Historic Structure Report
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First Fort Union was established by Major Edmund B. Alexander on July 26, 1851 (Part I, p. 19-34). No plan is available of its original layout, but a schematic made two years later shows it just after the completion of many of its principle buildings. Although there were a few changes and alterations in subsequent years, the plan saw no significant changes until the onset of the Civil War in 1861.

In September, 1852, Captain E. S. Sibley, Assistant Quartermaster, wrote a description of the condition of the Fort. He gave the size of most of the buildings actually built or under construction at the time, but no suggestion as to their locations. Colonel J. F. K. Mansfield made a sketch-map during his visit a year later, August 1 to August 6, 1853. This map, not drawn to scale, can only be used to determine the relative location of the buildings shown, and perhaps very general dimensions.

Fortunately, there are several drawings of First Fort that supply a great amount of additional information. The earliest was made just before Mansfield visited the fort. This was Joseph Rice's drawing of June, 1853, in Josiah M. Rice, A Cannoneer in Navajo Country: Journal of Josiah M. Rice, 1851, ed. Richard H. Dillon (Denver: Old West Publishing Company, 1970). Rice's drawing is primitive, to be polite, but clearly shows a number of structural details of importance. For example, he shows HS-126, the Commanding Officers' Quarters, as still having a flat roof; he depicts a great deal of detail about HS-182, the Quartermaster Depot; and may be the only artist to show HS-137, the Dragoon Stables—the structure seems to be just visible north of HS-136, and was torn down before the end of 1853.

The next in time is an engraving of Fort Union in William Watts Hart Davis, El Gringo; Or New Mexico and Her People (New York: Harper and Brothers, 1857). This engraving was made from a drawing executed before the construction of the east wing of the Post Quartermaster Storeroom, HS-136, by August of 1853, when it appears on the Mansfield map; and before the construction of the New Dragoon Stable, HS-161, after the orders for its construction on November 4, 1853, by Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke. It appears, in fact, that the Ordnance Depot is still under construction, the Ordnance Officer's Quarters, HS-133, still has a flat roof, although the other eight seem to have board roofs (four officer's quarters still had flat earthen roofs in September, 1852), and HS-146, begun between September, 1852, and August, 1853, may not be present at all, or under construction; therefore, the drawing was probably made about the end of 1852. Undoubtedly details visible on the original were obscured or misconstrued by the engraver. Davis himself visited Fort Union for a period of four hours in December, 1853, but apparently got this drawing from one F. A. Percy of El Paso, mentioned as one of the sources of the drawings in the book. The Dragoon Stable, HS-137, appears not to be present on the drawing, leading Wayne Ruwet, in his reconstruction of the events associated with the destruction of HS-137 and the construction of HS-161, to argue that the drawing was made by Davis's other source, a Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Eaton, who appears to have been Joseph Horace Eaton of the Third Infantry, at Fort Union in 1855. However, the other details visible on the engraving, and the documents associated with the building of HS-161, make it clear that Eaton was at Fort Union several years too late to have made the original drawing. It seems that the drawing was made before the Dragoon Stable was built, or while it was still under construction; again, a date of sometime in 1852 is implied. This will be called the Davis drawing, and a date of late 1852 will be used.

The best depictions of the First Fort are those by Joseph Heger. Heger was a private in Company K of the Regiment of Mounted Rifles, and was stationed at Fort Union from January, 1858, to his discharge about September, 1860. He was an accomplished artist, and a lithographer by profession. A number of Heger drawings and prints are in various collections; it is likely that other views of Fort Union in 1858-1860 await discovery among these. See Campaigns in the West, 1856-1861: The Journal and Letters of Colonel John Van Deusen Du Bois, with Pencil Sketches by Joseph Heger, ed. George P. Hammond (Tucson: Arizona Pioneers Historical Society, 1949), p. v-vi, for a discussion of the locations of the collected works of Heger. The first of the two presently available drawings is a pencil sketch made on May 20, 1859 (Part I, p. 30, fig. 3). The undated and unattributed etching of Fort Union in the Kansas State Historical Society Photograph Collection, reproduced on the cover of this report, is virtually identical to Joseph Heger's May, 1859, drawing in most details of the plan, layout, perspective, depiction of building proportions and materials, the lines of roads both in the middle ground and especially the far distance, and the shapes of the Turkey Mountains. It is highly probable that the KSHS etching was taken from a Heger drawing made about the same time as the 1859 sketch, but from a point about 480 feet further north along the side of the hill, somewhat lower down beside HS-126. It is possible that Heger, himself a professional lithographer, made the engraving of the picture.

The Reconstruction of First Fort, 1859-1861

The structural evidence demonstrates that Fort Union began a major construction effort in 1859-1861 that was ended by the advent of the Civil War. This is in direct conflict with Leo Oliva's study, and all other histories written before it, which unanimously agree that Fort Union's repeated attempts to gain approval to rebuild many of the First Fort were rejected.

A number of new buildings were being built in 1859-1861; specifically, HS-157 was rebuilt as a large frame building with a stone foundation in 1859, and HS-156 reached the stage of almost complete foundations next to it. HS-165, 166, and possibly 167, all with substantial stone foundations, may have been built in this period, while HS-170 and 171 on the south side of the fort also reached the stage of virtually completed stone foundations. It appears that these two were laid out with the intent to construct a new group of structures arranged around a second parade ground just south of the original post. This would have produced a fort plan rather like that seen in many other places on the western frontier where the 1850s fort plan survives beside a later, enlarged and rebuilt fort (see, for example, Fort Davis and Fort McKintosh in Texas.

Since HS-157 is apparently being completed in mid-1859 (see the discussion below under this historic structure number), and no trace of HS-156 can be seen in the drawing, suggesting that it had not been begun, it seems reasonable to assume that HS-156, and the other, similar buildings, HS-170 and 171, were all begun after mid-1859. Then something stopped the rebuilding effort abruptly, leaving a number of buildings as incomplete foundation outlines. The most likely candidate for this halt is the start of the Civil War in 1861 and the abrupt shift of effort to the Second Fort earthworks. Once the suspicion arises that work did begin on some buildings, a few remarks in the documents take on a different meaning. For example, on August 17, 1861, work on constructing new storehouses "laid out as joining the old ones was suspended" (Major Chapman of Fort Union Quartermaster as quoted in Part I, p. 37). Similarly, in mid August, 1859, Captain Robert M. Morris, Commander at First Fort, requested permission to hire "citizen mechanics" to build more company quarters. In late August, 1859, he was told to suspend all improvements until instructions came from Washington (Part I, p. 36). Since some structures were begun, including what appears to be new company quarters (HS-171), he must have received such instructions soon afterwards.

These structures illustrate an interesting aspect of historical vs. archeological research. The histories of First Fort based entirely on the available documents agree that the reconstruction of First Fort never was allowed to begin; the physical evidence makes it clear that work did begin on rebuilding First Fort, and perhaps even on a Second Fort on its south side. This is a strong demonstration of the need for using both sources of information when writing the history of a place. This previously unsuspected episode in the history of the development of the Fort needs further definition through research and archeological investigations.

Notes on Building Construction
—by Laura Soulliére Harrison

The army's use of available materials around Fort Union was an obvious choice. Several other factors also influenced construction. In First Fort construction, for instance, the army's arrival during the summer forced the troops to construct buildings quickly—before the onset of winter—so the cutting of trees for the log structures was carried out in haste. To save time, the logs were not peeled or cured or even placed on foundations; these factors resulted in early deterioration problems in the buildings.

Considering that the army had only occupied New Mexico for five years before Fort Union was established, adobe was a building material with which few army builders were familiar. As the army spent more time in New Mexico and settled certain areas, including Fort Union, the employment of local laborers and the adoption of local building traditions greatly increased the use of adobe in army construction. When the army stayed in one place long enough and things were quiet enough on the frontier, there was time to have the troops or locally hired men make the adobes and allow them to cure. The adoption of, or improvement upon, local buildings techniques increased the quality of the structures and the length of the serviceable use of the buildings at Fort Union.

Information presented in the army correspondence of the period was often confusing or conflicting, in part because of changing functions of structures. Sometimes a building would be built for one purpose, and then after a few years of use its function would change. Also, few pieces of military correspondence, when considered as a whole, dealt specifically with building construction. Luckily, a considerable amount of information did exist in the correspondence on the arsenal for two reasons. William Rawle Shoemaker had to request separate appropriations for his arsenal buildings, and he was a thoughtful man who wanted his structures to be built in the best possible way with the best possible materials available to him. He commented, for instance, on the suitability of certain materials to the climate of New Mexico, and he criticized the quartermaster corps for using cement in the roof structures of the buildings it constructed. In general, though, the information on the building construction and on specific buildings is relatively spotty and very open to interpretation. The discussion below of the probable construction histories of individual buildings presents one such interpretation.


*126119- --a

The Sumner House: Commanding Officers' Quarters, First Fort (the adjacent office north of the Quarters is HS-197, Office of the Commanding Officer and Courtmartial Room). The building is referred as "the Sumner House" in 1863. The quarters served as a hospital during the Civil War, based on a remark in the same letter of 1863. [107]

This building was begun in early August, 1851 (Part I, pp. 20-22), and enlarged to approximately its present plan by June, 1853; but by that date it still had a flat roof and apparently only three chimneys. It was first occupied by Lieutenant Colonel (brevet Colonel) Edwin V. Sumner, Commander of the Ninth Military Department (effectively all of New Mexico) until he transferred his headquarters to Albuquerque in February, 1852 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 109). All commanding officers of Fort Union after February, 1852, probably lived in the Sumner House. After Sumner left, the house undoubtedly stood empty for ten months until the arrival of the new commander, Major Gouverneur Morris, and his wife Anna Maria, in December, 1852. Morris left the post in June, 1853, and the building again stood empty until the arrival of Captain Nathaniel C. Macrae in August, 1853. Two other officers commanded for short periods during 1852 and 1853, but they were already at the post and probably did not move from their quarters into the Commanding Officer's Quarters.

