Historic Structure Report
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Officers' Quarters (Third Fort Union, p. 58). The three officers' quarters had several privies, wood houses, and coal houses in the back yards; most of these still need to be located.


Officers' Quarters (Third Fort Union, p. 58). This house had a chicken house in the back yard, measuring 12 feet by 30 feet by 10 feet high.


Officers' Quarters (Third Fort Union, p. 58). This house had a brick walk and a patio of brick laid in a herringbone pattern, as well as several structures. These appear to have include a frame house with a fireplace in the northeast corner, standing just east of the entrance gateway on the north wall. The brick walkway may have extended from a door at the southwest corner of the building. Another structure stood in the northwest corner of the yard, but its dimensions could not be determined by ground inspection. Since a photograph of the building under construction in ca. August, 1865, shows no variation in the wall lines of the southwest corner, the cellar here seems to have been added later, perhaps during the rebuilding in 1876-77 after fire gutted the place in 1871.


Quartermaster's Office (Third Fort Union, p. 61).


Commissary's Office (Third Fort Union, p. 63).


Clerk's Quarters and Post Office (Third Fort Union, p. 64).


Cistern (Third Fort Union, p. 66). Brick, holding 20,000 gallons or more, with a domed brick top. Finished before June, 1868, and probably built at the same time as the northernmost storeroom, HS-43, in the summer of 1867.


Cistern (Third Fort Union, p. 66). Of the same size and construction as HS-33. Under construction in October, 1869.


Sun Dial (Third Fort Union, p. 67). The adjacent Meridian Marker is HS-70, below.


Mechanics' Shops (Third Fort Union, p. 68-69).


Steam Engine (Third Fort Union, pp. 11-12, 71). This engine base and engine house were built for the steam engine moved from the Machine Shop, HS-310 below, after that structure burned in February, 1876. The new home for the engine was 31 feet long and 20 feet wide, with the engine platform itself measuring 6-1/2 feet by 17-1/3 feet. The building was torn down by 1889.


Pump House and Well (Third Fort Union, p. 72-73). There are several structures in the group with this HS number; the actual use of several of them is unclear, and the history of their construction and change is confused. A careful review of the documents and an excavation of the area around these structures will be necessary to work out their probable uses, relationship to each other, and dates of construction.


Quartermaster Storehouse (Third Fort Union, p. 74). One of these was apparently begun as early as September, 1862 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 547).


Quartermaster Storehouse (Third Fort Union, p. 76).


Quartermaster Storehouse (Third Fort Union, p. 76).


Quartermaster Storehouse (Third Fort Union, p. 76).


Commissary Storehouse (Third Fort Union, p. 78). This was a change to the original McFerran design. In the summer of 1867, HS-43 was built using the north wall of the stable yard of HS-42 as its south wall.


The original plan for the Depot Corral was by McFerran. Construction on the Quartermaster Depot Corral began in September, 1862, prior to final approval of the new plan in November (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 396). Pitcaithley and Greene (Third Fort Union, p. 11) state several times that the early corral was larger than the final version, but this is not true. The overlay demonstrates that the early corral, at 648 feet north to south and 350 feet east to west, was significantly smaller than the later. The old plan is still visible in places, and most of it is still in the ground. The addition of an enlarged wagon corral yard on the east side about 1870 brought the outline of the original corral out to 450 feet, forming the eastern edge location used for the later corral. Photographs of the various structures of the early corral appear in ill. 47 (Third Fort Union, pp. 218-19), ill. 48 (Third Fort Union, pp. 220-21). A new corral was designed by Colonel H. M. Enos and John Lambert in 1867, but it was not built (Third Fort Union, p. 157, ill. 16), probably because the Depot felt less need for a revamping of its plan than did the Post. Instead, the original Depot corrals, stables, granaries, and sheds continued in use until they were destroyed by fire on June 27, 1874. The fire was thought to have started in a privy at the south end of the easternmost granary, almost against the east wall of the corral.

Construction on replacement buildings began immediately, and was well under way in the fall of 1874 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 651). Some of the walls, at least, were of adobe. An 1875 plan shows the repaired Depot Corral, with dimensions of 704 feet north to south, and 450 feet east to west. A fairly complete redesign of the Depot corrals was carried out in 1875-76, incorporating the perimeter walls, keeping the new dimensions and the buildings constructed along the west side of the Depot Corral in 1874, but creating a completely new division of space in the remainder; it is uncertain who designed this final plan (see figure 17, p. 110). It had been constructed by 1876 and remained relatively unchanged for the rest of the life of Fort Union.


