,
1851, the Fort Union staff proposed to turn the first hospital into the
Post Quartermaster's Storehouse (HS-136) and build a second hospital in
1852. In September, 1852, the new Hospital was described as 48 x 18
feet, with a wing 46 x 16 feet (Part I, p. 23). Assistant Surgeon
Jonathan Letterman, in his 1856 inspection, described this building as
being so wet that the hospital staff moved the sick outside into tents
and covered over the hospital equipment with canvas (Part I, p. 35). In
the 1859 Heger depictions of the building, what appears to be a yard or
corral can be seen at the east end of the south wing; several
rectangular areas and clear vegetation lines can be seen in the aerials,
suggesting that several palisade lines and perhaps one building were
built just east of the main portion of the hospital. The hospital was
deemed unfit for occupancy in an 1861 inspection. The building was
transferred to the ordnance depot in June, 1862 and subsequently used
for storage (Part I, p. 72; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 904). It was
probably torn down by Shoemaker as part of the finalization of the plan
of the Arsenal about 1872.
The visible traces of this building consist of two
chimney bases and some traces of the footprint of the structure itself.
The best fit of the stated measurements to the site put the 48 x 18 foot
Hospital extending east to west, and the 46 x 16 foot wing running north
to south from its west end. However, archeological examination should be
conducted before this is accepted as fact. The description of 1862 says
that the Hospital had seven rooms: three wards, a surgery, a storeroom,
a steward's room, and a kitchen.
Ordnance Depot. Although Shoemaker's depot was not described in Sibley's
report of 1852, Shoemaker's correspondence shows that in June, 1852, the
depot building was under construction. It was
to cover four sides of a square of 100 feet, and
would be about 20 feet in height (Part I, p. 26). In 1853, Mansfield
reported that the ordnance depot included storehouses, quarters, and a
gun shed. The Depot building itself apparently housed the barracks and
messroom for depot personnel. The barracks rooms and mess hall had
fireplaces, marked by H-shaped foundations. These formed two-sided
hearths built at room-dividing walls so that a fireplace would face into
each of two adjoining rooms. The spacing of the fireplace bases
indicates that there were three barracks rooms, each 20-1/2 feet long and
15-3/4 feet wide. The mess room was probably on the east end, and was
perhaps 36-1/4 feet long and 15-3/4 feet wide. The presence, location
and plan of the fireplaces allows most of the primary dimensions of the
building to be deduced. The east-west exterior length was almost exactly
101 feet, and each wing was 15-3/4 feet wide. The walls were about 1 foot
thick, and were probably of horizontal or vertical logs. North to south,
the building was again 101 feet long, and the porches on the north and
south sides were each about 7-1/2 feet deep and extended the full width
of the building. In September, 1855, the four rooms forming the northern
wing were converted to storerooms; the chimneys were torn down, leaving
their bases under the floors, and a new barracks, mess hall, and
kitchen, HS-142, 143, and 194, below, were built just to the north (Part
I, p. 67).
The Depot stood as it was originally constructed
through 1859. In the 1859 drawings, and on the ground, the roofs are
pitched, a chimney is visible centered on the east end of the south
wing, probably for the Depot office, and lightning rods can be seen in
the center of the roof of the north and south wings. A section of about
one-third of the north end of the west wing is distinctly different from
the remainder of this wing in both Heger drawings, suggesting that it
was constructed in a different, but undefinable, manner.
By 1866 much of the Depot had been torn down; the
Enos-Lambert map shows the western three-quarters of the north wing
standing, along with a short section of the west wing making an ell;
apparently this was the section appearing to be different in the Heger
drawing. In addition, the eastern third of the south wing, probably
housing the Depot office, remained standing.
The section of the north wing remaining appears to
have consisted of the four storerooms that had been barracks rooms and a
mess hall. Ruwet suggests these were the shops for the Ordnance Depot.
He suggests that the two north-south wings were the stables, and were
removed sometime between 1859 and 1866 because the stables in HS-149
were used in their place. However, this is unlikely, since HS-148 was
the group of stables in this area, and were also torn down in 1859-1866,
while HS-149 appears to have been offices and a yard. The stabling area
for the Ordnance Depot between about 1862 and about 1869 was probably
located at HS-80, near the Second Fort. After ca. 1869, the Ordnance
Stables were at HS-111.
The north and south wings of the Depot continued in
use through 1868, but were torn down probably during the final episodes
of construction in 1871-72.
Ordnance Messroom? Undoubtedly part of the Ordnance
Depot group, along with HS-143, the Ordnance Barracks, and HS-194, the
possible Ordnance Kitchen. This may be the new messroom mentioned as
soon to be built in Shoemaker's correspondence of September 1, 1855 (Part
I, p. 67). This structure was visible in 1859 and stood through 1868,
when it appears on the Ludington-Lambert map, but was probably torn
down in 1871-72 construction; its last vestiges were removed at the time
of the construction of the tear-drop entrance drive. It was completely
gone by the time the ca. 1885 photograph was taken.
The Heger drawings show some details of the
structure. A chimney appears on the ridge line of the pitched roof near
the center of the building, but has not been found on the ground, and a
door is visible on the south wall near the same end. The site of this
building, crossed by the tear-drop drive, received so much later impact
that the plan cannot be seen on the ground. The building plan taken from
the aerials is plotted on the Base Map; it is a structure 75 feet long
and 15 feet wide.
Ordnance Barracks. Not visible in the 1852 Davis
and 1853 Rice drawings; built probably in 1855 to replace the barracks
rooms in the original depot building, converted to storerooms the same
year (Part I, p. 67). Clearly visible in the Heger drawings of 1859.
Shown on the proposal plan of 1866, where it is identified as
"Barracks." Continued in use as the ordnance barracks
through 1868, when Shoemaker's request for permission to build a new
ordnance barracks was approved. It was replaced by HS-113 between March
and October, 1868, and probably torn down by the end of the year.
In the 1859 Heger drawings the building has a pitched
roof with a chimney on the ridge line about 1/3 of the length of the
building from the south end, perhaps a smaller chimney at the peak of
the north end, and a porch along its west side. The Heger engraving
shows what Ruwet interpreted as a fence extending from the south end of
HS-143 to the west end of HS-142; however, this could as easily be a
clothesline with wet clothing hanging from it. The outline of the
building is clear on the ground; it is odd that the fireplace base was
not found in the area. It is likely that the traces of the fireplace
were obscured by later usage of the area, and simply have not been
recognized under a covering of loose dirt. The building appears to be
about 85 feet long, north to south, and about 30 feet wide, of which
some part seems to be a porch on the west side. It is likely that the
building was about 22 feet wide, and the porch about 8 feet deep.
Laundresses Quarters. Built ca. 1851,
described by Sibley in 1852 as 114 feet long, 18 feet wide and
containing six rooms and an earthen (flat) roof. The building was
present in September, 1853, when it was depicted on Mansfield's plan of
the fort, but may have been removed by 1859, when it cannot be
identified behind the Ordnance Depot, HS-141. If the quarters were
removed in 1854-59, their new location is unknown.
