Historic Structure Report
NPS Logo



HSRBWK66MName and Use
100--- ---

Enclosure Walls, Arsenal. This number includes the entire complex of inner and outside walls. These walls were built in a series of campaigns lasting from 1859 through 1872.

Shoemaker began the effort to gain permission to construct an adobe magazine inside a walled compound of adobe in early 1853 (Part I, p. 66). However, the building of the first magazine and an enclosure around it, both of substantial adobe construction, was not carried out until June-August, 1859 (Part I, p. 69). This was apparently a rehabilitation of the enclosed yard and structures west of the Ordnance Officer's Quarters, HS-133, visible in the Heger drawings of May, 1859.

Shoemaker planned a new magazine compound in mid-1865, and began construction in late 1865 or early 1866. No trace of the construction can be seen in the ca. September, 1865 photograph, indicating that it began sometime after that date, probably about November, 1865. The enclosure was 345 feet east to west by 720 feet north to south, abutted the original compound west of HS-133, and enclosed the two new magazines, HS-109 and 110. Work on the wall was well along in October, 1866, and lacked only a few hundred feet of length to be finished in November (Part I, pp. 75-76). Presumably this was a few hundred feet of adobe wall remaining to be placed on the already-laid stone foundation. The Enos and Lambert map of August-December, 1866, shows the entire enclosure complete, and further shows that the other Arsenal buildings north of the Magazine compound were connected by walls or fences to create a second enclosure.

The "proposal plan" shows that by ca. May, 1866, Shoemaker had developed plans to enclose the entire Arsenal within a wall. However, construction slowed down considerably after completion of the Magazine enclosure at the end of 1866, and work on the main enclosing wall continued only intermittently over the next several years. In mid-February, 1868, Shoemaker requested permission to stop work on the Arsenal wall for a while and build a new Barracks, HS-113, using the available adobes. This building was not shown on the proposal plan of 1866, and is the result of one of Shoemaker's modifications to his original plan for the Arsenal; by mid-1871 this process of modification resulted in the final plan visible today.

In October, 1868, Shoemaker asked for further funds to begin again on the wall to enclose the entire Arsenal (Part I, p. 77). The work continued to followed the 1866 proposal plan, which intended to make the enclosure exactly 1000 feet square on the interior. The south wall was apparently completed according to the original plan, and perhaps the southern 1000 feet of the west wall; the south wall interior length remained unchanged through later revisions, and is 1000.1 feet long (however, the angle between the two sides was 91° 48', not the precise 90° it should have been). As of November, 1868, Shoemaker stated that he intended to finish the walls sometime in 1869 (Part I, p. 77). The east and north sides of the original plan seem to have actually been begun, but appear to have never gotten beyond foundation trenches; only faint traces of what may be trench lines appear to be visible in the aerial photographs. These trench lines seem to follow the general layout of the 1866 plan.

At this point, during the winter of 1868-69, Shoemaker must have worked out the final design of the plan for the Arsenal. The proposal plan's 1000-foot north-south dimension must have already been recognized as impractical because of what appears to be an error produced by faulty surveying. The proposal plan, and therefore presumably Shoemaker's original design, plots the location of the northern buildings with a cumulative error of about 50 feet in their north-south location, so that the 1000 foot dimension would have placed a wall across the middle of several buildings Shoemaker intended to keep or had just built. In order to achieve the relationship between the buildings and enclosing wall as shown in the plan, Shoemaker realized he had to increase the north-south dimension of the enclosing wall to about 1050 feet (for further discussion of the question of the intended location of the north wall, see the discussion of the later flagstaff locations under HS-173, below). With this necessity in mind, during the redesign of late 1868 Shoemaker moved the proposed location of the enclosing walls and the Ordnance Stables, HS-111, even further north, to produce a north-south dimension of 1166 feet along the interior of the west wall. The Stable Compound may have been begun at this point.

The inspection report of September, 1869, mentioned only the wall around the magazines (Part I, p. 79). In June, 1870, half the foundations of the enclosing wall had been completed, probably the south and west walls (Part I, pp. 79-80). Work on the new wall was halted in September, 1870, for a time. In April, 1871, Shoemaker decided to relocate the Clerk's Quarters (HS-116) to the northeast corner of the new enclosure (Part I, p. 80), apparently changing the alignments of the as yet unbuilt east and north walls to accommodate it. By June, 1872, the new buildings and enclosing wall were more or less complete; they were finished by the time of the inspection of 1873 (Part I, pp. 79-81).

