Historic Structure Report
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HSName and Use

Unknown. No owner or use is suggested by the presently-available information. This building appears to have been added to Sutlers Row between 1866 and 1868; on the 1868 map, the space between HS-302 and the next building to the south seems to be large enough that HS-300, rather than HS-301, must be the structure shown. In the ca. 1885 photographs it is a low, nondescript structure, perhaps no more than a group of sheds. The ground traces suggest a structure about 45 x 30 feet with two small extensions. The census of 1870 indicates no occupants south of HS-302 as of August-September, 1870; this suggests that the building was a stable or had some other nonresidential use.


S. B. Watrous Butcher Shop. Not on the 1868 map and no residence here in the 1870 census, but visible in the ca. 1885 photographs. This structure was probably the Butcher Shop with employee's quarters constructed by S. B. Watrous on Sutler's Row in 1876. The building was sold to Frank Jager, apparently the Beef Contractor, in 1882, and it was still standing in ca. 1885.

The field investigations and examination of the ca. 1885 photographs show that the building had a front section, apparently of adobe, 53 x 20 feet, covered with a pitched roof, and two wings extending westward. A fireplace was located in the west end of the north wing. A walled yard was west of the building, apparently extending about 100 feet west, and at least one outbuilding is visible on the ground in the yard.

Examination of the remains of the building indicates that it has not been seriously disturbed, and most of the archeological record of the foundations, lower walls, rotted floor joists and floorboards, doorsills, building hardware, and occupation trash are probably still in place, awaiting excavation.


W. H. Moore Store. This structure was built in 1862, probably in September-December, after the Third Fort was laid out; it was the first to be built of the Sutler's group, and is the building shown in the ca. 1865 photograph, ill. 53, pp. 230-31; in the background of ill. 22, pp. 168-69, taken about the same time; and shown in plan on the 1866 map, August-December, 1866; in fact, it is the only Sutlers building in the row until Barrow began his store, HS-305, about December, 1867.

With the closure of his business in 1871, Moore did not sell his building to Dent; instead, he continued as owner until January, 1872, when he sold the structure to his bookkeeper, Henry V. Harris. Harris transferred the ownership of the store to Vicente Romero in May, 1876. In 1882, the building was apparently owned by Raphael Romero, probably an heir of Vicente. At this point it seems to have been sufficiently deteriorated for the U. S. Army to threaten condemnation on it. It was still standing in the ca. 1885 photographs, but probably did not long outlast the closing of Fort Union.

The main store building was a U-shaped structure of adobe, 63 feet across the front, one story high, with a large doorway in the center of its east face, flanked by a window symmetrically on each side. Door and windows are all surrounded by white wooden framing. The roof was pitched, and covered with shingles. Two tall chimneys stood against the inner surface of the south wall of the south wing, one about halfway along the length of the wing and the other near the end, where a smaller extension of the wing with a lower roof begins. A similar extension seems to run west from the north wing. A third chimney was located at the north end of the east wing. Rooms included the store, storerooms, several offices, a billiard room, several residential rooms, and a safe room. Across the front of the building was a stone walkway connecting it with the other stores to the north. This walkway is not visible in the 1866 photograph, but is clear in later pictures taken after 1868 (see, for example, MNM # 37178). It extended south to a point a little north of the north edge of the south window. The walk must have been built sometime after the completion of the Barrow store in early 1868, but before the Moore store was closed at the end of 1870—the likely date is sometime in 1868.

Behind the main building was a large enclosed yard. Visible traces give a compound 150 feet long. The entire complex was presumably the structure that William Ryus described as "built like a fort," with walls of adobe brick reaching to a height of nearly 20 feet, enclosing an interior patio or corral. One of the ca. 1885 photographs shows a large gateway in the center of the south wall of the compound. The large building along the west side of the patio or corral has an odd, four-section appearance caused either by three chimneys along the back wall (for which no visible traces were seen in the surface survey) or by a peculiar roof on the building, perhaps made of canvas.

The field examination indicates that most of the foundations, lower walls, and probably flooring of this building remains in place in the ground. An archeological examination would reveal a great deal about the planning, construction, and operation of a sutler store in the period of 1860-1870.