Traces of a stone foundation have been located in
this area, and are shown on the map. The outline of a rectangular
building is visible here on the aerial photograph, but is about 25 feet
wide and 65 feet long, rather than the dimensions of the Quarters
recorded by Sibley; this outline is just to the west of the stone
foundations. It is possible that the building outline visible on the
aerial is the southern 65 feet of the Laundresses' Quarters, and that it
had a porch 7 feet wide on the west side, but without archeological
investigation this is conjecture. No clear trace of any structure can be
seen in the southern part of the area on the ground or in the aerials;
the south end was crossed by the most deeply worn sections of the
Arsenal entrance drive and all structural information
may have been destroyed. Archeological testing of the probable location
of the building would clear up many of these uncertainties.
It is possible that an adobe building was constructed on the stone
foundations at the north end of the site in the early 1860sa
small structure is indicated in this area in 1866, and may still be
present in 1868.
Sutler's Store. Jared W. Folger was appointed as the
first sutler to the new Fort Union on September 27, 1851. The sutler's
store was undoubtedly begun soon after his appointment, and a completion
date of early 1852 is reasonable. The available drawings and plan show a
building in the shape of a backwards "C", the open side on the west. The
Davis drawing shows what seems to be the sutler's store from the
northwest in 1853, and the south end of the east wing can be seen on the
Heger drawings in 1859. Assuming that the size shown on the Mansfield
map of 1853 is representative, the building had a main wing
about 85 feet long and 21 feet wide running north to south, with two
somewhat lower wings extending west, each about 40 feet long and 21 feet
wide. Pitched roofs covered all three wings, and there were at least two
chimneys, one on the roof ridge in the center of the north wing, and the
other on the southeast corner at the end of the roof ridge of the main
As of 1857, the sutler's operation had a store,
storeroom, post office, a residence for the sutler and his family,
residences for some employees, and rooms for rent (Oliva, "Frontier
Army," p. 367, 402). It appears likely that sometime before 1859, and
perhaps as early as 1857, HS-162 was built by the post sutler to augment
or replace HS-145; therefore, some of these activities may have been
housed in HS-162.
Only the approximate location and outline of HS-145
is shown, taken from the Mansfield map; this area was later crossed by
the Arsenal entrance road and enclosing wall, obscuring the structural
traces so that the Sutler's Store is not yet clearly located on the
ground. Archeology would easily relocate the plan of this building.
Soldiers' Quarters. Sibley mentions only two barracks in September,
1852, the Dragoons' Quarters, HS-138, and the Soldiers' Quarters, HS-139. Ruwet suggests that these
barracks were not part of the original plan of 1851. This proposal is
supported by the asymmetrical location of the building; and the
estimated front of the structure seems to be about 1-1/2 feet north of
the alignment of the front of the first barracks, HS-139. It is visible
in the Rice drawing of June, 1853; therefore, it was built between
September, 1852, and June, 1853. It is shown on the Mansfield plan of
August, 1853, and the Heger drawings of 1859. These barracks may have
continued in use through the early 1860s, but was gone by the time of
the ca. September, 1865 photograph.
The physical remains of the building are somewhat
more complicated than its neighbor and twin, Soldier's Quarters HS-139,
to the west, although the plan appears to be identical in size and
shape. The two fireplace bases on either end of the main east-west wing
are much larger than those in the other barracks, as is the one on the
north end of the east wing. Two additional apparent chimney bases or
masonry structures of some other use are found within the building
outline near the southwest corner. One of these appears to be a chimney
base at the south end of the west wing.
Post Quartermaster's Office?. This building is
shown as 38 feet long and 18 feet wide, with a stone chimney centered on
the east side; however, the disturbed area around the chimney
could accommodate a building up to about 40 feet by 40 feet. Mansfield
shows a row of three offices, HS-147, 151, and probably under the west
end of 157. Sibley describes several offices; one of these was for
himself (Sibley was the Assistant Quartermaster in charge of both the
Quartermaster Depot for the Department, and the Post Quartermaster); the
others were for the Subsistence Commissary. The Office of the Department
Subsistence Commissary was under Captain Isaac Bowen, while the Post
Commissary probably had a separate office. It is likely that the
Assistant Quartermaster Office, where Major Sibley was located, was in
HS-147; see HS-151, 152, and 157, below for the reasoning behind
Dragoon Stables and Corrals (presumed use). These
buildings are not on Mansfield's original plan, but clearly visible in
the 1859 Heger drawings. The drawings show that these stables were built
between 1853 and 1859. Assuming that the various references in this
period were all to the same group of stables, their construction was
planned for as of July, 1854 as additional stables needing to
be constructed for a new cavalry company being
brought to Fort Union; possibly the same as the replacement for stables
needing to be removed (the deteriorated stables may have been HS-137) as
mentioned by Col. Fauntleroy in July, 1855; and very likely the Dragoon
stables under construction in May, 1856 (Part I, p. 34; Ruwet, "Fort
Union," p. 40; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 914). Continued in existence
through 1859, although little of the plan can be seen on the Heger
drawing. The corrals were gone by the time of the photograph of ca.
The physical remains are complex on both the aerials
and on the ground. The plan shown on the map is the best compromise
based on these sources. These corrals formed an enclosed compound, 274 x
117 feet, with the east and west wings 25 feet wide and the north and
south wings 20 feet wide with porch-like additions on the inner faces,
10 feet wide. The corrals and the Ordnance shops or Offices, HS-149,
were built parallel to each other but at a slight angle to the grid of
the rest of the fort. The northern component, HS-148c, is visible in the
aerial photos but not particularly on the ground. One office with a
stone chimney base was found on the south side near the east corner.
Shops or Offices. Not on Mansfield's original plan. Built between
1853 and 1859. The building and yard are visible in the 1859
Heger drawings and the ca. September, 1865, photograph from
Third Fort, as well as on the 1866, 1868, and 1874 maps of the
valley. Continued in use through 1874, abandoned by 1882.
Four stone chimney bases were found within the
outline of a building about 92 x 24-1/2 feet; what appears to be a stone
step at an entrance may be seen a little south of the center of the west
side. Bricks found in association with the southernmost chimney show
that this building, too, took part in Shoemaker's fired brick experiment
of 1860. A structure 47 feet long and 24-1/2 feet wide on the north end
of the building appears to have been made of vertical posts, and may
have been a stable. A corral or yard along the east side of the
building, also of vertical posts, is 139 by 60 feet.
Unknown. No building is shown at this location on the Mansfield map, nor
is anything visible here in the 1859 drawings. This structure was a deep
rectangular pit, perhaps used for ice storage,
about 25 by 30 feet, and about 1 foot deep at the center. It was
possibly constructed between 1859 and 1866.