The 1873 description stated erroneously that the enclosing wall was 1000 feet long on each side. This was the size intended, but as built, after the redesign of 1868, the interior dimensions were: the west wall, 1166.30 feet long; the south wall, 1000.08 feet long; the east wall, 1190.31 feet; and the north wall 1046.84 feet long. These rather random sizes of the enclosing walls seem to be the results of surveying error, rather than intentional changes. The southeast corner angle is very close to a right angle: 90° 31'. However, the southwest angle was 1° 48' larger than a right angle; in order for the east side to be parallel to the west, and the north side to be the same length as the south, both the southeast and northwest angles should have been 1° 48' less than a right angle, or 88° 12'. The failure to compensate for the original error in layout at the southwest corner of the Magazine compound resulted in an increase of about 47 feet on the north side of the Arsenal. Since both the southeast and northwest corners were set out at almost exactly 90° the cumulative errors produced an east wall 24 feet longer than the west wall, and a northeast corner of 88° 07' It appears that the redesign may have been intended to have the four sides parallel, with an interior length of 1164 feet north to south and a width of 1000 feet, east to west, but missed this intention by a little.

The enclosing wall had buttresses of adobe at regular intervals, usually 50 feet, along all four sides. The locations of these buttresses are marked on the ground by short segments of stone foundation at right angles to the main walls. Each of these usually extended towards both the inside and the outside of the wall. One inner or outer segment usually measured 2.6 feet long by 2 feet wide. Occasionally, a buttress seems to be on only one side of the wall, but this may be the result of the opposite foundation being buried in collapsed adobe and sheetwash, and therefore not detectable from the present surface. Such buttresses were included even on the earliest enclosure, the Magazine Compound wall around HS-107, 108, 109, and 110. Those found are plotted on the map; few were seen along the north wall and the north part of the east wall of the main enclosure, but are probably still present under a thick layer of slumped adobe. A number of thick wooden posts or tree stumps were seen along the inner side of the south wall; it is uncertain whether these were decorative plantings or additional supports for the wall where it received damage from water runoff from the rest of the enclosure. At least three drains through the stone foundation were seen along the south wall, and one small drain on the east wall near the southeast corner, the low point of the Arsenal enclosure. Each was about 5 feet long (the small drain on the east side was only about 2 feet long), and the adobe wall was supported above it by a long slab of stone forming a lintel. It is possible that one or two similar drains remain to be identified along the southern part of the east wall.

The survey found no clear gateway through the south wall. An odd arrangement of parallel walls at the southeast corner of the magazine compound may have been equipment storage sheds, an abortive wall alignment, or some other, unknown usage. The gateway through the west wall had a decorative arch over it, as seen in the ca. 1885 photograph. A second gateway through the west wall opened into the Stable yard, HS-111; this gateway had a rectangular entrance structure of two vertical side posts and an overhead beam. The main east gate seems to have had several locations; a massive deposit of large cobbles that were noticed during the survey of the enclosure wall may mark the intended gateway during wall construction from ca. 1868 to ca. 1871. When the 1866 proposal plan was found to be a fairly accurate plan rather than a schematic, the gateway through the east wall of the enclosure turned out to be located virtually on this spot. It is assumed that the cobbles were a surfacing material in the high-traffic area of the intended gate itself. The 1882 plan shows the main entrance to be a little south of the Clerk's Quarters, HS-116. However, the formal entrance from about 1872 to 1881, or later, was the curved gateway east of the traces of the old fort buildings of HS-144 and 145; this entrance is not shown on the 1882 plan. Part of what appears to be a stone curbing is visible along the north edge of the entrance road at the gateway. Within the gateway, the road split into the teardrop shape visible in aerial photographs and on the ca. 1885 photograph, although not shown on the 1882 map. This teardrop was symmetrical with the front porch of Shoemaker's house, and centered on a flagstaff whose stone base survives as HS-173. The entrance drive passes just in front of the lawn and trees along the front of Shoemaker's house; see further discussion of this under HS-114, below.