The house was constructed of unpeeled logs. In the Rice drawing of June, 1853, the building still has a flat roof and a rectangular plan with chimneys on the north and south ends, and two smaller chimneys on the rear additions. It is reasonable to assume that the building received its board roof during 1853. In the Heger drawing, showing the building in 1859, the building has a pitched board roof, and the gable-end chimneys appear forward of the roof ridge. During 1861 and 1862, this building was apparently used as the hospital (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 508, 515).

In February, 1863, the order came through to tear down this building and reuse the lumber, doors, and windows for a new set of officer's quarters "at the redoubt," the Second Fort. It was torn down in March, 1863. The quarters constructed using the material salvaged from HS-126 was probably HS-78, apparently the residence of the commanding officer of the fort (see AC cards 110, 112).

127322 --a

Officers' Quarters, First Fort. Constructed beginning August, 1851, this building was a structure of unpeeled logs like the Commanding Officer's Quarters, again with three rooms and a kitchen. Note: until February, 1852, this building was probably referred to as the "Commanding Officer's Quarters," and HS-126 was called the "Department Commander's Quarters." This structure was probably torn down with most of the other Officer's Quarters in March and April, 1866 (Oliva, p. 569).

It had a flat, earthen roof at first, and had a board roof by 1853. The written evidence indicates that the earthen roofs remained in place even after the board gable roofs were put in place. It is likely that this building was first occupied by Captain (brevet Lieutenant Colonel) Edmund B. Alexander, first commander of Fort Union, and his wife, name unknown. Alexander left the post in April, 1852.

128433 --a

Officers' Quarters. Begun in August, 1851, and probably first occupied by Captain (brevet Major) James H. Carleton, second commanding officer of Fort Union, and his wife Sophia. Captain Carleton served as post commander from April 1852 until August, 1852, when Captain (brevet Major) William T. H. Brooks took over until Major Gouverneur Morris arrived at the post. Major Carleton and Sophia were transferred to Albuquerque in October, 1853.

129744 --a

Officers' Quarters. Built after the higher-ranking officers' quarters, therefore probably in September-October, 1851. In 1859 this building still had only one gavelled rear wing and chimney; its simpler form indicates that it and HS-132 were probably for junior officers such as lieutenants and low-seniority captains. The front north and south chimneys contain brick in addition to field stone, indicating large-scale remodelling late in the life of the building, after brick-making began in the area about September, 1860 (Part I, p. 71). These quarters were gone by August-December, 1866.

130855 --a

Officers' Quarters. Begun September-October, 1851. Probably a captains' quarters, like HS-131, below. No brick is visible in the chimney bases. This building continued in use through at least August, 1866, when it was shown on the Enos and Lambert map as enclosed by a wall or fence. It was gone by May, 1868.

131966 --a

Officers' Quarters. Begun September-October, 1851. Probably a captains' quarters, like HS-130, above. Three of the chimney bases contain brick, so the structure was part of Shoemaker's brick experiment in September, 1860. The building was still standing as of ca. September, 1865, when it can be seen in the Farnsworth photograph, but was torn down by the time the Enos and Lambert map was made in August-December, 1866.

1321077 --a

Officers' Quarters. Begun September-October, 1851. Because of its simpler plan, probably a lieutenants' or junior captains' quarters. Visible in the Farnsworth photograph in ca. September, 1865, but gone by August-December, 1866.

13311-- -1a

Ordnance Officers' Quarters. It was begun in August 1851, and first occupied by Military Storekeeper William R. Shoemaker, in charge of the Ordnance Depot established at Fort Union, and his wife Julia. It continued in use longer than any of the other Officers' Quarters of the First Fort. This may be the "Commanding Officer's Quarters" (presumably referring to Captain Shoemaker) that were to be torn down in March, 1866, but instead may have been given to Shoemaker (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 569). It was described as still acceptable as a dwelling in October, 1868 (Part I, p. 77), and standing but needing to be replaced in 1869 (Part I, p. 79; Third Fort Union, p. 121). It was torn down about 1872, after completion of the new Arsenal Commanding Officer's Quarters the same year. The 1866 proposal plan gave the old Arsenal Commanding Officer's Quarters the number 1. Ruwet considered this building to have stood about the same distance north of the central group of quarters as HS-129 was to the south, placing it just south of the compound wall around the later Commanding Officer's Quarters, HS-114, with its north wall would have been against the south wall of the compound. He assigned the numbers 7a through 13a to the various outbuildings behind (west of) the main house. Bleser concluded that the Ordnance Officers' Quarters of the First Fort was on the same site as the Commanding Officer's Quarters of the Arsenal, and assigned his number 21 to the site. Neither of these locations appear to be correct; the First Fort Ordnance Officers' Quarters was located just south of the south wall of the new Commanding Officer's Quarters. Its southern chimney, containing a large percentage of brick (probably added during repairs as part of Shoemaker's brick experiment of 1860), stood at the location of the south compound wall, which is built across it, and its north chimney was on the wall line of Shoemaker's new quarters.

Mansfield's map, although only a schematic, showed the northernmost Officers' Quarters to be a little further north than symmetry would have required. The southernmost Officers' Quarters, HS-129, has a distance of exactly 250 feet between the outer face of its northern chimney and the southern face of the chimney of HS-130, the next Officers' Quarters north. If the Ordnance Officer's Quarters were exactly the same separation to the north, then the center of its northernmost chimney should fall about 6 feet north of the southern compound wall around HS-114. The chimney base located in this area fell, instead, on the location of the compound wall. Since the available evidence indicates that it was a little north of its symmetrical location, the chimney under the compound wall must be the southern chimney of the Ordnance Officer's Quarters. The distance from the northern chimney of HS-132, the next Quarters south, to the south chimney of HS-133, is therefore 295 feet, or 45 feet further north than symmetry would place it. This is also the location of HS-133 shown on the proposal plan of 1866. The northern chimney would then be partly under the location of the southernmost chimney of HS-114; again, this is supported by documents: in September of 1870, Shoemaker wrote that the chimneys along one side of his house, HS-133, had to be removed and the windows closed in order to continue construction on his new Quarters, HS-114. This indicates that the north wall of HS-133 was against the south wall of HS-114.

After the construction of the Ordnance Officer's Quarters in 1851, Shoemaker began the development of his Ordnance establishment. This took the form of a series of buildings constructed west, north, and east of HS-133. Several of the buildings were built in an extension of the yard behind HS-133. The first of these was probably the log gunshed constructed in mid-1853 (Part I, pp. 66-67). This is the compound visible in the Heger depictions of the Shoemaker complex. In June-August, 1859, Shoemaker built a magazine and probably part or all of a protective enclosing wall of adobe (Part I, p. 69); Heger's pencil drawing is in fact dated May 22, 1859, just before Shoemaker began the construction. Also clearly visible north of and on line with Shoemaker's quarters is a small building that was undoubtedly the Ordnance Clerk's office, apparently a log building. This appears to have become the southern third of the log and adobe building shown on the 1866 plan, the precursor of the present HS-115. The plan of the back buildings as shown by Heger strongly resembles some parts of the back buildings as they appear on the present plan. Shoemaker put up a flagstaff just north and perhaps a little east of the north end of HS-133 by 1859, when Heger shows it on both his drawings. This flagstaff may have been placed as early as the beginning of the development of the Ordnance complex in 1853.

By August-December, 1866, Shoemaker's house and yard, the buildings out back, the Clerk's Office with the Clerk's Quarters added in adobe to its north end, the Storeroom (HS-102), the Armorer and Blacksmith shops (HS-105/06), the Artillery Storehouse (HS-199), and the Main Storehouse (HS-101), were all enclosed by a series of walls and fences connecting the ends of the various buildings; this enclosure was joined to a large rectangular wall enclosing the two large Magazines (HS-109 and 110). The structures that had been the Magazine and Gunshed were apparently converted to stables and outbuildings for Shoemaker's house.

1341320- --a

Officers' Quarters. Ruwet gives this building and the adjacent quarters the same number. The survey was unable to locate the second rear chimney, even though one was undoubtedly present. Begun in September, 1851, this seems to be the house wherein Captain Isaac Bowen and his wife Katie were the first occupants, living in these quarters from the time of their construction until October, 1853. Captain Bowen was in charge of the Subsistence Commissary stores for the Department. Katie reported that they moved in to this building about the end of October, and that the third room was finished by the end of November (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 327). The third room was used as the bedroom, and Isaac kept the funds for the Department Quartermaster here, as well as the Commissary funds.

In Katie Bowen's letters, she describes a number of the structures she and her husband built in the back yard of the house, as well as details of the interior. The Bowens kept several cows, three pigs, one or more horses, as many as 80 chickens, and a team of mules in their yard. Isaac built a "cow house," a barn, and several chicken coops; they may also have dug several small cellars for keeping milk, and had a small garden plot (Part I, pp. 24-25, Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 327). Undoubtedly the other officers' quarters had similar buildings and usages in their yards.

The house appears to be still standing as of ca. September, 1865, when it is just visible behind HS-132; it was probably torn down about November, 1865, during the construction of the magazines and enclosing compound.

1351220- --a

Officers' Quarters. The survey was unable to locate the second rear chimney of this house, even though one is clearly visible in both Heger drawings.

These quarters, closer to the Commanding Officer's Quarters, HS-126, were begun in August, 1851 and probably first occupied by Captain (brevet Major) Ebenezer Sprote Sibley and his wife Charlotte. Sibley was Assistant Quartermaster in charge of the Department Quartermaster Depot (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 153) as well as being the Post Quartermaster. Sibley's quarters were built first because his brevet rank was higher than that of Captain Bowen, and it is usual for higher ranked officers to be housed closer to the commanding officer. The Sibleys lived here until August, 1853.