Post Subsistence Commissary Office?. Built ca. 1851,
visible in all drawings through 1859, but gone by 1866. See HS-157, for
further discussion. Shown as 38 x 18 feet, with a stone chimney base
near the center of the east side, but the disturbed area around the
chimney is about 38 by 30 feet.
Post Commissary Stores. Not
described in Sibley, 1852, but shown on the Mansfield plan of 1853 and
identified as for Commissary Stores. Visible through 1859, but gone by
1866. See HS-157 for further discussion. Shown as 38 x 18 feet, with a
stone chimney base at about the center of the building, but the
disturbed area around the chimney is about 49 by 29 feet. The Commissary
Stores for the Department were probably kept in HS-163.
Unknown. It is likely that the west wing was the
small structure visible behind HS-152 in the 1859 drawings; if so, it
received a considerable addition after 1859, but was gone before 1866.
The building was T-shaped, with the west wing about 35 x 30 feet, and
the crossbar of the T about 37 x 68 feet. The stone base of a chimney is
near the southeastern corner of the west wing.
Unknown. Not visible on any map or drawing. May be
concealed behind HS-153 in the 1859 drawings. Gone by 1866. Rectangular
pit approximately 20 by 30 feet and presently perhaps 2 feet deep. This
is probably the icehouse that went into use in 1851-52 (Oliva, "Frontier
Army," p. 121), described by Sibley in September, 1852, as 20 x 30 feet
with a flat earthen roof covered by a board roof (see also HS-150, 160).
The icehouse does not appear on the Mansfield map of August, 1853, even
though it was certainly in use; nor does it appear on any other
drawings, probably because it was a low, unobtrusive structure.
Unknown. Not visible on any map or drawing. May be
concealed behind the possible HS-153 in the 1859 drawings. Gone by
1866. Traces of a stone footing about 1 foot thick,
outlining a structure 21 x 13 feet.
Storehouse, incomplete. Not visible on any map or
drawing. Cut stone foundation, 1-1/2 feet thick, of same size and shape
as HS-157, below. 150 x 30 feet. Foundations do not seem to be
complete; portions of the east half of the north and south walls, and
all of the east wall, do not have stone detectable from the present
surface. However, a footing trench seems to be present for the full
circumference. This and the lack of artifacts or debris on the site
strongly indicates that the structure was not finished. The area where
this foundation is located is clearly visible in the Heger drawings, and
shows no trace of construction work; this strongly implies that the
building was started after 1859. It was probably one of the storehouses
begun ca. 1861; work on these storehouses stopped in August, 1861, in
order to speed up work on the Second Fort (Part I, pp. 37-38). The
storehouses were never finished. See also HS-170 and HS-171 for further
discussion of the 1859-1861 surge in building.
Department Subsistence Commissary
Office?/Storehouse. This building began as a small office of unknown use
in 1851-53; it was shown on the Mansfield plan of 1853 and the 1853
drawings. However, by 1859 it had been rebuilt as a much larger
building, but retaining offices at the front on the west end.
It is likely that the original office was that for
the Department Subsistence Commissary. In October, 1853, the Department
Commissary moved to Albuquerque, so the large Commissary Storehouse,
HS-163, may have been abandoned then; however, Fort Union continued as a
sub-depot for commissary stores, and HS-157 as offices and HS-152 as a
small commissary storehouse may have continued in use. In July, 1858, a
report stated that the Quartermaster and Commissary storehouses
(probably for the Post) were "insufficient in capacity" (Oliva,
"Frontier Army," p. 196). In April, 1859, orders may have come to begin
construction on new Fort buildings, especially barracks and storehouses
(Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 171-74; see also Part I, pp. 36-38).
Certainly it appears that HS-157 was completely renewed about this time.
The original small office of horizontal logs was torn down, and a new
structure built in its place, with two offices in front and a large
storeroom in the back. Presumably, the Commissary Offices continued in
the front, and the Commissary stores were kept in back. It stood in this
form by May 20, 1859, when it is shown on Heger's pencil drawing. It may
have been under construction at the time, since the drawing shows what appears to be
two braces or supports angling up against the south side of the
building. The drawing on which the Heger engraving is based may have
been made a month or two later; it seems to show a porch along the north
side of the building, while it is clear that no porch was present in the
In its final plan, the Office/Storehouse was a frame
structure with a gable roof, on cut stone foundations 150 feet long and
30 feet wide on the exterior, and averaging about 1-1/2 feet thick.
The interior was divided into two offices at the front and a large
storehouse in the back. The office on the north measured 9 x 19 feet on
the interior; on the south, 17 x 20 feet; the east walls of the two
rooms are not the same distance from the front of the building. The
south room had a stone step to an entrance just south of the partition
wall; Heger shows that the north room also had a door, near the north
corner with a window just south of it. The triangular chimney base
supported two corner fireplaces, one in each room. Behind the office,
the storehouse was 125 x 28 feet on the interior. The storehouse section
had a wooden floor supported by joists resting on the two long side
walls, supported at their centers by a third line of stone. The building
had disappeared by 1866.
Unknown. Small office-like building with two
chimneys, one in the center and one on the north wall, with a small
enclosed yard or storeroom extension to the rear. The front section is
30 feet across the front and 24 feet deep, while the yard or rear
section is 30 feet wide and 76 feet long, for a total length of 100
feet. Not visible on any map or drawing. Perhaps dates from 1859-1862
period. May have been one of the storehouses under construction in 1861,
stopped in August, 1861 (Part I, pp. 37-38).
Bakehouse. Ruwet incorrectly
identified the large stable building along the west side of HS-161 as
having replaced the Bakehouse on this location by 1859 (Ruwet, "Fort
Union," p. 39). Bleser and Wohlbrandt give the north oven base the
number 10 and the southern base the number 11. In September, 1852,
Sibley describes the building as 31 feet long and 17 feet wide, while
Davis, later in 1852, shows a small building with two chimneys, one on
the north and one on the south. It is possible that this indicates that
the building was enlarged by the addition of a second
oven in September-December, 1852. Mansfield shows a
rectangular building labelled "Bakery" at this location in August, 1853.
The 1859 drawings show what appear to be two mounds of rubble here. Two
fieldstone oven bases are visible today. The pictorial, documentary, and
structural evidence suggests that the structure began in ca. 1851 as a
building 31 feet long and 17 feet wide, but was doubled in size in late
1852 with the addition of a second oven, with final dimensions of 60 x
17 feet. The ovens were abandoned and in ruins by 1859. The later
location of the bakery after the abandonment of HS-159 is unknown.
Unknown. Possibly an ice house. Not on any map or drawing.
Rectangular pit, 15 x 10 feet. A second icehouse in addition to
HS-154 was built in late 1852 and filled with ice by March, 1853
(Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 344); this pit could be that icehouse.