1016a-- 16-

Main Storehouse. Construction began on this building in the spring of 1865, prior to the preparation of the 1866 proposal plan (Part I, p. 73). The building apparently superseded HS-102, although that building continued in use as a storehouse. The northernmost section of the Main Storehouse, of adobe on a stone foundation 145 feet long and with a pitched roof, had been completed as of the ca. September, 1865, photograph by Farnsworth (111-SC-87997), where it appears as a long building with a pitched roof and a large central doorway; a pair of windows are also visible, placed symmetrically on either side of the doorway.

The 1866 proposal plan indicated that at least by the spring of 1866 Shoemaker intended to extend the building to a length of about 220 feet, so that it would reach the north wall of the Magazine compound. The Enos and Lambert map of August-December, 1866, shows it still at its 145-foot length. As of the Ludington and Lambert map of March, 1868, no further work had been carried out, but between May, 1868, and the inspection of 1873 the intended addition of about 71 feet to the south end of the storehouse had been completed. In 1873, the building was described as of adobe on a stone foundation, 216 feet in length and 23 feet in width (Part I, p. 81). On the Kelp plan of ca. 1885, the original 145 foot section of the building was shown with two porches or loading docks on the east side; these echo the symmetrical location of doors and windows visible in 1866, and probably existed by that year. No clear traces of these were seen in the survey, so they are not plotted on the plan. The 1873 inspection described the building as having a basement; the physical remains indicate that this was only a half-basement. Between 1873 and 1882, foundations were constructed that would have extended the building another 40 feet south (these are visible in the ca. 1885 photograph), but the Kelp plan shows the foundation still unused, and implies that the added construction never took place.

10219a-- 23-

Storehouse. Ruwet assigns 20a to the south end of this building, shown as a separate structure on the Kelp map of 1882 and visibly separate from the rest of the building in 1888; however, the foundations indicate that as built, the building was a single continuous structure. The building was adobe on a stone foundation, 88-1/2 x 26 feet with a pitched roof.

The northern 65 feet of the building were apparently constructed between May and August of 1959, along with the Magazine HS-192 (Part I, p. 69). In May, 1859, Shoemaker states that he is constructing a storehouse, presumably this one, at the same time as the magazine, HS-192. [105] The building is shown on the 1866 proposal plan and is visible in the Farnsworth photograph of ca. September, 1865. At a later date, two rooms were added to the south end, extending the building to the south about 24 feet; these changes undoubtedly occurred during Shoemaker's finalization of the Arsenal buildings in 1871-72. An arched opening in the west end of the southernmost room was filled with a French door with large glass panes. Between 1872 and 1882 one room of the building was removed, leaving the southernmost portion of the extension as a separate building; it is shown this way on the Kelp map and the gap can be seen in the ca. 1885 photograph and the photograph in ill. 56 (Third Fort Union, pp. 236-237), taken in 1888. In ca. 1885 the glass of the French door was still clear, while in 1888 the panes had been painted over with light-colored paint or covered with boards.

10327a-- 3--

Storehouse. This building was begun in mid-1866, apparently just after the Arsenal area was surveyed by Enos and Lambert in August. It was probably intended as additional storage to supplement HS-101 and 102. On October 2, 1866, the building was described as almost complete, with the outer roof in place (Part I, p. 75). It is apparently shown on the March, 1868 plan by Ludington and Lambert, and is on the 1882 plan. The building was adobe on a stone foundation, 23 x 64 feet on the exterior, with walls two feet thick and a front porch centered on the south, 10 x 7-1/2 feet. In the ca. 1885 photograph the building had a steeply-pitched hip roof of sawn boards.

10426a-- 4--

Oil House. This is the westernmost room of the three-room building, HS-104/105/106. No specific information appeared in the written documentation on this building. It was added to the west end of the original structure, HS-105, after 1868 and before 1882; the construction probably occurred during the last major building episode of the Arsenal in 1871-72. It measures 13 x 33 feet on the interior, was adobe on a stone foundation with a pitched roof of sawn boards, and has no visible fireplace; not surprising, considering the inflammable nature of the materials stored here.