The building appears to have stood until about November, 1865, when it was probably removed as part of the construction of the magazine compound, the west wall of which passes across the west wall of this house.

1361499 --h

Post Quartermaster's Storehouse. Note that this is different from the Department Quartermaster's Depot, located in HS-182. HS-136 was apparently built originally as the Post Hospital. As of August 20, 1851, the walls of the hospital were completed, but it had no roof (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 112). In December, 1851, Major E. S. Sibley said that "the building designed for the hospital does not exactly answer the purposes for which it was intended;" another building was to be built (HS-140) and the hospital would be converted to a storehouse to get the stores out of the tents where they had been since the post was founded. The new hospital was built and the old hospital converted to Post Quartermaster Storehouse in the first half of 1852. It was shared by the commissary and quartermaster departments (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 120).

In his report on the condition of the post in September, 1852, Sibley stated that the storehouse had only one wing; his description said that the building was 100 x 22 feet with one wing of 45 x 22 feet, with a sawn board gable roof (Part I, p. 23). The Davis drawing of late 1852, shows the west wing, and clearly shows no east wing (see the exceptionally clear print of the engraving in MNM #82350). The Rice drawing of June, 1853, shows the west wing, but unfortunately the area of the east wing is obscured. Mansfield shows two wings standing by August, 1853; therefore, the east wing was added sometime in the first half of 1853. In September, 1853, this storehouse was reported to be in "deteriorated condition," and it was proposed to build a new structure. It must have been repaired instead, and is probably the Quartermaster storehouse where a ball was held in September, 1858. According to the rather detailed description by Major John S. Simonson, the building had a Quartermaster's office with a small room on either side, all probably in one of the wings. The Quartermaster Storehouse proper, with a packed earthen floor, was probably located in the main east-west wing (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 356-57). The building continued in use through 1859, but was gone by 1866.

The traces of the building consist of four clearly-defined firehearths of stone, and the visible outline of the building in the form of rubble mounds and vegetation lines. A massive rectangular area of stone, 19.5 x 8.5 feet, was located just west of the east wing of the storehouse, and was probably a loading dock. If its eastern edge was against the west wall of the east wing, as is likely, then the east wing was 19 feet wide rather than 22 feet. A large mound of rubble and midden-like debris is just east of the east wing, and may have been cleared from the area of HS-137 by the Fort Union Ranch prior to the creation of the National Monument.

13738-- --g

Dragoon Stables (see also HS-161, HS-148, HS-149). This building is not visible in the Davis drawing of late 1852, but may be one of the two corrals, each 100 feet square, described by Sibley in the inspection of September, 1852. It seems not to be on the Rice drawing of June, 1853; but is shown on the Mansfield map in early August, 1853. The building is gone by 1859, and the date of its disappearance is as uncertain as the date of its construction. However, planning for a new stable began in July, 1854 (Part I, p. 34), and Colonel Thomas T. Fauntleroy stated in July, 1855, that "the stables for one Company have to be rebuilt entire." Ruwet suggests that it was the Dragoon Stables needing replacement (Ruwet, "Fort Union," pp. 40, 42; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 184); this seems a reasonable suggestion, and indicates that HS-137 was in bad shape by mid-1854, but was probably used through mid-1855. Ruwet further suggests that the stables were rebuilt on a new site, which he considered to be the complex he called number 24 (see HS-148, 149 below). Ruwet is very likely correct in thinking that the new stable built after Fauntleroy's evaluation was probably HS-148 and 149 (Ruwet's no. 24), since this group of corrals and stables were built sometime between 1853 and 1859. However, it was probably HS-161, built in 1853 as an additional Dragoon stable, that replaced HS-137 (see HS-161, below).

The building has a fairly clear presence on aerial photographs, and there is a great mass of burned debris and trash deposits on the site. The appearance of the area of HS-137 is consistent with destruction by fire and subsequent use as a trash-dumping area, or abandonment and later trash-dumping including ashes and charcoal from fireplaces.

1381888 --b

Soldiers' or Dragoons' Quarters. One of the two company quarters with walls finished as of August 20, 1851. The roof of this or HS-139 was being built as of that date. The structure continued in use through at least the end of 1866, when it appears on the 1866 Enos and Lambert map; it was gone by March, 1868. The 1852 description of this building listed it as being 100 x 18 feet with two wings of 50 x 16 feet with board roofs. A walkway, 2-1/2 feet by 10-1/2 feet and made of flagstone, led to a doorway in the center of the south side of the main wing; an extra fireplace stood at the north end of the west wing.

1392622- --b

Soldiers' Quarters. Built in 1851, it stood through May, 1859, and may have been torn down in August, 1859 (Part I, p. 37). It was certainly gone by the time of the photograph of ca. September, 1865. The building was 100 x 18 feet with two wings of 50 x 16 feet, with board roofs. The four stone fireplace bases are clearly visible today, and the general outline of the building can be seen by differences in vegetation.

14027-- --f

Hospital. Built 1852, stood through 1868, gone by 1882. This is the second building built for the Post Hospital; the first hospital constructed was not satisfactory. As a result, in December, 1851, the Fort Union staff proposed to turn the first hospital into the Post Quartermaster's Storehouse (HS-136) and build a second hospital in 1852. In September, 1852, the new Hospital was described as 48 x 18 feet, with a wing 46 x 16 feet (Part I, p. 23). Assistant Surgeon Jonathan Letterman, in his 1856 inspection, described this building as being so wet that the hospital staff moved the sick outside into tents and covered over the hospital equipment with canvas (Part I, p. 35). In the 1859 Heger depictions of the building, what appears to be a yard or corral can be seen at the east end of the south wing; several rectangular areas and clear vegetation lines can be seen in the aerials, suggesting that several palisade lines and perhaps one building were built just east of the main portion of the hospital. The hospital was deemed unfit for occupancy in an 1861 inspection. The building was transferred to the ordnance depot in June, 1862 and subsequently used for storage (Part I, p. 72; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 904). It was probably torn down by Shoemaker as part of the finalization of the plan of the Arsenal about 1872.

The visible traces of this building consist of two chimney bases and some traces of the footprint of the structure itself. The best fit of the stated measurements to the site put the 48 x 18 foot Hospital extending east to west, and the 46 x 16 foot wing running north to south from its west end. However, archeological examination should be conducted before this is accepted as fact. The description of 1862 says that the Hospital had seven rooms: three wards, a surgery, a storeroom, a steward's room, and a kitchen.

14128-- --e

Ordnance Depot. Although Shoemaker's depot was not described in Sibley's report of 1852, Shoemaker's correspondence shows that in June, 1852, the depot building was under construction. It was to cover four sides of a square of 100 feet, and would be about 20 feet in height (Part I, p. 26). In 1853, Mansfield reported that the ordnance depot included storehouses, quarters, and a gun shed. The Depot building itself apparently housed the barracks and messroom for depot personnel. The barracks rooms and mess hall had fireplaces, marked by H-shaped foundations. These formed two-sided hearths built at room-dividing walls so that a fireplace would face into each of two adjoining rooms. The spacing of the fireplace bases indicates that there were three barracks rooms, each 20-1/2 feet long and 15-3/4 feet wide. The mess room was probably on the east end, and was perhaps 36-1/4 feet long and 15-3/4 feet wide. The presence, location and plan of the fireplaces allows most of the primary dimensions of the building to be deduced. The east-west exterior length was almost exactly 101 feet, and each wing was 15-3/4 feet wide. The walls were about 1 foot thick, and were probably of horizontal or vertical logs. North to south, the building was again 101 feet long, and the porches on the north and south sides were each about 7-1/2 feet deep and extended the full width of the building. In September, 1855, the four rooms forming the northern wing were converted to storerooms; the chimneys were torn down, leaving their bases under the floors, and a new barracks, mess hall, and kitchen, HS-142, 143, and 194, below, were built just to the north (Part I, p. 67).

The Depot stood as it was originally constructed through 1859. In the 1859 drawings, and on the ground, the roofs are pitched, a chimney is visible centered on the east end of the south wing, probably for the Depot office, and lightning rods can be seen in the center of the roof of the north and south wings. A section of about one-third of the north end of the west wing is distinctly different from the remainder of this wing in both Heger drawings, suggesting that it was constructed in a different, but undefinable, manner.

By 1866 much of the Depot had been torn down; the Enos-Lambert map shows the western three-quarters of the north wing standing, along with a short section of the west wing making an ell; apparently this was the section appearing to be different in the Heger drawing. In addition, the eastern third of the south wing, probably housing the Depot office, remained standing.

The section of the north wing remaining appears to have consisted of the four storerooms that had been barracks rooms and a mess hall. Ruwet suggests these were the shops for the Ordnance Depot. He suggests that the two north-south wings were the stables, and were removed sometime between 1859 and 1866 because the stables in HS-149 were used in their place. However, this is unlikely, since HS-148 was the group of stables in this area, and were also torn down in 1859-1866, while HS-149 appears to have been offices and a yard. The stabling area for the Ordnance Depot between about 1862 and about 1869 was probably located at HS-80, near the Second Fort. After ca. 1869, the Ordnance Stables were at HS-111.

The north and south wings of the Depot continued in use through 1868, but were torn down probably during the final episodes of construction in 1871-72.

14231-- ---

Ordnance Messroom? Undoubtedly part of the Ordnance Depot group, along with HS-143, the Ordnance Barracks, and HS-194, the possible Ordnance Kitchen. This may be the new messroom mentioned as soon to be built in Shoemaker's correspondence of September 1, 1855 (Part I, p. 67). This structure was visible in 1859 and stood through 1868, when it appears on the Ludington-Lambert map, but was probably torn down in 1871-72 construction; its last vestiges were removed at the time of the construction of the tear-drop entrance drive. It was completely gone by the time the ca. 1885 photograph was taken.