Adolph Greisinger Building. Greisinger had been an enlisted man at Fort Union in the mid-1860s. In September, 1868, he requested permission from the post commander to establish a restaurant and bowling alley "in the vicinity of the two traders stores;" that is, in the area of the W. H. Moore Store and the John H. Barrow Store. Construction on his new building probably began in October, and was completed by December, 1868. No reference to the bowling alley is known after Greisinger's original letter for permission.

The census of 1870 makes it clear that by 1870 Adolph Greisinger was operating a hotel in his building (for example, the census refers to him as "hotelkeeper."). In 1872, Thomas Lahey and Edward McDonald leased the restaurant and other associated buildings from Greisinger, and applied for authorization to continue operating the hotel in the Greisinger buildings. They presumably bought the building soon after receiving this permission. Lahey operated the enterprise for a time thereafter, and is last mentioned in October, 1877; the building was apparently sold to John C. Dent or Crayton Conger about 1878. By 1880 it is clearly in use as part of Arthur Conger's trader enterprise, although still serving as a hotel.

After 1868, HS-303 was considerably enlarged; the structural remains of this building are more complex and massive than any of the others in the Row. The plan suggests that Greisinger and later owners added sections to it periodically over the years; the first major addition was probably about 1869, when Greisinger converted it to a hotel. The building has substantial stone foundations that probably supported adobe walls. A massive cellar, 13 x 18 feet, was under the floor at the rear of the building. At least two fireplaces were seen. The photographs show a central building, apparently about 40 feet square with a pitched roof, and a smaller section on its south side with a separate pitched roof, both with the ridgebeams extending westward. A wing ran north from the central building; its pitched roof had its ridgebeam north to south. Some part of this wing probably stood on the foundations extending northward towards HS-304; or, these foundations might have been built to support a hallway connecting HS-303 to HS-304 on the north. A small flower bed or garden was against the south wall of the building near the west end; it was 6 x 30 feet, and outlined by stone slabs set on edge. Several outbuildings, some with substantial foundations, outlined a yard on the west side of the building. As with the other buildings, the archeological record of this structure seems to be largely undisturbed, and would be tremendously rewarding to excavate.

Extending between the fronts of the Greisinger Hotel and the Barrow Building on the north was a walkway of well-laid flagstone. An additional section of cobblestones with a slab edging was laid in front of the northern wing of the Greisinger Hotel, but the rest of the front had a boardwalk instead of a stone walk. Again, south of the Hotel was another section of stone walkway, different from the stone walk in front of the Moore Store, HS-302. A gap about 7 feet wide appears in the stone walkway between the Hotel and the Moore Store, apparently a drainage opening probably crossed with a wooden section.


John Gilbert Barber Shop? This structure was added to Sutler's Row in 1867 or 1868, and to the 1868 map about the same time. It may have been begun by Charles Shoemaker, who was briefly authorized as a post trader in late 1867, or built in mid-1868 by John Barrow to give additional space to his enterprise. On the 1868 map it was a simple U-shape with no rear enclosure; by ca. 1885 the entire structure and its enclosed yard were incorporated into the compound of the Dent Store, HS-305, to the north.

This appears to be the building in which were located John Gilbert's barbershop and residence, based on the 1870 census. Next to the barbershop was a stand used for a while in 1868 by a photographer, and then after October by John Taaffe, who sold beer by the bottle out of the stand. [101]

The building as shown in the ca. 1885 photograph matches the plan of the Base Map. It was an L-shaped structure; the front was about 48 x 25 feet, while a wing 25 x 18 feet extended westward from the south end of the building. It appears that a northern wing to the west, shown on the 1868 map, was removed between 1868 and the mid-1880s; or this wing could still be there, but obscured by other changes and wall collapse. A fireplace was located in the angle between the two wings. Pitched roofs covered both wings. A substantial stone foundation extended to the west from the south wall of the building, probably to support an adobe wall around a yard behind the building. A boardwalk extending south from the Barrow store continued across the front of this structure.