New Dragoons' Stable and workshops. Ruwet
misidentified the large western building of this structure as standing
on the site of the Bakehouse, and gave the two offices or workshops east
of it the numbers 39 and 40. Wohlbrandt gave the number 18 to a portion
of the southern side, outlined most of the east and north sides, but saw
nothing along the west edge. Bleser added the number 25 for the other
structures Wohlbrandt outlined on the east and north sides.
This large compound is not on the Mansfield map. It
was begun in November, 1853, when Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke
ordered a new stable of pickets built for Co. H, 2nd Dragoons (Oliva,
"Frontier Army," p. 358). It was finished by July, 1854, and the main
stable measured 190 x 30 feet. It was built stockade-style with
"upright logs set in the ground" with a gavelled "sharp board roof"
(Part I, p. 34). As seen on the ground, this complex appears to be a
large stable, barns, and at least six workshops and offices set up in a
rectangle around a central corral, 105 x 137 feet, with at least 6
chimneys distributed among the workshops and offices; the implication of
this complexity is that the HS-161 compound was considerably enlarged
This corral complex is gone by December, 1866, when
it does not appear on the Enos and Lambert map. However, artifacts
scattered thickly on the site indicate that at least the eastern portion
of the structure was in use through the late 1860s, suggesting that
this portion of HS-161 was perhaps used as a trash dump for the Hotel,
HS-162, present from before 1859 to ca. 1870.
Hotel/Sutler's Store. Visible here in 1859 is a
structure consisting of a frame building facing north, perhaps thirty by
fifty feet, with a porch on the front, a pitched roof, and an enclosed
yard about 100 feet long at the rear on the south, containing at least
two outbuildings. Ruwet suggests that this is the Guardhouse described
by Sibley in 1852, but it is more likely that the Guardhouse was in one
of the buildings along the Parade Ground. The present structure was
probably built as a new sutler store and Hotel by the post sutler
sometime between August, 1853, when the sutler store was only HS-145,
and May, 1859, when HS-162 was drawn by Heger. A large depression, about
45 x 20 feet, within the northwest corner of the present building under
the front room of the ruins, appears to have been a cellar. This could
be the cellar of the sutler's store broken into by Fort Union troops in
March, 1862, just before they departed to the Battle of Glorieta.
The building was considerably altered enlarged during
the years after 1859, and was rebuilt in adobe. The earliest documentary
reference to the Hotel was in late 1865. The Hotel shown on the 1866 and
1868 maps (Ruwet's number 34a) was an adobe building with stone
foundations, 100 x 40 feet, with an ell, 30 x 90 feet, extending along
the west side of the enclosed rear yard. South of the main compound was
a stable building and yard about 100 x 70 feet. West of the main
building is an isolated chimney base, and traces of other possible
structures are visible east of the main building near the National Park
Service chain-link enclosing fence.
In ca. 1885 the Hotel is visible in the photograph of
that year as a ruin in the distance with no roof and partly collapsed
adobe walls. Artifacts scattered thickly across the site indicate a use
from the early 1850s to ca. 1870.
Commissary Stores. Probably the storehouse for the
Department Subsistence Commissary. In September, 1852, Sibley refers to
a "Smokehouse," 100 x 22 feet with a gable roof of boards (Part I, p.
23); HS-163 is the only structure that fits that description, and
therefore presumably began as the Smokehouse. On September 8, 1853,
Captain L. C. Easton was told by Brigadier General John Garland that
"the building erected for a smokehouse can be fitted
up for temporary use" as a storehouse (Oliva,
"Frontier Army," p. 154). However, the building was shown a month
earlier, on the Mansfield plan of August 1-6, 1853, as the Commissary
Storehouse, indicating that the smokehouse had been pressed into use as
a storehouse before General Garland ordered its refitting as one. It is
visible in Davis, late 1852, and Rice, June, 1853, but is gone by
The Department Commissary moved from Fort Union to
Albuquerque in October, 1853 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 182). This
building was probably abandoned at that time. It seems reasonable that
part of the new storehouse, HS-157, took over the job of commissary
storehouse and HS-163 was then removed. The fort remained a sub-depot
for the area, so that something more than only a local storehouse was
The site is clearly marked by a row of large basalt
boulders along the east half of the north wall and most of the east wall
of the building. The remainder of the outline is easily visible in the
aerials, and sometimes on the ground when the vegetation is right.
Greenhouse and Gardener's House. Funds for the
construction of the Greenhouse were requested by Captain Gouverneur
Morris on January 31, 1853 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 135 n. 167). It
was built apparently in February, and was completed and in use by March
3, when it was described by Katie Bowen. It was mentioned again in
April, 1853, (Part I, p. 26). Bowen described this building as being 50
x 20 feet with a glass front facing south. The gardener's house was
attached. The hothouse was not very successful, and the building was
apparently dismantled in May or June, 1853; it is not shown by Rice on
June 20, 1853, or on the Mansfield plan of August, 1853. It stood only
about four months; this would explain why virtually no broken glass is
visible on the location of the building.
The building is at a slight angle to the general grid
of First Fort, with the east end slightly north of where it should be.
The west half of the structure is the Gardener's house, 37 x 25 feet,
with an apparent porch about 8 feet deep across the entire north side, a
small chimney base at the southwest corner of the building, and a
possible chimney base in the center of the west wall; the east half was
the Greenhouse itself, 50 x 20 feet, with a possible chimney
base near the northeast corner. The mounded shapes of the planting beds
are still visible.
Unknown. Ruwet, Bleser and Wohlbrandt all grouped
this structure and HS-166 together as a single building. This was a
large house or office, 40 x 59 feet, divided into two sections. The
front section was 40 x 22 feet with a chimney centered on the front wall
and a second one slightly south of center on the east wall, while the
back section was 40 x 37 feet, with a chimney on the south wall near the
east corner. The building had a front porch about 10 feet deep, and a
large enclosed back yard, 93 feet by 40 feet. The yard was enclosed by
vertical posts, and a number of large boulders are scattered near the
outside of the enclosing walls. It was probably a frame structure,
standing on a fieldstone foundation much like those for HS-156 and 157.
It is too far south and west to be visible in any of the drawings, and is
not on any map. Artifacts are generally 1850s; the structure cannot be
dated any closer than within that period, although the similarity in
foundations makes it likely to have been built about the same time as
HS-156 and 157, or ca. 1859-1861. It was gone by 1866. The yard and
south half of the building are outside the National Monument fence on
the private property of Fort Union Ranch.
Unknown. Rectangular building, 33 feet x 17 feet with massive
fieldstone foundations. Probably built about the same time as HS-165.
Unknown. This appears to be a two-room structure with a single chimney
and stone foundations. The west room seems to be 27 feet square, while
the east room is 27 x 33 feet. Date unknown, but the sparse artifact
scatter suggests mid-to-late nineteenth century.