10526a-- 54-

Armory. This is the original room of a three-room building, HS-104/105/106. No specific information appeared in the written documentation on this building. It was built before May, 1866, when the Blacksmith Shop, HS-106, was mentioned as being added to it, and may be just visible at the north end of HS-102 in the ca. September, 1865, Farnsworth photograph; the building was probably one of Shoemaker's first permanent structures built in 1865. The building appears on the 1866 proposal plan of the Arsenal, with the blacksmith extension, HS-106, and is shown on the 1866 Enos and Lambert map, the 1868 map, the 1882 Kelp plan, and the ca. 1885 photograph. The original Armorer's building, HS-105, was 15-1/2 x 38 feet; it was adobe on a stone foundation, with a pitched roof of sawn boards. What appears to be an odd-shaped chimney or forge base can be seen inside its northwest corner on the ground.

10626a-- 64-

Tinner and Blacksmith Shop. This is the easternmost room of a three-room building, HS-104/105/106. The Blacksmith Shop was added to the east end of HS-105 in March-June, 1866, and continued in use through the life of the Arsenal. It is 15-1/2 x 35 feet on the interior, of adobe on a stone foundation, with a pitched roof of sawn boards. A chimney base is centered on its east end. The addition produced the Armorer and Blacksmith Shops building, no. 4, shown on the proposal plan of 1866. The proposal plan shows the building as about 26 feet wide and 84 feet long; actual dimensions of HS-105/106 are 20 x 80 feet.

1073a-- 714-

Saddler Shop. This building was built in 1867-68. The 1866 proposal plan showed that the saddler's shop was originally intended to be a small building on the location of HS-107, about half the size of the version as built. The map of August-December, 1866, showed nothing had yet been constructed on this location, although the First Fort Officer's Quarters, HS-134 and 135, had been removed, probably about November, 1865, when construction began on the Magazines, HS-109 and 110. In the interim before construction began, the layout was redesigned and the saddler's shop and carpenter's shops (no. 15 on the 1866 proposal plan) were both enlarged; construction on the revised version of the building was completed sometime before May, 1868, probably not long after July, 1867, when HS-108 was finished; the foundation of HS-107 was probably one of those finished in July (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 906). The building was still in use as a Saddler Shop at the time of the 1880 inspection (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 1062), but when the 1882 map was drawn up it indicated that the Carpenter shop had been moved out of HS-108 and combined with the saddlery in this building.

The Saddler Shop was adobe on a stone foundation, and measured 27 x 70-1/2 feet. It and HS-108 were apparently intended to be the same size and on the same alignment as HS-109 and 110; however, the alignment of these two structures is offset to the east about 1-1/2 feet from the alignment of the two earlier buildings, and they are 2 feet narrower and 5 feet shorter. The building had a gable roof of sawn boards, with a chimney or stovepipe about 1/4 of the roof ridge length down from the north end of the building on the west slope of the roof. The building had three window openings on the west side and three on the east; the three openings on the west elevation had board moldings surrounding them, and the three on the east probably had the same. The 1882 map shows a loading dock or walk along the entire east side of the building, although no traces of this structure were found on the ground. However, investigation on the ground located porches or loading docks of stone edging with packed earth fill, 20 x 14 feet, on both the north and south ends of the building. The building had wood double doors centered on the north gable end, and probably a similar set on the south, both opening onto platforms at the ends of the building.

1084a-- 815-

Carpenter Shop. This building was built in 1867-1868. The 1866 proposal plan intended that the carpenter's shop be located on this spot, but it was to be about half the final size of HS-108. The building was redesigned in late 1866 or early 1867, and construction on it was completed in July, 1867 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 906). The structure continued as a carpenter shop through the inspection of 1880 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 1062), but by 1882 the carpenter's operation had been moved to HS-107, and HS-108 had become a storehouse.

As constructed, the carpenter shop was adobe with a stone foundation, 26-1/2 x 70-1/2 feet. The gable roof was covered with sawn boards and had a chimney centered on the roof ridge. There were three window openings on the west side of the building, and three more on the east; the three window openings on the west elevation had board moldings surrounding them. The building had wood double doors centered on the north gable end, and apparently the same arrangement on the south end, opening onto a porch about 20 x 14 feet. The 1882 plan of the Arsenal shows a loading dock or walk along the east side, although there were no large doors here.