John H. Barrow Store. Barrow built the core portion of this building in the period from mid-December, 1867 to late January, 1868, and opened for business on February 3. The Barrow Store contained the Billiard Saloon, which was closed on September 25, 1868, by order of the post commander. This was one of the two trader's stores mentioned by Adolph Greisinger in September, 1868. In ca. October, 1868, Barrow's appointment as post trader was cancelled and given to his partner William D. W. Bernard, who took over the store. Barrow elected to sell the store to John C. Dent, Bernard's brother-in-law, rather than to Bernard himself. The sale occurred about February, 1869. Dent was appointed trader in September, 1869, and in October, 1870, was made the only trader at Fort Union. He operated his store out of HS-306 until 1878, when Crayton Conger took over as trader, and probably bought the store. Crayton died in 1880, and his brother Arthur W. Conger became the trader. The census of 1880 indicates that A. W. Conger operated out of the entire complex of HS-303, 304, and 305 in 1880-86; it is probable that his bar was originally Barrow's Billiard Saloon. In 1881, Arthur Conger's partner, the butcher Frank Jager, took over as trader for four months. Arthur Conger was again trader in 1882, and continued so until 1884. Werner Fabian became trader in 1884 (he had been a clerk for Conger), and in 1885 A. W. Conger was again appointed trader for eight months. Edward P. Woodbury, Conger's salesman, took the position in late 1885, and continued until 1890. In December, 1889, during Woodbury's term as trader, the frame-fronted section of the building was destroyed by fire, and Woodbury transferred the trader operation to one of the other buildings in the HS-303, 304, 305 group.

In 1868 the building had an enclosure extending to the west an estimated 150 feet, the same size as the Moore store. After 1868 the complex was considerably enlarged, reaching the full extent shown on the plan before 1885. The 1868 structure was the frame-fronted building photographed in ca. 1880; actually, this was an adobe building with a frame false front facing east. [102] The adobe building had a substantial stone foundation and was about 70 feet across the front and 94 feet deep to the west. The building was divided into three sections by east-west frame partition walls within the adobe building. These three parallel sections had pitched roofs, ridgebeams extending west from the simple false fronts. The three sections do not appear to be the same width, but rather about 28, 19-1/2, and 22-1/2 feet across.

A description in 1875 says that the post office and its associated residence were located next to the post trader. By 1875 at least the post office and its residence were owned by Edward Shoemaker, son of William Shoemaker, the commander of Fort Union Arsenal (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 884). The ca. 1880 photograph shows the Post Trader in the northernmost frame-fronted section of HS-305, and the post office in the center. The southern frame-fronted building may have been the residence for the post office. The post office had a fireplace on its south wall at the front. The Post Trader had a fireplace somewhere towards the rear of the building visible in the photographs; however, no clear trace of it is visible on the ground, and it is presumably buried in the rubble left by the fire of 1889. A walkway extended along the fronts of these three buildings, and continued south. The traces on the ground and the appearance in the photograph suggests that this was a boardwalk. An adobe wall about 7 feet high extended south from the frame-fronted buildings along the walk, and probably continued all the way to HS-304, part of the Dent group.

At least two buildings surrounded the yard behind the frame-fronted structures; others may have been located between HS-304 and 305, but it is difficult to tell buildings from mounds of collapsed adobe wall in this area; archeological work will be necessary to work out the actual plan. One of the back buildings, an L-shaped adobe structure, still has a portion of its walls standing. The other was a low, long pitched roof building north of the L-shaped building, probably along the rear wall of the yard.

By the late 1880s the buildings of the Row were in poor condition, but HS-305 seems to have been kept up a little better than most. The fire in December, 1889, left clear evidence; the entire area of the main building of HS-305 is a mass of burned wood, burned broken glass and ceramics, and fallen adobe walls, dating from this fire. It is likely that burned floor joists, wall and ceiling sections, hardware, counters, doors and windows, and most of the stock, are all still in place within the ruins, buried under the fallen adobe walls of the building. Archeology would be able to work out a great deal about this post trader's operation, as well as the layout of the interior spaces.


Carriage House? incomplete. This structure was begun as part of the Sutlers Row, but appears not to have been finished. Its plan suggests that it was to be a carriage house or some similar usage, with a large room entered through a wide doorway facing east, and a smaller office space on the south side. It was probably begun after 1868.

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Last Updated: 13-Feb-2006