Unknown. Built after 1853, and clearly visible in the
Heger drawing of 1859 as a small frame house with a gable roof and a
single chimney, standing at an angle to the grid followed by the rest of
First Fort. At least two rooms, the north 29 x 14 feet, the south 16 x
19 feet. The chimney base was found to be at the southwest end of the
building, rather than in the center as Heger shows it; this could imply
that there is more building in the ground southwest of the chimney, but
not visible at the surface. The structure was gone by 1866.
Smokehouse? Square stone floor, 10 x 11 feet. The
building that stood on it appears to be a frame structure, and is
visible in Heger, 1859. The size and shape suggest that it was a
smokehouse, like the somewhat larger HS-313 on the north side of Third
Fort. It was gone by 1866.
Storehouse?, incomplete. First mapped by Bleser in
1965. This is a well-built fieldstone foundation, 30 x 138 feet on the
exterior, with a central foundation line intended for joist support. The
outside walls have a foundation thickness of 2 feet, while the interior
walls are 1-1/2 feet thick. The building apparently was to have an office
of 27 x 20 feet in the front, or west, end of the building, leaving a
storage space of 27 x 113 feet, interior measurements. Very few
artifacts and no visible mound of structural debris indicates that this
structure was never finished. This is probably one of the storehouses
begun in 1861 and discontinued August, 1861 (Part I, pp. 37-38; see
HS-156, 158 above).
Company Quarters?, incomplete. First mapped by Bleser
in 1965. This is a well-built fieldstone foundation marking out a large,
E-shaped building, 194 feet long and 28 feet wide, with three wings
extending south; the central wing 37 x 47 feet, the end wings 19 x 47
feet, exterior measurements. The foundation is 2 feet thick on all walls
except the front, or north wall, and the central north-south dividing
wall, which are 2-1/2 feet thick; it appears to be incomplete on the
southwest corner. The lack of debris and artifacts suggests that, like
HS-170 and 156, this structure was begun in 1861 and never finished.
The plan and scale are similar to the adobe company
quarters built at Fort Davis beginning in 1867. In 1869 each of these
barracks had a main section of 186 x 27 feet and a single rear
extension, 86 x 27 feet. The main section contained two squad rooms, 24
x 82-1/2 feet, separated by a passageway between them to the rear
extension. At the end of each squadroom was a 10 x 10 foot sergeant's
quarters, and a 10 x 10 foot barracks office. The rear extension
contained a messroom of 50 x 24 feet, a kitchen, 20 x 24 feet, and a
storeroom, 10 x 24 feet.
Assigning the same functions within similar spaces in
HS-171 would give two squad rooms end to end, each 25 x 94 feet,
with no passage between them; a sergeant's quarters 28 x
14 and a barracks office 16 x 14 at each end; and a messroom of 20 x 33,
kitchen 12 x 33, and storeroom 12 x 33 in the central wing. This makes
for a rather small messroom and kitchen, but obviously the similarity is
strong enough to make it virtually certain that HS-171 is a set of new
The presence of these buildings adds considerable
significance to the statements made in 1858 and 1859 about "rebuilding
Fort Union." In July, 1858, Post Commander Captain Andrew J. Lindsay
submitted what had become a standard request to rebuild the post,
perhaps in adobes. This time, however, the request was introduced into
Congress, with the result that in April, 1859, funds were appropriated
to rebuild Fort Union (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 197). In August, 1859,
Post Commander Captain Robert M. Morris requested permission to hire
civilians to help build more company quarters (Part I, p. 37). He
received permission for such construction soon afterward, and on August
30, 1859, requested the Quartermaster at Fort Union to build the
barracks quickly (Part I, p. 37; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 174).
The placement of this apparent company quarters
facing north, and the probable storehouse, HS-170, with its front facing
west, suggest that these two buildings were planned to face onto a new
parade ground. If the new company quarters was centered on the south
side, then the parade ground would have been 400 feet wide, and had
enough room between its front and the south side of the officers'
quarters HS-129 to make a north-south length of 800 feet.
The two new buildings, HS-170 and HS-171, were
located about 1300 feet (1/4 mile) south of the center of the original
parade ground (about 1900 feet, or a little more than a third of a mile,
south of Shoemaker's Ordnance Depot), and somewhat closer to the springs
at the Post Garden (HS-198). This adds weight to such statements as
Shoemaker's statement in January, 1859, that Fort Union was "about to be
rebuilt on a new site about half a mile distant," and that "operations
toward the removal of Fort Union" had begun. On May 13, 1859, Shoemaker
noted the arrival of "General Order Number 7, dated War Department,
Washington, April 11, 1859." This is the same date as Special Order
Number 55, the appropriation by Congress to rebuild Fort Union, and was
apparently on the same topic. Shoemaker construed a portion of
the General Order to pertain to his Ordnance Depot,
and apparently stopped construction on his various projects until he
knew whether he would be moving; as it happened, the decision on the
relocation of the Arsenal was delayed, and ultimately the plan was
abandoned upon the outbreak of the Civil War. The available documents,
therefore, strongly suggest that construction began on a new Fort Union
about September, 1859, and that HS-170 and 171 were the structures
The relationship between these buildings and the
incomplete storeroom HS-156, started sometime after May, 1859, and
stopped soon after it was begun, is uncertain, but various references in
1861 suggest the hypothesis that HS-170 and 171 were begun in September,
1859, and given up soon after; then in 1861 a second attempt was made to
carry out the approved rebuilding, apparently starting the storehouse
HS-156this time to be halted by the outbreak of the Civil War.
From this viewpoint, Third Fort, begun in late 1862 as several
warehouses northeast of the Second Fort, is specifically the
continuation of the effort to build a new fort begun in August,
Flagstaff, First Fort. See also HS-173, 191. The
flagstaff is located almost precisely at the center of the original
parade ground of Fort Union. The parade ground itself is 470 feet north
to south and 488 feet east to west, from building front to building
front on each side. The flagstaff is 238 feet south of the front of
HS-139, and 245 feet east of the front of HS-131, or 3 feet south and 1
foot east of exactly dead center. It is likely that the parade ground
was laid out as a square 150 yards, or 450 feet, on a side. This would
leave a space 10 feet wide along the barrack fronts on the north and
south, large enough for a small stoop and walkway, and a space 19 feet
wide for a porch and walk along the fronts of the offices and Officer's
Quarters along the east and west sides.
HS-172 undoubtedly went out of use as the post
flagstaff with the construction and activation of Second Fort in
1861-1862; the Ordnance Depot flagstaff, HS-191, apparently continued in
use for the Arsenal. After 1862, the location of HS-172 remained the
center point of the Arsenal Reservation, and is marked "Center Stake" on
the 1866, 1868, and 1874 maps of the valley. Nick Bleser, Administrative
Assistant at Fort Union, relocated the Flagstaff site in 1964, and found
the massive stump of the staff and
the remains of the large bracing timbers still in place, buried in the
ground (Ruwet, "Fort Union," p. 43; Bleser to Superintendent, Fort
Union, October 8, 1964).