1091a-- 910-

Powder Magazine. Shoemaker apparently planned this building, the adjacent Ammunition Magazine, and their enclosing wall in mid-1865, and began construction on both magazines about mid-November, 1865. [106] The walls were completed by early June, 1866, and work on the roofs began soon afterward. The building was completed by October, 1866 (Part I, p. 75). It was adobe on a stone foundation, 29 x 75-1/2 feet. The porch or loading platform on the south end of the building, about 20 x 14 feet, and the stairs to it (apparently of wood, since no trace of them is visible on the ground) were still being finished in October, 1866. When finished, the building had a doorway at the north end, another on the south opening onto the southern platform, a single door or window in the west wall, and two symmetrically placed doors or windows on the east side.

1102a-- 109-

Ammunition Magazine. Planned about mid-1865, begun about November, 1865, and completed by October, 1866, about the same time as HS-109, above. The building was adobe on a stone foundation, 29 x 75-1/2 feet. A porch about 20 x 14 feet was on the south end of the building. Doors and windows were placed as in HS-109.

11129a-- 11--

Ordnance Stables. Ruwet applied the number 29a to the standing adobe stable building, 70 x 27 feet, and 30a to the second building shown on the Kelp map, apparently a wooden structure, 45 x 10 feet. Both buildings had pitched roofs of sawn boards. Traces of a third structure, perhaps just a corral enclosure, 45 x 15 feet, are visible just east of the main corral wall.

On the 1866 proposal plan, a somewhat different version of the stables compound was intended to be built a little south of this location. No stables are shown on the 1866 or 1868 maps, indicating that some other structure was serving as the Ordnance Stables during those years, probably HS-80, north of the "Old Post Corral" just west of Second Fort.

HS-111 was built on this site soon after March, 1868; the most likely time is in early 1869, just after the redesign of the compound wall plan in the winter of 1868-69, but before the construction of the new walls began; in fact, the placing of the stables further north than in the 1866 proposal plan suggests that their construction was one of the earliest steps in the redesign. The stable compound, 102 x 97 feet, was incorporated into the main wall around the arsenal, but clearly was built before the north section of the enclosing wall (HS-100); the Arsenal wall extending between the Stables and the Clerks Quarters, HS-116, moved out to a location on the northeast corner of the new wall plan about April, 1871, did not precisely follow the angle of the north side of the Ordnance Stables enclosing wall. There is a slight but unmistakable change in angle where the north wall reaches the northeast corner of the stable wall, but no equivalent angle at the southwest corner of the stable yard, suggesting that the stable compound was built along with the northern portion of the main west wall. HS-111 was the Ordnance Stables structure mentioned in Shoemaker's 1873 summary for the Surgeon General (Part I, p. 81).

112--- 12--

Tool House. This building was not mentioned specifically in the written documentation, but it appears on the 1882 plan. Its location and size are approximate on the Base Map; no traces of it are visible on the ground.

11322a-- 13--

Arsenal Barracks. This structure was built between March and October, 1868 (Part I, p. 136), of adobe on a stone foundation, replacing the old Ordnance Barracks, HS-143. The dimensions of the Arsenal Barracks were 100 x 26 feet; it was divided lengthwise into four sections or bays, with chimneys at the centers of the two end bays. The base of the western chimney is still in place, while the eastern chimney fell into the basement at this end; it is, however, visible in the ca. 1885 photograph. It had porches front and rear, 9 feet deep by 100 feet long, supported on a series of stone piers and wooden posts set on stone blocks. A basement was under the easternmost bay, reached by a narrow stairway from ground level through the east wall of the building. At the southwest corner of the building, a brick walk led from the Ordnance Parade Ground to the barracks through a fence or wall along the south side of the building up to the porch.

11414a21- 14--

The Shoemaker House: Commanding Officer's Quarters, Arsenal (see further notes on this building under HS-133, below). The Army correspondence on this building indicates that construction began on it in April, 1870, but work slowed on the building that fall because Shoemaker was ordered to lay off his civilian employees. The building was nearly completed by the following spring. At this point, Shoemaker began planning for the enclosing compound walls, the outhouses, and the cistern (Part I, p. 141). HS-114 was probably finished in mid-1871.