The Heger drawings show some details of the structure. A chimney appears on the ridge line of the pitched roof near the center of the building, but has not been found on the ground, and a door is visible on the south wall near the same end. The site of this building, crossed by the tear-drop drive, received so much later impact that the plan cannot be seen on the ground. The building plan taken from the aerials is plotted on the Base Map; it is a structure 75 feet long and 15 feet wide.

14332-- -7-

Ordnance Barracks. Not visible in the 1852 Davis and 1853 Rice drawings; built probably in 1855 to replace the barracks rooms in the original depot building, converted to storerooms the same year (Part I, p. 67). Clearly visible in the Heger drawings of 1859. Shown on the proposal plan of 1866, where it is identified as "Barracks." Continued in use as the ordnance barracks through 1868, when Shoemaker's request for permission to build a new ordnance barracks was approved. It was replaced by HS-113 between March and October, 1868, and probably torn down by the end of the year.

In the 1859 Heger drawings the building has a pitched roof with a chimney on the ridge line about 1/3 of the length of the building from the south end, perhaps a smaller chimney at the peak of the north end, and a porch along its west side. The Heger engraving shows what Ruwet interpreted as a fence extending from the south end of HS-143 to the west end of HS-142; however, this could as easily be a clothesline with wet clothing hanging from it. The outline of the building is clear on the ground; it is odd that the fireplace base was not found in the area. It is likely that the traces of the fireplace were obscured by later usage of the area, and simply have not been recognized under a covering of loose dirt. The building appears to be about 85 feet long, north to south, and about 30 feet wide, of which some part seems to be a porch on the west side. It is likely that the building was about 22 feet wide, and the porch about 8 feet deep.

14430-- --m

Laundresses Quarters. Built ca. 1851, described by Sibley in 1852 as 114 feet long, 18 feet wide and containing six rooms and an earthen (flat) roof. The building was present in September, 1853, when it was depicted on Mansfield's plan of the fort, but may have been removed by 1859, when it cannot be identified behind the Ordnance Depot, HS-141. If the quarters were removed in 1854-59, their new location is unknown.

Traces of a stone foundation have been located in this area, and are shown on the map. The outline of a rectangular building is visible here on the aerial photograph, but is about 25 feet wide and 65 feet long, rather than the dimensions of the Quarters recorded by Sibley; this outline is just to the west of the stone foundations. It is possible that the building outline visible on the aerial is the southern 65 feet of the Laundresses' Quarters, and that it had a porch 7 feet wide on the west side, but without archeological investigation this is conjecture. No clear trace of any structure can be seen in the southern part of the area on the ground or in the aerials; the south end was crossed by the most deeply worn sections of the Arsenal entrance drive and all structural information may have been destroyed. Archeological testing of the probable location of the building would clear up many of these uncertainties.

It is possible that an adobe building was constructed on the stone foundations at the north end of the site in the early 1860s—a small structure is indicated in this area in 1866, and may still be present in 1868.

14529-- --p

Sutler's Store. Jared W. Folger was appointed as the first sutler to the new Fort Union on September 27, 1851. The sutler's store was undoubtedly begun soon after his appointment, and a completion date of early 1852 is reasonable. The available drawings and plan show a building in the shape of a backwards "C", the open side on the west. The Davis drawing shows what seems to be the sutler's store from the northwest in 1853, and the south end of the east wing can be seen on the Heger drawings in 1859. Assuming that the size shown on the Mansfield map of 1853 is representative, the building had a main wing about 85 feet long and 21 feet wide running north to south, with two somewhat lower wings extending west, each about 40 feet long and 21 feet wide. Pitched roofs covered all three wings, and there were at least two chimneys, one on the roof ridge in the center of the north wing, and the other on the southeast corner at the end of the roof ridge of the main wing.

As of 1857, the sutler's operation had a store, storeroom, post office, a residence for the sutler and his family, residences for some employees, and rooms for rent (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 367, 402). It appears likely that sometime before 1859, and perhaps as early as 1857, HS-162 was built by the post sutler to augment or replace HS-145; therefore, some of these activities may have been housed in HS-162.

Only the approximate location and outline of HS-145 is shown, taken from the Mansfield map; this area was later crossed by the Arsenal entrance road and enclosing wall, obscuring the structural traces so that the Sutler's Store is not yet clearly located on the ground. Archeology would easily relocate the plan of this building.

146251717 --b

Soldiers' Quarters. Sibley mentions only two barracks in September, 1852, the Dragoons' Quarters, HS-138, and the Soldiers' Quarters, HS-139. Ruwet suggests that these barracks were not part of the original plan of 1851. This proposal is supported by the asymmetrical location of the building; and the estimated front of the structure seems to be about 1-1/2 feet north of the alignment of the front of the first barracks, HS-139. It is visible in the Rice drawing of June, 1853; therefore, it was built between September, 1852, and June, 1853. It is shown on the Mansfield plan of August, 1853, and the Heger drawings of 1859. These barracks may have continued in use through the early 1860s, but was gone by the time of the ca. September, 1865 photograph.

The physical remains of the building are somewhat more complicated than its neighbor and twin, Soldier's Quarters HS-139, to the west, although the plan appears to be identical in size and shape. The two fireplace bases on either end of the main east-west wing are much larger than those in the other barracks, as is the one on the north end of the east wing. Two additional apparent chimney bases or masonry structures of some other use are found within the building outline near the southwest corner. One of these appears to be a chimney base at the south end of the west wing.

147231616 --o

Post Quartermaster's Office?. This building is shown as 38 feet long and 18 feet wide, with a stone chimney centered on the east side; however, the disturbed area around the chimney could accommodate a building up to about 40 feet by 40 feet. Mansfield shows a row of three offices, HS-147, 151, and probably under the west end of 157. Sibley describes several offices; one of these was for himself (Sibley was the Assistant Quartermaster in charge of both the Quartermaster Depot for the Department, and the Post Quartermaster); the others were for the Subsistence Commissary. The Office of the Department Subsistence Commissary was under Captain Isaac Bowen, while the Post Commissary probably had a separate office. It is likely that the Assistant Quartermaster Office, where Major Sibley was located, was in HS-147; see HS-151, 152, and 157, below for the reasoning behind this.

1482423- ---

Dragoon Stables and Corrals (presumed use). These buildings are not on Mansfield's original plan, but clearly visible in the 1859 Heger drawings. The drawings show that these stables were built between 1853 and 1859. Assuming that the various references in this period were all to the same group of stables, their construction was planned for as of July, 1854 as additional stables needing to be constructed for a new cavalry company being brought to Fort Union; possibly the same as the replacement for stables needing to be removed (the deteriorated stables may have been HS-137) as mentioned by Col. Fauntleroy in July, 1855; and very likely the Dragoon stables under construction in May, 1856 (Part I, p. 34; Ruwet, "Fort Union," p. 40; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 914). Continued in existence through 1859, although little of the plan can be seen on the Heger drawing. The corrals were gone by the time of the photograph of ca. September, 1865.

The physical remains are complex on both the aerials and on the ground. The plan shown on the map is the best compromise based on these sources. These corrals formed an enclosed compound, 274 x 117 feet, with the east and west wings 25 feet wide and the north and south wings 20 feet wide with porch-like additions on the inner faces, 10 feet wide. The corrals and the Ordnance shops or Offices, HS-149, were built parallel to each other but at a slight angle to the grid of the rest of the fort. The northern component, HS-148c, is visible in the aerial photos but not particularly on the ground. One office with a stone chimney base was found on the south side near the east corner.

14924a23- ---

Shops or Offices. Not on Mansfield's original plan. Built between 1853 and 1859. The building and yard are visible in the 1859 Heger drawings and the ca. September, 1865, photograph from Third Fort, as well as on the 1866, 1868, and 1874 maps of the valley. Continued in use through 1874, abandoned by 1882.

Four stone chimney bases were found within the outline of a building about 92 x 24-1/2 feet; what appears to be a stone step at an entrance may be seen a little south of the center of the west side. Bricks found in association with the southernmost chimney show that this building, too, took part in Shoemaker's fired brick experiment of 1860. A structure 47 feet long and 24-1/2 feet wide on the north end of the building appears to have been made of vertical posts, and may have been a stable. A corral or yard along the east side of the building, also of vertical posts, is 139 by 60 feet.

150--- ---

Unknown. No building is shown at this location on the Mansfield map, nor is anything visible here in the 1859 drawings. This structure was a deep rectangular pit, perhaps used for ice storage, about 25 by 30 feet, and about 1 foot deep at the center. It was possibly constructed between 1859 and 1866.

151221414 --o

Post Subsistence Commissary Office?. Built ca. 1851, visible in all drawings through 1859, but gone by 1866. See HS-157, for further discussion. Shown as 38 x 18 feet, with a stone chimney base near the center of the east side, but the disturbed area around the chimney is about 38 by 30 feet.

152211515 --i

Post Commissary Stores. Not described in Sibley, 1852, but shown on the Mansfield plan of 1853 and identified as for Commissary Stores. Visible through 1859, but gone by 1866. See HS-157 for further discussion. Shown as 38 x 18 feet, with a stone chimney base at about the center of the building, but the disturbed area around the chimney is about 49 by 29 feet. The Commissary Stores for the Department were probably kept in HS-163.

1534224- ---

Unknown. It is likely that the west wing was the small structure visible behind HS-152 in the 1859 drawings; if so, it received a considerable addition after 1859, but was gone before 1866. The building was T-shaped, with the west wing about 35 x 30 feet, and the crossbar of the T about 37 x 68 feet. The stone base of a chimney is near the southeastern corner of the west wing.