Flagstaff, Arsenal, mid-1871 to closure of the
Arsenal in 1882. The Arsenal flagstaff was probably moved to this
location about the time of the completion of Shoemaker's quarters,
HS-114, about April, 1871. The tear-drop entrance road and probably
Shoemaker's front lawn were undoubtedly laid out at the same time. The
flagstaff is on the centerline of Shoemaker's house, and is precisely
225 feet east of the front of his house and 225 feet south of the fence
or wall along the south side of the Arsenal Barracks, HS-113, that
marks the north side of the Ordnance Parade Ground. The east side of the
compound was apparently intended to be 225 feet east of this flagstaff,
and another wall not marked on the proposal plan seems to have extended
from the magazine enclosure eastward to the east wall at 225 feet to the
south, forming the south side of the Parade Ground. These locations
reflect a revision of the 1866 proposal plan to give a square parade
ground with the flagpole in the center, and Shoemaker's house centered
on the west side; this redesign appears to have occurred about the end
of 1868 or in early 1869. The south wall of the Parade Ground may have
been completed and continued in use until closure, since it seems to be
shown on the Kelp map of ca. 1885-1890, and is apparently visible in
some aerial photographs, but various errors placed the east wall line
240 feet east of the Flagstaff, rather than 225. See below, HS-191, for
the Arsenal Flagstaff location between 1862 and 1871.
Civilian Quarters. Four of the buildings HS-174
through 178 were built ca. 1854, and a fifth set was built about May,
1858, for civilian armorer George Berg and his family (Part I, pp.
68-69, 77; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 895). It is uncertain which one of
the five was the last built. These five structures can be seen on the
Heger drawings of 1859, the proposal plan of 1866, and the 1866 and 1868
maps, and are visible in the 1865 Farnsworth photograph of the First
Fort area from Third Fort. Even though they are small and at a
considerable distance, a great deal of detail can be determined about
the buildings from these sources. Surprisingly, all six representations
agree on how the buildings were laid out and where they were
HS-174 is the eastern half of a double building
forming the eastern end of the row of Civilian Quarters. Heger shows it
as a house with a pitched roof, the ridgepole extending east-west, with
a door in the center of the south side and two windows, one
symmetrically on either side of the door. There appears to be a chimney
at either end of HS-174, the western chimney being in the center of the
double building, HS-174, 175. On the east end of HS-174 is a small
structure with a single door and window.
Civilian Quarters. This forms the west half of the
double building, HS-174, 175. It also had a pitched roof and a door
centered on its south side, with a window on each side of the door. A
chimney is visible on its west end, and the chimney at the juncture
between the two halves may have been double.
Civilian Quarters. Like HS-174 and 175, this house
had a pitched roof with the ridgeline running east and west, a single
door centered on the south side, and two windows, one on each side of
the door. A chimney stood at the center of the west end of the
Civilian Quarters. Structure very similar to the previous
Civilian Quarters. A view of this building appears only on the
Heger pencil sketch. It appears like the others above, except that the
south side of the building has no door, but only two windows. A chimney
stood at the west end.
Civilian Quarters. The proposal plan of 1866 has six
civilian structures, one more than all the other sources; however, none
of them fits the measurements and layout of the 1868 building plan. It
appears that the 1866 proposal plan shows the original five Civilian
Quarters plus one additional house, and demonstrates that Shoemaker
intended to add a new building on the west end of the row. By 1868,
Shoemaker had decided to build three new sets of quarters, and submitted
a design to headquarters for them. Each house was to have two rooms 16
feet square at the front, a kitchen at the back 16 feet square, and a
front porch 6 x 32 feet (Part I, p. 77 and fig. 11).
Shoemaker began construction on the new Civilian
Quarters in November, 1868, starting with HS-179 at the west end of the
row. The work went slowly during the period from 1868 to 1870, with
other construction having a higher priority; the older quarters
continued in use during this period. Work on the new civilian quarters
probably stopped when Shoemaker was forced to discharge all hired labor
in September, 1870; the projected buildings were apparently given up at
this point, with only HS-179 completed.
All civilian quarters were gone by the time of the
closure of the Arsenal in 1882, and are not visible on the map or
photographs taken after that year. When during the period from ca. 1870
to ca. 1885 the structures were removed is unknown. The layout of the
six buildings on the Base Map are taken directly from the 1866 proposed
plan of the Arsenal; it is uncertain how closely the 1866 plan
corresponds to the actual location of the earlier civilian quarters or
the foundations of whatever new quarters were begun. The actual number
and location of the civilian quarters (HS-174 to 179) and the water
tower, HS-180, should be regarded as tentative at best; archeological
investigations are needed in order to arrive at actual locations and
Water Tower, Civilian Quarters. This is an L-shaped
wall fragment north of HS-17 that appears to be at the location of a
water tower visible in the 1865 photograph as standing just north of the
east end of the Civilian Quarters row, and as a small square structure
north of the row on the 1866 map.
Cemetery. Oliva (Third Fort Union, p. 885-86)
estimates that the cemetery was laid out in 1851. It is visible in the
Davis drawing of late 1852, surrounded by a palisade fence. The palisade
apparently rotted away by the mid 1860s. In 1866 the cemetery was shown
on the Enos and Lambert map as 500 feet north to south and about 200
feet east to west, but in 1867, when it was refenced, its dimensions
were stated to be 700 by 150 feet. The rows of grave pits and the stumps
of some fence posts are still visible today.
Quartermaster's Corral and Shops. Ruwet gives no number for this
compound, although he discusses it in detail (Third Fort Union,
pp. 43-47) and provides a sketch of the structures, based on
the 1859 drawings. His readily fits the surveyed plan
of the buildings on the base map. The core structures of the Corral were
those outlined on the Mansfield plan in August, 1853, and shown in good
detail by the Rice drawing of June, 1853. Rice shows a long building
along the west side of the compound, and two smaller buildings, each
with a chimney at each end, near the northeast and southeast corners. By
June, 1853, the northeast and southeast buildings had gabled roofs, but
the western building still had a flat roof. The southeastern building
had two evenly-spaced windows on its south side, and a chimney at each
end. The northeastern building had a large central door on the south
side, with two windows symmetrically placed, one on either side of the
door; a large chimney stood at each end. Sibley stated that the
blacksmith's and wheelwright's shop was a single structure 30 feet long
and 18 feet wide. This shop, certainly housed in the Quartermaster
compound, probably was in the northeastern building; the two chimney
bases of the building were located during the survey, 9 feet south of
the north wall of the compound and 30 feet apart. It is likely that the
foundations traces of the southeast building also exist in the northwest
quadrant of the final plan of HS-182.
The western building had four large doors and three
windows evenly spaced on the west side, one window on the south end, and
four chimneys evenly spaced down the centerline of the building. The
bases of these chimneys were located during this survey. Rice seems to
show the northernmost chimney as at the end of the building, but it was
probably about 10 feet south of the north end. A large gateway was
located on the east side near the northeastern corner, and a second,
smaller gate on the south side near the west end. This core compound
corresponds to the northwest quadrant of the later plan; it would have
measured perhaps 120 feet square.