An 1873 inspection report described the building as measuring 54 x 75 feet. The building was adobe on a stone foundation, with chimneys incorporated into the gable end walls. The roof was v-channel metal (probably zinc). The rear wing to the west had a lower ridge line than the main portion of the building. The building had multi-light windows of at least three lights across—a variation from the plan. The plan of the Ordnance Commanding Officer's Quarters is available (Third Fort Union, ill. 55, pp. 234-35). This plan is virtually identical to the layout of the foundations of HS-114, except that the central hall was widened when it was constructed. This hall was shown as about 9 feet wide on the plans, while the actual hall appears to be about 13 feet wide. The building plan and elevation match the structure visible in Third Fort Union, ill. 56, pp. 236-37 (1888) and the ca. 1885 photo.

The yard west and south of the building contained a number of structures. The available records are too limited to allow a detailed structural history of the changes to the compound from 1851 to 1882 or later; only archeological investigation will allow this to be worked out. Some of the buildings of First Fort that were built in conjunction with the Ordnance activities of Shoemaker continued in use southwest of Shoemaker's residence; many of the visible buildings, however, date from after the mid 1860s. In addition to the buildings, the yard had a number of carefully tended trees, some of which have left substantial stumps, and a stone-lined irrigation ditch network, only a small part of which is visible and plotted on the map. This irrigation system may have been fed from the large water tank shown on the house plans as being on the south side of the house where one branch of the ditch approaches the foundations (Part I, p. 142, fig. 12); this could be the "small cistern" referred to as "connected with the commanding officer's quarters" (Part I, p. 141). However, this tank was apparently intended to serve primarily as the water supply for the bathtub in the room next to the tank; grey water from the bathtub was undoubtedly drained into the irrigation system.

Shoemaker formalized various parts of his Quarters area. At the front of the building was what appears to have been a grass-covered yard, probably enclosed in a fence. Along the west side of this yard were planted several trees in a symmetrical pattern. Four of them were set in pairs at equal distances on either side of his front porch, and two more at equal distances away, one near the north and one near the south extremes of the yard. An entrance walk apparently led from his porch, between the paired trees, across the lawn to the teardrop drive, itself symmetrical to the centerline of the house. The flagstaff and main entrance gate were also set up on this centerline; therefore, all these structures were built after HS-114 was at least marked out on the ground, therefore after about April, 1870.

A path was left along the front of the compound wall enclosing Shoemaker's side and back yards, his house, and the Clerk's Office. On the south side of the compound around his house was another area outlined in larger stones, probably either a grassed area or planted with shrubs and flowers. The entrance road to the magazine compound ran along this planted area. Several other trees stood here and there south of this road; their stumps were not plotted on the map. North of his compound yard, Shoemaker had another area probably covered with grass, and separated from the road to the Storehouse, HS-101, by a white picket fence. The stones set in the ground as part of the support for this fence are visible in several places. The fence and yard behind it, as well as portions of the back of the house, Ordnance Clerk's Office, and outbuildings, may be seen in the photographs taken in 1887 and 1888, in Third Fort Union, ill. 56, pp. 236-37.

11515a-- 152-

Ordnance Clerk's Office and Water Tower. Ruwet assigned the numbers 16a-18a to the various additions to this building. The 1867 proposal plan gives the Office the number 2; this was the earlier version of the office and clerk's quarters that stood here, the northern two-thirds of which apparently became the later version, HS-115. The 1866 proposal plan shows the first clerk's office and quarters to have been about 70 feet long and located so that it overlapped HS-115 and the space between it and HS-114.

The earlier office and clerk's quarters were built partly of logs and partly of adobe (Part I, p. 141); the log portion was constructed as one of the First Fort ordnance buildings, probably about 1852, and is visible just north of the Ordnance Officer's Quarters in the Heger drawings of 1859. The adobe section was apparently built on the north end of the log building about 1859; if this section became part of the final building, it had a stone foundation with adobe walls. Ruwet erroneously considered the earlier office the same as that depicted on the Kelp map, and also assigned it the number 15a.

It appears that the southern third of the building was the original log section shown in the Heger drawings; archeological investigations would clarify this. The log portion was torn down sometime after April, 1871. The removal of the log section from the building had the effect of removing the clerk's quarters from it, leaving the adobe section as the present office (HS-115); the new clerk's quarters (HS-116) were built in 1872 (Part I, p. 141).