15443-- ---

Unknown. Not visible on any map or drawing. May be concealed behind HS-153 in the 1859 drawings. Gone by 1866. Rectangular pit approximately 20 by 30 feet and presently perhaps 2 feet deep. This is probably the icehouse that went into use in 1851-52 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 121), described by Sibley in September, 1852, as 20 x 30 feet with a flat earthen roof covered by a board roof (see also HS-150, 160). The icehouse does not appear on the Mansfield map of August, 1853, even though it was certainly in use; nor does it appear on any other drawings, probably because it was a low, unobtrusive structure.

15544-- ---

Unknown. Not visible on any map or drawing. May be concealed behind the possible HS-153 in the 1859 drawings. Gone by 1866. Traces of a stone footing about 1 foot thick, outlining a structure 21 x 13 feet.

156201313 ---

Storehouse, incomplete. Not visible on any map or drawing. Cut stone foundation, 1-1/2 feet thick, of same size and shape as HS-157, below. 150 x 30 feet. Foundations do not seem to be complete; portions of the east half of the north and south walls, and all of the east wall, do not have stone detectable from the present surface. However, a footing trench seems to be present for the full circumference. This and the lack of artifacts or debris on the site strongly indicates that the structure was not finished. The area where this foundation is located is clearly visible in the Heger drawings, and shows no trace of construction work; this strongly implies that the building was started after 1859. It was probably one of the storehouses begun ca. 1861; work on these storehouses stopped in August, 1861, in order to speed up work on the Second Fort (Part I, pp. 37-38). The storehouses were never finished. See also HS-170 and HS-171 for further discussion of the 1859-1861 surge in building.

157191212 --o

Department Subsistence Commissary Office?/Storehouse. This building began as a small office of unknown use in 1851-53; it was shown on the Mansfield plan of 1853 and the 1853 drawings. However, by 1859 it had been rebuilt as a much larger building, but retaining offices at the front on the west end.

It is likely that the original office was that for the Department Subsistence Commissary. In October, 1853, the Department Commissary moved to Albuquerque, so the large Commissary Storehouse, HS-163, may have been abandoned then; however, Fort Union continued as a sub-depot for commissary stores, and HS-157 as offices and HS-152 as a small commissary storehouse may have continued in use. In July, 1858, a report stated that the Quartermaster and Commissary storehouses (probably for the Post) were "insufficient in capacity" (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 196). In April, 1859, orders may have come to begin construction on new Fort buildings, especially barracks and storehouses (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 171-74; see also Part I, pp. 36-38). Certainly it appears that HS-157 was completely renewed about this time. The original small office of horizontal logs was torn down, and a new structure built in its place, with two offices in front and a large storeroom in the back. Presumably, the Commissary Offices continued in the front, and the Commissary stores were kept in back. It stood in this form by May 20, 1859, when it is shown on Heger's pencil drawing. It may have been under construction at the time, since the drawing shows what appears to be two braces or supports angling up against the south side of the building. The drawing on which the Heger engraving is based may have been made a month or two later; it seems to show a porch along the north side of the building, while it is clear that no porch was present in the pencil drawing.

In its final plan, the Office/Storehouse was a frame structure with a gable roof, on cut stone foundations 150 feet long and 30 feet wide on the exterior, and averaging about 1-1/2 feet thick. The interior was divided into two offices at the front and a large storehouse in the back. The office on the north measured 9 x 19 feet on the interior; on the south, 17 x 20 feet; the east walls of the two rooms are not the same distance from the front of the building. The south room had a stone step to an entrance just south of the partition wall; Heger shows that the north room also had a door, near the north corner with a window just south of it. The triangular chimney base supported two corner fireplaces, one in each room. Behind the office, the storehouse was 125 x 28 feet on the interior. The storehouse section had a wooden floor supported by joists resting on the two long side walls, supported at their centers by a third line of stone. The building had disappeared by 1866.

158--- ---

Unknown. Small office-like building with two chimneys, one in the center and one on the north wall, with a small enclosed yard or storeroom extension to the rear. The front section is 30 feet across the front and 24 feet deep, while the yard or rear section is 30 feet wide and 76 feet long, for a total length of 100 feet. Not visible on any map or drawing. Perhaps dates from 1859-1862 period. May have been one of the storehouses under construction in 1861, stopped in August, 1861 (Part I, pp. 37-38).

159161010 --1

Bakehouse. Ruwet incorrectly identified the large stable building along the west side of HS-161 as having replaced the Bakehouse on this location by 1859 (Ruwet, "Fort Union," p. 39). Bleser and Wohlbrandt give the north oven base the number 10 and the southern base the number 11. In September, 1852, Sibley describes the building as 31 feet long and 17 feet wide, while Davis, later in 1852, shows a small building with two chimneys, one on the north and one on the south. It is possible that this indicates that the building was enlarged by the addition of a second oven in September-December, 1852. Mansfield shows a rectangular building labelled "Bakery" at this location in August, 1853. The 1859 drawings show what appear to be two mounds of rubble here. Two fieldstone oven bases are visible today. The pictorial, documentary, and structural evidence suggests that the structure began in ca. 1851 as a building 31 feet long and 17 feet wide, but was doubled in size in late 1852 with the addition of a second oven, with final dimensions of 60 x 17 feet. The ovens were abandoned and in ruins by 1859. The later location of the bakery after the abandonment of HS-159 is unknown.

160--- ---

Unknown. Possibly an ice house. Not on any map or drawing. Rectangular pit, 15 x 10 feet. A second icehouse in addition to HS-154 was built in late 1852 and filled with ice by March, 1853 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 344); this pit could be that icehouse.

161161818 ---

New Dragoons' Stable and workshops. Ruwet misidentified the large western building of this structure as standing on the site of the Bakehouse, and gave the two offices or workshops east of it the numbers 39 and 40. Wohlbrandt gave the number 18 to a portion of the southern side, outlined most of the east and north sides, but saw nothing along the west edge. Bleser added the number 25 for the other structures Wohlbrandt outlined on the east and north sides.

This large compound is not on the Mansfield map. It was begun in November, 1853, when Lt. Col. Philip St. George Cooke ordered a new stable of pickets built for Co. H, 2nd Dragoons (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 358). It was finished by July, 1854, and the main stable measured 190 x 30 feet. It was built stockade-style with "upright logs set in the ground" with a gavelled "sharp board roof" (Part I, p. 34). As seen on the ground, this complex appears to be a large stable, barns, and at least six workshops and offices set up in a rectangle around a central corral, 105 x 137 feet, with at least 6 chimneys distributed among the workshops and offices; the implication of this complexity is that the HS-161 compound was considerably enlarged after 1859.

This corral complex is gone by December, 1866, when it does not appear on the Enos and Lambert map. However, artifacts scattered thickly on the site indicate that at least the eastern portion of the structure was in use through the late 1860s, suggesting that this portion of HS-161 was perhaps used as a trash dump for the Hotel, HS-162, present from before 1859 to ca. 1870.

16217-- ---

Hotel/Sutler's Store. Visible here in 1859 is a structure consisting of a frame building facing north, perhaps thirty by fifty feet, with a porch on the front, a pitched roof, and an enclosed yard about 100 feet long at the rear on the south, containing at least two outbuildings. Ruwet suggests that this is the Guardhouse described by Sibley in 1852, but it is more likely that the Guardhouse was in one of the buildings along the Parade Ground. The present structure was probably built as a new sutler store and Hotel by the post sutler sometime between August, 1853, when the sutler store was only HS-145, and May, 1859, when HS-162 was drawn by Heger. A large depression, about 45 x 20 feet, within the northwest corner of the present building under the front room of the ruins, appears to have been a cellar. This could be the cellar of the sutler's store broken into by Fort Union troops in March, 1862, just before they departed to the Battle of Glorieta.

The building was considerably altered enlarged during the years after 1859, and was rebuilt in adobe. The earliest documentary reference to the Hotel was in late 1865. The Hotel shown on the 1866 and 1868 maps (Ruwet's number 34a) was an adobe building with stone foundations, 100 x 40 feet, with an ell, 30 x 90 feet, extending along the west side of the enclosed rear yard. South of the main compound was a stable building and yard about 100 x 70 feet. West of the main building is an isolated chimney base, and traces of other possible structures are visible east of the main building near the National Park Service chain-link enclosing fence.

In ca. 1885 the Hotel is visible in the photograph of that year as a ruin in the distance with no roof and partly collapsed adobe walls. Artifacts scattered thickly across the site indicate a use from the early 1850s to ca. 1870.

1631526- --i

Commissary Stores. Probably the storehouse for the Department Subsistence Commissary. In September, 1852, Sibley refers to a "Smokehouse," 100 x 22 feet with a gable roof of boards (Part I, p. 23); HS-163 is the only structure that fits that description, and therefore presumably began as the Smokehouse. On September 8, 1853, Captain L. C. Easton was told by Brigadier General John Garland that "the building erected for a smokehouse can be fitted up for temporary use" as a storehouse (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 154). However, the building was shown a month earlier, on the Mansfield plan of August 1-6, 1853, as the Commissary Storehouse, indicating that the smokehouse had been pressed into use as a storehouse before General Garland ordered its refitting as one. It is visible in Davis, late 1852, and Rice, June, 1853, but is gone by 1859.

The Department Commissary moved from Fort Union to Albuquerque in October, 1853 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 182). This building was probably abandoned at that time. It seems reasonable that part of the new storehouse, HS-157, took over the job of commissary storehouse and HS-163 was then removed. The fort remained a sub-depot for the area, so that something more than only a local storehouse was needed.

The site is clearly marked by a row of large basalt boulders along the east half of the north wall and most of the east wall of the building. The remainder of the outline is easily visible in the aerials, and sometimes on the ground when the vegetation is right.