Mansfield says that Sibley built the compound (in its
early form) about 1851, and that by 1853 it had storerooms, corrals, and
stables. Twenty-eight civilians and thirty-nine soldiers worked here in
1853, including carpenters, smiths, wheelwrights, a wagon and forage
master, a saddler, and a number of teamsters (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p.
The rest of the compound was added between 1853 and
1859, and can be seen fairly clearly on the Heger drawings. The
changes involved a considerable enlargement of the
Quartermaster compound toward the east and the addition of several
buildings in the new eastern half. The western building was extended by
about 32 feet on its south end, and a low gabled roof was built on it.
Heger shows a row of nine windows placed evenly along its west side, and
the four chimneys still in place along its new roof. The old
northeastern and southeastern buildings may have been removed at this
time, and a new group of four buildings added east of them. These
consisted of a building along the north wall, 25 feet by 136 feet, with
five chimney bases along it, three larger ones to the west, and two
smaller toward the east end. A large shed or barn was built along the
east side of the new compound, 159 feet by 19 feet with a high gabled
roof. It was divided into sections 45, 38, and 75-1/2 feet long by cross
walls. Several massive post bases still survive along the wall lines of
this building. West of this barn was a U-shaped building with a gavelled
roof on at least the northern section; the end of it can just be seen
above the building on the west side of the compound in the Heger
drawing. Judging from the obvious mounds marking each building, the
U-shaped structure was made of adobe, and possibly the northern and
western buildings, too, were built or rebuilt in adobe.
A large corral went up on the south side of this
enlarged complex, for a final outline of 370 x 340 feet. The enclosing
walls and corral were of palisade. Heger shows a large gateway centered
in the palisade wall south of the western building; this gateway appears
to be marked by a rectangular paved area, 8 x 2 feet, visible today just
west of the palisade line at this location.
Although most of the Quartermaster Corral is gone by
the time of the Farnsworth photograph taken in ca. September, 1865,
three of the fireplaces of the northern building are still standing.
Various markings around these chimneys suggest that other structural
ruins are still present, but no complete buildings stand.
Unknown. First mapped by Bleser in 1966. This
building, approximately 100 x 27 feet, contains two massive mounds that
look suspiciously like ovens, and may have been the bakehouse after the
abandonment of HS-159 sometime between 1853 and 1859. However, HS-183 is
not visible in the 1859 Heger drawings, indicating that it was built
after 1859 but went out of use at least before the Farnsworth photograph of 1865; it
was probably gone by 1862. Three joist beams are visible on the ground
outside the northeast corner of the building; the northernmost is about
12 feet north of the north end of the building. They are 14 feet long,
set at 4 foot centers, and extend eastward from the approximate east
wall line of the building, apparently for the support of a large porch
or frame structure along its east side. Traces of two others are visible
south of these three in the aerials, and Bleser thought that he could
see indications of this porch or building extending along the entire
length of the east side of HS-183.
Limeslaking Pit? First mapped by Bleser in 1966. 34 feet in
diameter, built of stone. This pit is associated with the chimney base
to the west, HS-185.
Lime Kiln? First mapped by Bleser in 1966.
Chimney-like structure associated with the large stonelined pit to the
east. This could be the first lime kiln at Fort Union, referred to in
September, 1851 (Part I, p. 21; see also North Lime Kiln, HS-83, South
Lime Kilns, HS-89, and Lime Kiln and Slaking Pits, HS-187).
Unknown. First mapped by Bleser in 1966. Square
outline of stone, 20 x 20 feet, enclosing a flat, slightly depressed
area. Possibly an earlier, square slaking pit. Several other suspicious-looking
surface marks may be found in this area on the ground and in the
aerials; it appears that several small buildings or utility structures
may have left traces here.
Lime Kiln and Slaking Pits. This group of
kiln and slaking pits is larger and more sophisticated than the
HS-184/185/186 group, and was probably the next one built. This kiln and
slaking and storage pits probably date from the period of increased
construction in the later 1850s. There is a possible water-supply ditch
from the dam (HS-99, 2400 feet to the north) to this area, which would
have brought the great amount of water used for slaking the lime. Next
in the series of kilns would have been the large lime kiln, HS-83,
built somewhat further east across the creek about 1860, followed by
HS-89 at the south end of the valley.
Beef Corral. First mapped by Bleser in 1966. Ruwet erroneously assumes
that this is the Hay Corral, HS-189, below, and that the
Beef Corral was further to the north. Visible in 1859
drawing, in the ca. September, 1865 photograph, and on the 1866 map, but
gone by 1868. Dimensions 160 x 175 feetthe corral is not exactly
square; the south end is 160 feet across, while the north end is only
155 feet across. The corral is subdivided into various smaller
enclosures, of which the most visible are plotted on the map. The 1859
Heger pencil drawing shows at least two gable-roofed buildings in the
north half of this corral, and the photograph also shows at least two
buildings, one of them on the northeast corner and the other on the
north side or northwest corner. The 1868 map shows a building on the
northwest corner, a second just south of the northeast corner, and a
smaller pen within the southeast corner. Examination of the aerial
photograph and the ground surface supports such a layout. One of these
structures was undoubtedly the "excellent slaughter house" mentioned by
Colonel Mansfield in the inspection report of August, 1853 (Oliva,
"Frontier Army," p. 179).
The Beef Corral may have begun as one of the two
corrals mentioned by Sibley in 1852, 100 feet square (the other
apparently being the Dragoon Corral, HS-137; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p.
121). It was part of the subsistence commissary for the Department
through 1853, and the corral for the Post commissary after that date
(Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 179). Abandoned in the summer of 1866
because of "the accumulated blood of the winter, as well as the bones of
years," and torn down in late 1866 or early 1867 after the completion of
the New Beef Corral, HS-84 (Part I, p. 39; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p.
Hay Corral. Ruwet erroneously assumes that HS-189 is
on the site of the Beef Corral, HS-188 (Ruwet, "Fort Union," p. 48).
This corral was built probably in early 1854; it was mentioned as just
completed in July, 1854 (Part I, p. 34; NARG 92, Consolidated
Correspondence File, Box 1167, Lt. Col. St. George Cooke to Major
General Jesup, Annual Inspection, July 15, 1854). 175 x 185 feet. The
1859 drawings show that this large corral is full of hay in long stacks,
much like HS-72 and HS-73 of Third Fort in the 1860s. The Hay Corral is
still standing, although empty, in the Farnsworth photograph of 1865,
but is not shown on the December, 1866 Lambert and Enos map; therefore,
it was torn down probably in early 1866.
Privy. Visible in the ca. 1885 photograph, but not shown on any
Flagstaff. Arsenal, 1865-1871. See also HS-172, 173.