The Office has a stone foundation measuring 17 x 49 feet. The main portion of the structure was covered with a metal hip roof with a low slope. A chimney base is centered at the south end of the building, and a second at the north end, matching the locations of the chimneys visible in various photographs of this office. On the east side of the building was an entrance porch or step, 8 feet wide and perhaps 3 feet across. Its center was at 35 feet south of the north end of the stone foundation, suggesting that it had been built at the center of the original building, including the log section that made it 70 feet long. This building probably contained the large safe weighing 3,500 pounds built into one of the Arsenal buildings.

By 1882 several additions had been made to the northern end and west side of the building. One of these additions was a two-story tower with four louvered openings on its west and north sides; the east and south sides probably were similar in design. This tower was probably built between 1872 and 1877, and held a water tank that would have been, among other things, the water supply for the fountain in the Duck Pond, HS-124. Water pipes probably ran from this tower to the tank on the south side of Shoemaker's house as well as to the Duck Pond, and from the Well, HS-122, to the Water Tower. Some sort of pump must have been in place at the well to force water up the tower. The water tower appears to have been of wood frame construction, and had a steeply pitched pyramidal roof. One or two shed-like additions may be seen on the west side of HS-115 and the water tower. The approximate plan of one of these was visible on the ground, and is shown on the map. A detailed plan of these additions would probably be retrievable by archeology.

11621a-- 16--

Ordnance Clerk's Quarters. Shoemaker proposed construction of this building in 1871, and it was undoubtedly built just prior to or at the same time as the construction of the northeast corner of the enclosing wall, HS-100, in late 1871 and early 1872. The structure was completed by 1873. The building was adobe on a stone foundation, and had a small front porch, several rooms across the front, and perhaps one room making an ell at the east end of the back; this is also the layout shown on the 1882 map. The ca. 1885 photograph shows apparent chimneys at the east and west ends of the front row of rooms, and a third chimney at the northeast corner of the ell, suggesting that this room was the kitchen. The entire west half of the back section of the house is shown on the Kelp map of 1882 as a patio, with a small porch facing west onto it from the northeast room. On the ground, a section of the east wall of the house was constructed or repaired with fired brick, possibly associated with the fireplaces apparently located in this area. The house had a small yard in front and a large compound in back with several storage buildings; one of these may have been a stable. It is likely that the Clerk's Quarters compound with its enclosing wall was built first, in the second half of 1871, and then the Arsenal enclosing wall (HS-100) was built incorporating it into the Arsenal compound in the spring of 1872, as was done for the Stables compound, HS-111, above. A wall or fence once ran westward from the southwest corner of the front yard of these quarters, to the north end of the Storehouse, HS-102. This fence formed the north side of the Ordnance Parade Ground.

11732a-- 17--

Cistern. The Kelp map assigned the number 17 to all the cisterns, and the National Park Service followed suit by giving them all the number 117. Ruwet assigned the number 32a to the several cisterns west of the Commanding Officer's Quarters, but gave the cisterns north of HS-102 the numbers 24a (east cistern) and 25a (west cistern). This report allots a different number to each cistern; see below, HS-121 through 123.

Cistern HS-117 seems to be one of the two proposed by Shoemaker in January, 1867 and completed by July (Part I, p. 134; Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 906); the other was probably the eastern cistern in HS-120. As described, these were both 12 feet in diameter and 18 feet deep; they were intended to hold about 15,000 gallons of water. Stone channels carried rainwater collected from the roofs of HS-101 to this cistern; a second channel apparently carried overflow from HS-117 to HS-122.

1185a-- 18--

Gun/Artillery Shed and Storehouse. Built about 1867-68 to replace HS-199. The Ludington and Lambert map of May, 1868, shows HS-118 standing and HS-199 gone. HS-118 is apparently one of the "three smaller storehouses" described in 1873 (Part I, p. 81); it is on the 1882 plan and in the ca. 1885 photograph. It was an adobe building on a stone foundation, 100 x 25-1/2 feet, with a gable roof of sawn boards. The foundation is easily recognized today.