16427-- ---

Greenhouse and Gardener's House. Funds for the construction of the Greenhouse were requested by Captain Gouverneur Morris on January 31, 1853 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 135 n. 167). It was built apparently in February, and was completed and in use by March 3, when it was described by Katie Bowen. It was mentioned again in April, 1853, (Part I, p. 26). Bowen described this building as being 50 x 20 feet with a glass front facing south. The gardener's house was attached. The hothouse was not very successful, and the building was apparently dismantled in May or June, 1853; it is not shown by Rice on June 20, 1853, or on the Mansfield plan of August, 1853. It stood only about four months; this would explain why virtually no broken glass is visible on the location of the building.

The building is at a slight angle to the general grid of First Fort, with the east end slightly north of where it should be. The west half of the structure is the Gardener's house, 37 x 25 feet, with an apparent porch about 8 feet deep across the entire north side, a small chimney base at the southwest corner of the building, and a possible chimney base in the center of the west wall; the east half was the Greenhouse itself, 50 x 20 feet, with a possible chimney base near the northeast corner. The mounded shapes of the planting beds are still visible.

*1654811 ---

Unknown. Ruwet, Bleser and Wohlbrandt all grouped this structure and HS-166 together as a single building. This was a large house or office, 40 x 59 feet, divided into two sections. The front section was 40 x 22 feet with a chimney centered on the front wall and a second one slightly south of center on the east wall, while the back section was 40 x 37 feet, with a chimney on the south wall near the east corner. The building had a front porch about 10 feet deep, and a large enclosed back yard, 93 feet by 40 feet. The yard was enclosed by vertical posts, and a number of large boulders are scattered near the outside of the enclosing walls. It was probably a frame structure, standing on a fieldstone foundation much like those for HS-156 and 157. It is too far south and west to be visible in any of the drawings, and is not on any map. Artifacts are generally 1850s; the structure cannot be dated any closer than within that period, although the similarity in foundations makes it likely to have been built about the same time as HS-156 and 157, or ca. 1859-1861. It was gone by 1866. The yard and south half of the building are outside the National Monument fence on the private property of Fort Union Ranch.

1664811 ---

Unknown. Rectangular building, 33 feet x 17 feet with massive fieldstone foundations. Probably built about the same time as HS-165.

167--- ---

Unknown. This appears to be a two-room structure with a single chimney and stone foundations. The west room seems to be 27 feet square, while the east room is 27 x 33 feet. Date unknown, but the sparse artifact scatter suggests mid-to-late nineteenth century.

1685-- ---

Unknown. Built after 1853, and clearly visible in the Heger drawing of 1859 as a small frame house with a gable roof and a single chimney, standing at an angle to the grid followed by the rest of First Fort. At least two rooms, the north 29 x 14 feet, the south 16 x 19 feet. The chimney base was found to be at the southwest end of the building, rather than in the center as Heger shows it; this could imply that there is more building in the ground southwest of the chimney, but not visible at the surface. The structure was gone by 1866.

1696-- ---

Smokehouse? Square stone floor, 10 x 11 feet. The building that stood on it appears to be a frame structure, and is visible in Heger, 1859. The size and shape suggest that it was a smokehouse, like the somewhat larger HS-313 on the north side of Third Fort. It was gone by 1866.

*170--- ---

Storehouse?, incomplete. First mapped by Bleser in 1965. This is a well-built fieldstone foundation, 30 x 138 feet on the exterior, with a central foundation line intended for joist support. The outside walls have a foundation thickness of 2 feet, while the interior walls are 1-1/2 feet thick. The building apparently was to have an office of 27 x 20 feet in the front, or west, end of the building, leaving a storage space of 27 x 113 feet, interior measurements. Very few artifacts and no visible mound of structural debris indicates that this structure was never finished. This is probably one of the storehouses begun in 1861 and discontinued August, 1861 (Part I, pp. 37-38; see HS-156, 158 above).

*171--- ---

Company Quarters?, incomplete. First mapped by Bleser in 1965. This is a well-built fieldstone foundation marking out a large, E-shaped building, 194 feet long and 28 feet wide, with three wings extending south; the central wing 37 x 47 feet, the end wings 19 x 47 feet, exterior measurements. The foundation is 2 feet thick on all walls except the front, or north wall, and the central north-south dividing wall, which are 2-1/2 feet thick; it appears to be incomplete on the southwest corner. The lack of debris and artifacts suggests that, like HS-170 and 156, this structure was begun in 1861 and never finished.

The plan and scale are similar to the adobe company quarters built at Fort Davis beginning in 1867. In 1869 each of these barracks had a main section of 186 x 27 feet and a single rear extension, 86 x 27 feet. The main section contained two squad rooms, 24 x 82-1/2 feet, separated by a passageway between them to the rear extension. At the end of each squadroom was a 10 x 10 foot sergeant's quarters, and a 10 x 10 foot barracks office. The rear extension contained a messroom of 50 x 24 feet, a kitchen, 20 x 24 feet, and a storeroom, 10 x 24 feet.

Assigning the same functions within similar spaces in HS-171 would give two squad rooms end to end, each 25 x 94 feet, with no passage between them; a sergeant's quarters 28 x 14 and a barracks office 16 x 14 at each end; and a messroom of 20 x 33, kitchen 12 x 33, and storeroom 12 x 33 in the central wing. This makes for a rather small messroom and kitchen, but obviously the similarity is strong enough to make it virtually certain that HS-171 is a set of new company quarters.

The presence of these buildings adds considerable significance to the statements made in 1858 and 1859 about "rebuilding Fort Union." In July, 1858, Post Commander Captain Andrew J. Lindsay submitted what had become a standard request to rebuild the post, perhaps in adobes. This time, however, the request was introduced into Congress, with the result that in April, 1859, funds were appropriated to rebuild Fort Union (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 197). In August, 1859, Post Commander Captain Robert M. Morris requested permission to hire civilians to help build more company quarters (Part I, p. 37). He received permission for such construction soon afterward, and on August 30, 1859, requested the Quartermaster at Fort Union to build the barracks quickly (Part I, p. 37; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 174).

The placement of this apparent company quarters facing north, and the probable storehouse, HS-170, with its front facing west, suggest that these two buildings were planned to face onto a new parade ground. If the new company quarters was centered on the south side, then the parade ground would have been 400 feet wide, and had enough room between its front and the south side of the officers' quarters HS-129 to make a north-south length of 800 feet.

The two new buildings, HS-170 and HS-171, were located about 1300 feet (1/4 mile) south of the center of the original parade ground (about 1900 feet, or a little more than a third of a mile, south of Shoemaker's Ordnance Depot), and somewhat closer to the springs at the Post Garden (HS-198). This adds weight to such statements as Shoemaker's statement in January, 1859, that Fort Union was "about to be rebuilt on a new site about half a mile distant," and that "operations toward the removal of Fort Union" had begun. On May 13, 1859, Shoemaker noted the arrival of "General Order Number 7, dated War Department, Washington, April 11, 1859." This is the same date as Special Order Number 55, the appropriation by Congress to rebuild Fort Union, and was apparently on the same topic. Shoemaker construed a portion of the General Order to pertain to his Ordnance Depot, and apparently stopped construction on his various projects until he knew whether he would be moving; as it happened, the decision on the relocation of the Arsenal was delayed, and ultimately the plan was abandoned upon the outbreak of the Civil War. The available documents, therefore, strongly suggest that construction began on a new Fort Union about September, 1859, and that HS-170 and 171 were the structures begun.

The relationship between these buildings and the incomplete storeroom HS-156, started sometime after May, 1859, and stopped soon after it was begun, is uncertain, but various references in 1861 suggest the hypothesis that HS-170 and 171 were begun in September, 1859, and given up soon after; then in 1861 a second attempt was made to carry out the approved rebuilding, apparently starting the storehouse HS-156—this time to be halted by the outbreak of the Civil War. From this viewpoint, Third Fort, begun in late 1862 as several warehouses northeast of the Second Fort, is specifically the continuation of the effort to build a new fort begun in August, 1859.

17233a28- ---

Flagstaff, First Fort. See also HS-173, 191. The flagstaff is located almost precisely at the center of the original parade ground of Fort Union. The parade ground itself is 470 feet north to south and 488 feet east to west, from building front to building front on each side. The flagstaff is 238 feet south of the front of HS-139, and 245 feet east of the front of HS-131, or 3 feet south and 1 foot east of exactly dead center. It is likely that the parade ground was laid out as a square 150 yards, or 450 feet, on a side. This would leave a space 10 feet wide along the barrack fronts on the north and south, large enough for a small stoop and walkway, and a space 19 feet wide for a porch and walk along the fronts of the offices and Officer's Quarters along the east and west sides.

HS-172 undoubtedly went out of use as the post flagstaff with the construction and activation of Second Fort in 1861-1862; the Ordnance Depot flagstaff, HS-191, apparently continued in use for the Arsenal. After 1862, the location of HS-172 remained the center point of the Arsenal Reservation, and is marked "Center Stake" on the 1866, 1868, and 1874 maps of the valley. Nick Bleser, Administrative Assistant at Fort Union, relocated the Flagstaff site in 1964, and found the massive stump of the staff and the remains of the large bracing timbers still in place, buried in the ground (Ruwet, "Fort Union," p. 43; Bleser to Superintendent, Fort Union, October 8, 1964).