The flagstaff is visible on the photograph of ca. September, 1865; it is
shown on the proposal plan of 1866, and on one of the versions of the
1866 map (MNM # 148191). Shoemaker presumably erected this flagstaff
about the time he began construction on the magazine and other new
Ordnance buildings in 1865. The point he selected was apparently the
center of the first version of the Arsenal Parade Ground; it is at the
mid-point of the 250-foot space between the Commanding Officer's
Quarters (HS-133) and the Clerk's Office and Quarters (HS-115) on the
west, and the front of the Ordnance Messroom (HS-142) and the possible
Ordnance Kitchen (HS-194) on the east. The north to south measurement
was apparently intended to be 300 feet, from a line extending east from
the north side of the Commanding Officer's Quarters, north to the fronts
of the Civilian quarters, with the Flagstaff again on the center point.
With the changes in the enclosing wall plan, the relocation of the
Commanding Officer's Quarters to HS-114, and various other details, this
plan became obsolete about 1871, when the entrance loop road was
This is not the first flagstaff set up by Shoemaker
at First Fort. The 1859 Heger drawings both show a flagstaff just east
of the north end of Shoemaker's quarters, HS-133, although it is not
visible in the 1852 and 1853 drawings. This was probably the Ordnance
Depot flagstaff from about 1853 to 1865.
Magazine/Stable. This building, 53-1/2 x 18-1/2 feet,
of adobe on a stone foundation, was apparently built as the first
magazine for the Ordnance Depot, with construction beginning sometime
after May 13, 1859 and completed about August (Part I, p. 69). Shoemaker
had planned on an adobe magazine for the Ordnance Depot since 1852, but
was unable to construct the permanent building until
1859. The structure apparently continued in use as
the only magazine at the Ordnance Depot until the completion of HS-109
and 110 in October, 1866. At this time the building was apparently
converted to a stable for Shoemaker's personal use, as it is shown on
the 1866 proposal plan. It probably continued as Shoemaker's stable
through the life of the Arsenal.
Pump. Marked only on the Museum of New Mexico version of the 1866 map
(MNM # 148191).
Ordnance Kitchen? Part of the Ordnance Depot group;
see HS-141, 142. Probably built about the same time as HS-142 about
September, 1855, after the messroom, kitchen, and barracks were removed
from HS-141. This building is clearly visible standing between HS-142
and HS-141 in the two Heger drawings of 1859. Heger's pencil drawing
shows it with a pitched roof and a chimney at the west end, and possibly
a small, shed-like extension on the south side near the center. His
etching depicts it with a flat roof, and again with some sort of
southern extension at about its mid-length. It is on the ca. September,
1865, photograph, the Enos and Lambert map of 1866 (where it is
connected to the Ordnance Messhall by a fence or wall, also visible on
the aerial), and the Ludington and Lambert map of 1868, but was
undoubtedly removed, along with the remaining sections of 140, 141, 142,
143, 144, and 195, about 1870-71, when HS-113 was built and the formal
entrance drive laid out across this area. No physical traces of the
building have been seen on the ground; the outline is taken from the
1984 aerial photos. The building appears to be 50 feet long and perhaps
12 feet wide.
Unknown. Arsenal, ca. 1865-ca. 1870. Building east of HS-143
visible on the 1866 map and the ca. September, 1865 photograph.
Office of the Commanding Officer and
Courtmartial Room? Ruwet gives the number 2 to this small building just
north of the Commanding Officer's Quarters, HS-126, and suggests that
this was the structure that E. S. Sibley named as the Commanding
Officer's Office and Courtmartial Room, 48 feet by 18 feet, even though
it was left off the Mansfield map. It would have seemed more reasonable
to assume that one of the office buildings facing onto the parade ground
would be this structure, but none of these are the right size; all are
too short (see HS-147, 151, 152, 157 below).
The building is visible in both Heger drawings of
1859. The width of the building on the ground is fairly clear, 18 feet,
but the total length is about 57 feet. However, the plan on the ground
is in two sections. The northern section is 39 feet long, with a chimney
centered in it; added to the south end of this structure is an
extension of 18 feet. The Heger drawing shows a
similar structure. Its northern section has a doorway on the west side
and two windows symmetrically placed on either side of it, with a
chimney on the ridgeline of the building even with the doorway. However,
the south end of the building extends noticeably further past the south
window than does the north end. The ground traces and Heger's drawing
suggests that the structure began as a building 18 feet by 38 feet, and
was enlarged to a length of 57 feet. Unfortunately, neither of these
lengths matches the length of the Commanding Officer's Office and
Courtmartial Room. The identification of the building should therefore
be considered as uncertain, and archeological investigation of this and
the offices along the east side of the Parade Ground may be necessary to
clear this up.
Ordnance Garden. Shoemaker established the Ordnance
Garden in the spring of 1852 (Part I, pp. 27, 32). It was 1-1/2 miles
north of the First Fort, and was a fenced area about 300 feet by 550
feet. It was partitioned into several sections, and had at least four
barns and houses in 1866. It used water from a spring next to the
garden. The garden failed in 1856 because of a drought and grasshopper
infestation (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 135). In 1872 Shoemaker dug a
well here, 20 feet deep (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 911).
Post Garden. This fenced garden, 200 feet
north to south by 250 feet east to west, was located in the field just
southwest of the present foreman's house of Fort Union Ranch, north of
the highway (Part I, pp. 25, 27, 38). It was established in the spring
of 1852 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 134). The Army built a bucket chain
to bring water from one of the spring sources on the west side of Coyote
Creek, or a spring just north of the garden shown on the 1866 map. This
spring seems to have been the same as the capped well still present very
near the correct location, and about 125 feet northwest of the northwest
corner of the Garden enclosure. The garden was not marked on the 1868
map and was probably gone by that year.
Artillery Storehouse/Gun Shed. This
building is probably the "Gun Shed" that Shoemaker was planning to build
as of July 2, 1862; the date of construction is assumed to be 1862. It
replaced an earlier log gunshed built in 1852-53, presumably just west
of HS-133 (Part I, pp. 66-67). Visible on proposal plan
of 1866, and in photograph by Farnsworth, ca. September, 1865; shown on
Enos and Lambert map of 1866, but is apparently gone by the time of the
preparation of the Ludington and Lambert map of 1868. It was probably
demolished about August or September, 1866, when HS-103 was begun; its
function was apparently taken over by HS-118, begun about the same
The Artillery Storehouse was ca. 23 feet wide and ca.
100 feet long, and apparently of adobe on a stone foundation. Its east
wall was on or against the west wall of 115-103; its south wall was even
with or a few feet south of the north wall of HS-101, and its southwest
corner was ca. 30 feet east of the east wall of HS-101. Its north wall
was apparently about 8 to 15 feet south of the original line for the
north enclosing wall of the Arsenal compound.
Last Updated: 13-Feb-2006