11928a-- 19--

Coal House. No mention is made of this structure in the written documentation, but it was built between 1868 and 1882, and probably stored coal for the blacksmith forge. The building may have been built after 1879, when coal became more available by rail. It appears to have been an adobe structure on a stone foundation. The roof was a low-sloped hip roof of sawn boards.

The wall outline cannot be recognized on the ground, but a large mass of coal marks the site. The dimensions of the outline on the plan are approximate.

12023a-- 20--

Bakery. What appears to be the cinder fill of an oven is easily found on the site, but stone foundations are easily identified east of the oven mound, and the ca. 1885 photograph makes it seem that the bakery was on these foundations. This makes it uncertain that the cinder mound is the remains of the oven for HS-120. Several peculiarities of the surface, both in aerial photographs and on the ground, suggests that a second barracks like HS-113, or some structure of similar plan, may have been begun in this area, predating the bakery. The most likely candidate is a set of married officer's quarters, planned for in late 1868 (Part I, p. 77). However, no such building is indicated on the 1866 proposal plan (made before HS-113 was constructed), or shown on the Kelp map of 1882, or visible in the ca. 1885 photograph. There was easily enough time for quarters to be begun about 1869, and then given up and a bakery built on the site by the time the 1882 map was drawn. Archeological investigation would be necessary to define what happened here.

Two cisterns were located in or near the outline of this possible structure or group of structures, one at the south edge and a second at the west end. The cistern at the west end, directly north of HS-102 and directly east of HS-104/105/106, appears to predate the others of the Arsenal. It is shown on the 1866 proposal plan and the 1866 and 1868 Lambert maps and is still present in 1882. It is not visible on the ground, although it can be made out in the 1935 aerial photo of the Arsenal. The other cistern, one of the two numbered 17 on the Kelp map, is about 12 feet in diameter. This was undoubtedly the second of the two cisterns planned by Shoemaker in January, 1867 and finished by July (Oliva p. 924). Both cisterns at HS-120 were apparently backfilled by the Fort Union Ranch before the National Monument was established.

12132a-- ---

Cistern. Originally one of the group numbered HS-117. This cistern, about 30 feet in diameter, appears to predate HS-117, the cistern on its south edge, which was probably built in 1867. The date of its construction is unknown. It is difficult to recognize on the ground because it was apparently backfilled by the Fort Union Ranch, but is easily seen on the 1935 aerial photograph.

12232a-- ---

Well. Originally one of the cistern group numbered HS-117. The visible part of this structure appears to be a well, with a central shaft about 5 feet in diameter. However, the stone channel from HS-117 to this point does not penetrate the wall of the well, and examination of the area shows that the well was apparently built within a stone structure of about 12 feet diameter. It received runoff from HS-117 and probably had a further channel to HS-123 and HS-124. The date of the reconstruction of this cistern into a well, breaking this system of channels, is unknown. The Arsenal may have had a pump at this location, feeding water to the Water Tower at the north end of HS-115. To add to the uncertainty about the use of this structure, in 1882 it is marked as a cistern, not a well.

12332a-- ---

Cistern. Originally one of the group numbered HS-117. The size of this cistern makes it similar to HS-121. It is centered on the alignment through the centers of 117, 122, and 124, so it is part of that system as developed after the construction of 1867, and is probably one of the cisterns under construction in 1869 (Part I, p. 79).

12432a-- ---

Duck Pond with Fountain? Ruwet and the National Park Service have considered this to be a cistern, but the visible evidence suggests a decorative structure. This structure, centered on the line through the centers of 117, 122, and 123, probably was the small duck pond complete with a fountain mentioned a description of the arsenal in 1877 (Part I, p. 81); it was probably added after the completion of the more necessary structures around Shoemaker's house (Part I, p. 80), and therefore was built between late 1871 and about 1877. The fountain was undoubtedly fed by water from the Water Tower on the north end of HS-115.

125--- ---

Oven. No written information appeared on this structure, nor is it noted on any map or visible in the photographs; but it is easily seen on the ground. It is a mounded rectangular mass of cinders and looks like the oven bases of the First Fort Bakery (HS-159a, b, discussed below). It may have been the baking oven for the Commanding Officer's House, HS-114, and could be one of the unidentified rectangles shown behind HS-114 on the Enos and Lambert map of 1866.

<<< Previous <<< Contents>>> Next >>>

Last Updated: 13-Feb-2006