173--- ---

Flagstaff, Arsenal, mid-1871 to closure of the Arsenal in 1882. The Arsenal flagstaff was probably moved to this location about the time of the completion of Shoemaker's quarters, HS-114, about April, 1871. The tear-drop entrance road and probably Shoemaker's front lawn were undoubtedly laid out at the same time. The flagstaff is on the centerline of Shoemaker's house, and is precisely 225 feet east of the front of his house and 225 feet south of the fence or wall along the south side of the Arsenal Barracks, HS-113, that marks the north side of the Ordnance Parade Ground. The east side of the compound was apparently intended to be 225 feet east of this flagstaff, and another wall not marked on the proposal plan seems to have extended from the magazine enclosure eastward to the east wall at 225 feet to the south, forming the south side of the Parade Ground. These locations reflect a revision of the 1866 proposal plan to give a square parade ground with the flagpole in the center, and Shoemaker's house centered on the west side; this redesign appears to have occurred about the end of 1868 or in early 1869. The south wall of the Parade Ground may have been completed and continued in use until closure, since it seems to be shown on the Kelp map of ca. 1885-1890, and is apparently visible in some aerial photographs, but various errors placed the east wall line 240 feet east of the Flagstaff, rather than 225. See below, HS-191, for the Arsenal Flagstaff location between 1862 and 1871.

174--- -8-

Civilian Quarters. Four of the buildings HS-174 through 178 were built ca. 1854, and a fifth set was built about May, 1858, for civilian armorer George Berg and his family (Part I, pp. 68-69, 77; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 895). It is uncertain which one of the five was the last built. These five structures can be seen on the Heger drawings of 1859, the proposal plan of 1866, and the 1866 and 1868 maps, and are visible in the 1865 Farnsworth photograph of the First Fort area from Third Fort. Even though they are small and at a considerable distance, a great deal of detail can be determined about the buildings from these sources. Surprisingly, all six representations agree on how the buildings were laid out and where they were located.

HS-174 is the eastern half of a double building forming the eastern end of the row of Civilian Quarters. Heger shows it as a house with a pitched roof, the ridgepole extending east-west, with a door in the center of the south side and two windows, one symmetrically on either side of the door. There appears to be a chimney at either end of HS-174, the western chimney being in the center of the double building, HS-174, 175. On the east end of HS-174 is a small structure with a single door and window.

17537-- -8-

Civilian Quarters. This forms the west half of the double building, HS-174, 175. It also had a pitched roof and a door centered on its south side, with a window on each side of the door. A chimney is visible on its west end, and the chimney at the juncture between the two halves may have been double.

17636-- -8-

Civilian Quarters. Like HS-174 and 175, this house had a pitched roof with the ridgeline running east and west, a single door centered on the south side, and two windows, one on each side of the door. A chimney stood at the center of the west end of the building.

17735-- -8-

Civilian Quarters. Structure very similar to the previous three buildings.

17834-- -8-

Civilian Quarters. A view of this building appears only on the Heger pencil sketch. It appears like the others above, except that the south side of the building has no door, but only two windows. A chimney stood at the west end.

17933-- -8-

Civilian Quarters. The proposal plan of 1866 has six civilian structures, one more than all the other sources; however, none of them fits the measurements and layout of the 1868 building plan. It appears that the 1866 proposal plan shows the original five Civilian Quarters plus one additional house, and demonstrates that Shoemaker intended to add a new building on the west end of the row. By 1868, Shoemaker had decided to build three new sets of quarters, and submitted a design to headquarters for them. Each house was to have two rooms 16 feet square at the front, a kitchen at the back 16 feet square, and a front porch 6 x 32 feet (Part I, p. 77 and fig. 11).

Shoemaker began construction on the new Civilian Quarters in November, 1868, starting with HS-179 at the west end of the row. The work went slowly during the period from 1868 to 1870, with other construction having a higher priority; the older quarters continued in use during this period. Work on the new civilian quarters probably stopped when Shoemaker was forced to discharge all hired labor in September, 1870; the projected buildings were apparently given up at this point, with only HS-179 completed.

All civilian quarters were gone by the time of the closure of the Arsenal in 1882, and are not visible on the map or photographs taken after that year. When during the period from ca. 1870 to ca. 1885 the structures were removed is unknown. The layout of the six buildings on the Base Map are taken directly from the 1866 proposed plan of the Arsenal; it is uncertain how closely the 1866 plan corresponds to the actual location of the earlier civilian quarters or the foundations of whatever new quarters were begun. The actual number and location of the civilian quarters (HS-174 to 179) and the water tower, HS-180, should be regarded as tentative at best; archeological investigations are needed in order to arrive at actual locations and plans.

180--- ---

Water Tower, Civilian Quarters. This is an L-shaped wall fragment north of HS-17 that appears to be at the location of a water tower visible in the 1865 photograph as standing just north of the east end of the Civilian Quarters row, and as a small square structure north of the row on the 1866 map.

*181--- ---

Cemetery. Oliva (Third Fort Union, p. 885-86) estimates that the cemetery was laid out in 1851. It is visible in the Davis drawing of late 1852, surrounded by a palisade fence. The palisade apparently rotted away by the mid 1860s. In 1866 the cemetery was shown on the Enos and Lambert map as 500 feet north to south and about 200 feet east to west, but in 1867, when it was refenced, its dimensions were stated to be 700 by 150 feet. The rows of grave pits and the stumps of some fence posts are still visible today.

*182--- --k

Quartermaster's Corral and Shops. Ruwet gives no number for this compound, although he discusses it in detail (Third Fort Union, pp. 43-47) and provides a sketch of the structures, based on the 1859 drawings. His readily fits the surveyed plan of the buildings on the base map. The core structures of the Corral were those outlined on the Mansfield plan in August, 1853, and shown in good detail by the Rice drawing of June, 1853. Rice shows a long building along the west side of the compound, and two smaller buildings, each with a chimney at each end, near the northeast and southeast corners. By June, 1853, the northeast and southeast buildings had gabled roofs, but the western building still had a flat roof. The southeastern building had two evenly-spaced windows on its south side, and a chimney at each end. The northeastern building had a large central door on the south side, with two windows symmetrically placed, one on either side of the door; a large chimney stood at each end. Sibley stated that the blacksmith's and wheelwright's shop was a single structure 30 feet long and 18 feet wide. This shop, certainly housed in the Quartermaster compound, probably was in the northeastern building; the two chimney bases of the building were located during the survey, 9 feet south of the north wall of the compound and 30 feet apart. It is likely that the foundations traces of the southeast building also exist in the northwest quadrant of the final plan of HS-182.

The western building had four large doors and three windows evenly spaced on the west side, one window on the south end, and four chimneys evenly spaced down the centerline of the building. The bases of these chimneys were located during this survey. Rice seems to show the northernmost chimney as at the end of the building, but it was probably about 10 feet south of the north end. A large gateway was located on the east side near the northeastern corner, and a second, smaller gate on the south side near the west end. This core compound corresponds to the northwest quadrant of the later plan; it would have measured perhaps 120 feet square.

Mansfield says that Sibley built the compound (in its early form) about 1851, and that by 1853 it had storerooms, corrals, and stables. Twenty-eight civilians and thirty-nine soldiers worked here in 1853, including carpenters, smiths, wheelwrights, a wagon and forage master, a saddler, and a number of teamsters (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 352).

The rest of the compound was added between 1853 and 1859, and can be seen fairly clearly on the Heger drawings. The changes involved a considerable enlargement of the Quartermaster compound toward the east and the addition of several buildings in the new eastern half. The western building was extended by about 32 feet on its south end, and a low gabled roof was built on it. Heger shows a row of nine windows placed evenly along its west side, and the four chimneys still in place along its new roof. The old northeastern and southeastern buildings may have been removed at this time, and a new group of four buildings added east of them. These consisted of a building along the north wall, 25 feet by 136 feet, with five chimney bases along it, three larger ones to the west, and two smaller toward the east end. A large shed or barn was built along the east side of the new compound, 159 feet by 19 feet with a high gabled roof. It was divided into sections 45, 38, and 75-1/2 feet long by cross walls. Several massive post bases still survive along the wall lines of this building. West of this barn was a U-shaped building with a gavelled roof on at least the northern section; the end of it can just be seen above the building on the west side of the compound in the Heger drawing. Judging from the obvious mounds marking each building, the U-shaped structure was made of adobe, and possibly the northern and western buildings, too, were built or rebuilt in adobe.

A large corral went up on the south side of this enlarged complex, for a final outline of 370 x 340 feet. The enclosing walls and corral were of palisade. Heger shows a large gateway centered in the palisade wall south of the western building; this gateway appears to be marked by a rectangular paved area, 8 x 2 feet, visible today just west of the palisade line at this location.

Although most of the Quartermaster Corral is gone by the time of the Farnsworth photograph taken in ca. September, 1865, three of the fireplaces of the northern building are still standing. Various markings around these chimneys suggest that other structural ruins are still present, but no complete buildings stand.

*183--- ---

Unknown. First mapped by Bleser in 1966. This building, approximately 100 x 27 feet, contains two massive mounds that look suspiciously like ovens, and may have been the bakehouse after the abandonment of HS-159 sometime between 1853 and 1859. However, HS-183 is not visible in the 1859 Heger drawings, indicating that it was built after 1859 but went out of use at least before the Farnsworth photograph of 1865; it was probably gone by 1862. Three joist beams are visible on the ground outside the northeast corner of the building; the northernmost is about 12 feet north of the north end of the building. They are 14 feet long, set at 4 foot centers, and extend eastward from the approximate east wall line of the building, apparently for the support of a large porch or frame structure along its east side. Traces of two others are visible south of these three in the aerials, and Bleser thought that he could see indications of this porch or building extending along the entire length of the east side of HS-183.

*184--- ---

Limeslaking Pit? First mapped by Bleser in 1966. 34 feet in diameter, built of stone. This pit is associated with the chimney base to the west, HS-185.

*185--- ---

Lime Kiln? First mapped by Bleser in 1966. Chimney-like structure associated with the large stonelined pit to the east. This could be the first lime kiln at Fort Union, referred to in September, 1851 (Part I, p. 21; see also North Lime Kiln, HS-83, South Lime Kilns, HS-89, and Lime Kiln and Slaking Pits, HS-187).

*186--- ---

Unknown. First mapped by Bleser in 1966. Square outline of stone, 20 x 20 feet, enclosing a flat, slightly depressed area. Possibly an earlier, square slaking pit. Several other suspicious-looking surface marks may be found in this area on the ground and in the aerials; it appears that several small buildings or utility structures may have left traces here.

*187--- ---

Lime Kiln and Slaking Pits. This group of kiln and slaking pits is larger and more sophisticated than the HS-184/185/186 group, and was probably the next one built. This kiln and slaking and storage pits probably date from the period of increased construction in the later 1850s. There is a possible water-supply ditch from the dam (HS-99, 2400 feet to the north) to this area, which would have brought the great amount of water used for slaking the lime. Next in the series of kilns would have been the large lime kiln, HS-83, built somewhat further east across the creek about 1860, followed by HS-89 at the south end of the valley.

*188--- ---

Beef Corral. First mapped by Bleser in 1966. Ruwet erroneously assumes that this is the Hay Corral, HS-189, below, and that the Beef Corral was further to the north. Visible in 1859 drawing, in the ca. September, 1865 photograph, and on the 1866 map, but gone by 1868. Dimensions 160 x 175 feet—the corral is not exactly square; the south end is 160 feet across, while the north end is only 155 feet across. The corral is subdivided into various smaller enclosures, of which the most visible are plotted on the map. The 1859 Heger pencil drawing shows at least two gable-roofed buildings in the north half of this corral, and the photograph also shows at least two buildings, one of them on the northeast corner and the other on the north side or northwest corner. The 1868 map shows a building on the northwest corner, a second just south of the northeast corner, and a smaller pen within the southeast corner. Examination of the aerial photograph and the ground surface supports such a layout. One of these structures was undoubtedly the "excellent slaughter house" mentioned by Colonel Mansfield in the inspection report of August, 1853 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 179).

The Beef Corral may have begun as one of the two corrals mentioned by Sibley in 1852, 100 feet square (the other apparently being the Dragoon Corral, HS-137; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 121). It was part of the subsistence commissary for the Department through 1853, and the corral for the Post commissary after that date (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 179). Abandoned in the summer of 1866 because of "the accumulated blood of the winter, as well as the bones of years," and torn down in late 1866 or early 1867 after the completion of the New Beef Corral, HS-84 (Part I, p. 39; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 571).

*189--- ---

Hay Corral. Ruwet erroneously assumes that HS-189 is on the site of the Beef Corral, HS-188 (Ruwet, "Fort Union," p. 48). This corral was built probably in early 1854; it was mentioned as just completed in July, 1854 (Part I, p. 34; NARG 92, Consolidated Correspondence File, Box 1167, Lt. Col. St. George Cooke to Major General Jesup, Annual Inspection, July 15, 1854). 175 x 185 feet. The 1859 drawings show that this large corral is full of hay in long stacks, much like HS-72 and HS-73 of Third Fort in the 1860s. The Hay Corral is still standing, although empty, in the Farnsworth photograph of 1865, but is not shown on the December, 1866 Lambert and Enos map; therefore, it was torn down probably in early 1866.

19031a-- ---

Privy. Visible in the ca. 1885 photograph, but not shown on any maps.

191--- 12--

Flagstaff. Arsenal, 1865-1871. See also HS-172, 173. The flagstaff is visible on the photograph of ca. September, 1865; it is shown on the proposal plan of 1866, and on one of the versions of the 1866 map (MNM # 148191). Shoemaker presumably erected this flagstaff about the time he began construction on the magazine and other new Ordnance buildings in 1865. The point he selected was apparently the center of the first version of the Arsenal Parade Ground; it is at the mid-point of the 250-foot space between the Commanding Officer's Quarters (HS-133) and the Clerk's Office and Quarters (HS-115) on the west, and the front of the Ordnance Messroom (HS-142) and the possible Ordnance Kitchen (HS-194) on the east. The north to south measurement was apparently intended to be 300 feet, from a line extending east from the north side of the Commanding Officer's Quarters, north to the fronts of the Civilian quarters, with the Flagstaff again on the center point. With the changes in the enclosing wall plan, the relocation of the Commanding Officer's Quarters to HS-114, and various other details, this plan became obsolete about 1871, when the entrance loop road was built.

This is not the first flagstaff set up by Shoemaker at First Fort. The 1859 Heger drawings both show a flagstaff just east of the north end of Shoemaker's quarters, HS-133, although it is not visible in the 1852 and 1853 drawings. This was probably the Ordnance Depot flagstaff from about 1853 to 1865.

192--- 16--

Magazine/Stable. This building, 53-1/2 x 18-1/2 feet, of adobe on a stone foundation, was apparently built as the first magazine for the Ordnance Depot, with construction beginning sometime after May 13, 1859 and completed about August (Part I, p. 69). Shoemaker had planned on an adobe magazine for the Ordnance Depot since 1852, but was unable to construct the permanent building until 1859. The structure apparently continued in use as the only magazine at the Ordnance Depot until the completion of HS-109 and 110 in October, 1866. At this time the building was apparently converted to a stable for Shoemaker's personal use, as it is shown on the 1866 proposal plan. It probably continued as Shoemaker's stable through the life of the Arsenal.

*193--- ---

Pump. Marked only on the Museum of New Mexico version of the 1866 map (MNM # 148191).

194--- ---

Ordnance Kitchen? Part of the Ordnance Depot group; see HS-141, 142. Probably built about the same time as HS-142 about September, 1855, after the messroom, kitchen, and barracks were removed from HS-141. This building is clearly visible standing between HS-142 and HS-141 in the two Heger drawings of 1859. Heger's pencil drawing shows it with a pitched roof and a chimney at the west end, and possibly a small, shed-like extension on the south side near the center. His etching depicts it with a flat roof, and again with some sort of southern extension at about its mid-length. It is on the ca. September, 1865, photograph, the Enos and Lambert map of 1866 (where it is connected to the Ordnance Messhall by a fence or wall, also visible on the aerial), and the Ludington and Lambert map of 1868, but was undoubtedly removed, along with the remaining sections of 140, 141, 142, 143, 144, and 195, about 1870-71, when HS-113 was built and the formal entrance drive laid out across this area. No physical traces of the building have been seen on the ground; the outline is taken from the 1984 aerial photos. The building appears to be 50 feet long and perhaps 12 feet wide.

195--- ---

Unknown. Arsenal, ca. 1865-ca. 1870. Building east of HS-143 visible on the 1866 map and the ca. September, 1865 photograph.

*1962-- ---

Office of the Commanding Officer and Courtmartial Room? Ruwet gives the number 2 to this small building just north of the Commanding Officer's Quarters, HS-126, and suggests that this was the structure that E. S. Sibley named as the Commanding Officer's Office and Courtmartial Room, 48 feet by 18 feet, even though it was left off the Mansfield map. It would have seemed more reasonable to assume that one of the office buildings facing onto the parade ground would be this structure, but none of these are the right size; all are too short (see HS-147, 151, 152, 157 below).

The building is visible in both Heger drawings of 1859. The width of the building on the ground is fairly clear, 18 feet, but the total length is about 57 feet. However, the plan on the ground is in two sections. The northern section is 39 feet long, with a chimney centered in it; added to the south end of this structure is an extension of 18 feet. The Heger drawing shows a similar structure. Its northern section has a doorway on the west side and two windows symmetrically placed on either side of it, with a chimney on the ridgeline of the building even with the doorway. However, the south end of the building extends noticeably further past the south window than does the north end. The ground traces and Heger's drawing suggests that the structure began as a building 18 feet by 38 feet, and was enlarged to a length of 57 feet. Unfortunately, neither of these lengths matches the length of the Commanding Officer's Office and Courtmartial Room. The identification of the building should therefore be considered as uncertain, and archeological investigation of this and the offices along the east side of the Parade Ground may be necessary to clear this up.

*197--- ---

Ordnance Garden. Shoemaker established the Ordnance Garden in the spring of 1852 (Part I, pp. 27, 32). It was 1-1/2 miles north of the First Fort, and was a fenced area about 300 feet by 550 feet. It was partitioned into several sections, and had at least four barns and houses in 1866. It used water from a spring next to the garden. The garden failed in 1856 because of a drought and grasshopper infestation (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 135). In 1872 Shoemaker dug a well here, 20 feet deep (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 911).

*198--- ---

Post Garden. This fenced garden, 200 feet north to south by 250 feet east to west, was located in the field just southwest of the present foreman's house of Fort Union Ranch, north of the highway (Part I, pp. 25, 27, 38). It was established in the spring of 1852 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 134). The Army built a bucket chain to bring water from one of the spring sources on the west side of Coyote Creek, or a spring just north of the garden shown on the 1866 map. This spring seems to have been the same as the capped well still present very near the correct location, and about 125 feet northwest of the northwest corner of the Garden enclosure. The garden was not marked on the 1868 map and was probably gone by that year.

199--- -5-

Artillery Storehouse/Gun Shed. This building is probably the "Gun Shed" that Shoemaker was planning to build as of July 2, 1862; the date of construction is assumed to be 1862. It replaced an earlier log gunshed built in 1852-53, presumably just west of HS-133 (Part I, pp. 66-67). Visible on proposal plan of 1866, and in photograph by Farnsworth, ca. September, 1865; shown on Enos and Lambert map of 1866, but is apparently gone by the time of the preparation of the Ludington and Lambert map of 1868. It was probably demolished about August or September, 1866, when HS-103 was begun; its function was apparently taken over by HS-118, begun about the same time.

The Artillery Storehouse was ca. 23 feet wide and ca. 100 feet long, and apparently of adobe on a stone foundation. Its east wall was on or against the west wall of 115-103; its south wall was even with or a few feet south of the north wall of HS-101, and its southwest corner was ca. 30 feet east of the east wall of HS-101. Its north wall was apparently about 8 to 15 feet south of the original line for the north enclosing wall of the Arsenal compound.

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Last Updated: 13-Feb-2006