Corral Sheds (Third Fort Union, p. 80).


Corral Sheds (Third Fort Union, p. 81).


Teamsters' Quarters (Third Fort Union, p. 83).


Wagon Master's Office (Third Fort Union, p. 85).


Granary (Third Fort Union, p. 86-87).


Granary (Third Fort Union, p. 86-87).


Civilian Employees' Quarters (Third Fort Union, p. 89).


Corral and Sheds (Third Fort Union, p. 91).


Well (Third Fort Union, p. 93).


Ice House, First Depot Corral. This structure was listed as "Unidentified" in Greene and Pitcaithley (Third Fort Union, p. 94), while the early ice house was described on page 95, where it was assumed to have been at about the same location as the later ice house (HS-55, below). However, a careful plotting of the two plans of the Depot Corrals reveals that HS-53 was the first ice house, offset from the later building by about 30 feet. This ice house was built in 1868 and destroyed in the fire of 1874. It can be seen in early photographs (Third Fort Union, pp. 218-19, ill. 47), and in the aerial photographs.


Lime (Gesso) Mill, First Depot Corral (Third Fort Union, p. 94). Built ca. 1867, destroyed in the fire of 1874. The massive circular stone base of the mill remains in place (Third Fort Union, pp. 218-19, ill. 47).


Ice House, Second Depot Corral (Third Fort Union, p. 95). The outline of this structure, although blanketed in mounds of melted adobe, is easily identified in aerial photographs and on the ground at this location.


Depot Transportation Corral (Third Fort Union, p. 96).


Construction began on the Hospital complex in 1863. The major construction was completed by early 1864, and the group was enlarged sometime soon after November, 1866. The enlargement apparently consisted of the construction of the Enclosing Wall (HS-65), the Dead House (HS-66), the Hospital "Sink" (HS-67), and the probable second latrine (HS-68).


Hospital (Third Fort Union, p. 97).


Hospital Steward's Quarters (Third Fort Union, p. 99).


Hospital Latrine (Third Fort Union, p. 100).


Hospital Wood House (Third Fort Union, p. 101).


Hospital Cistern (Third Fort Union, p. 102).


Hospital Cistern (Third Fort Union, p. 102).


Hospital Matron's Quarters and Laundry (Third Fort Union, p. 103).


Hospital Bathhouse (Third Fort Union, p. 104).


Hospital Dead House (Third Fort Union, p. 105). This building was begun in November, 1866, and finished in early 1867 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 576). It was adobe on a stone foundation, 52 x 13 feet, with walls ten feet high and six windows.


Enclosing Wall (Third Fort Union, p. 105). This wall around the main Hospital complex (135 feet by 330 feet) was constructed in late 1866, at the same time as the Dead House (HS-66, below) and additional latrines, HS-67, 68, Hospital Latrines, below).


Hospital Latrine. Probably built late 1866-early 1867, 35 feet by 10 feet. Described as "sink" on 1883 map.


Hospital Latrine. This is an assumed use, based on the appearance of the structure on the maps; 44 feet by 14 feet. Probably built late 1866-early 1867.


Hospital Compound. This enclosed compound is shown on the 1866 and 1868 maps, but does not appear on the 1877 plan of the Third Fort, and is certainly gone by 1882. The compound consisted of two principal buildings facing into an enclosed corral. These were probably the "pens of cattle (cows) hogs, chickens, etc.," and "a stable with private horses, one of them the [Hospital] Steward's," mentioned in the inspection of June, 1868 (Oliva, "Frontier Army," p. 612). Although the 1866 map shows the two buildings as about 60 feet by 20 feet, the survey found only a 20 foot by 20 foot building on the west. However, the appearance in the 1984 aerial photographs suggests that the building extended 40 feet further east than is visible on the ground; archeological investigation would be necessary to confirm this. The building on the south was 60 feet north to south by 20 feet east to west, with a stone chimney base centered on the south end. A portion of the stone foundation of an enclosing wall is visible at ground surface on the south side of the compound between the two buildings. The 1866 map shows the corral dimensions as 150 feet east to west, and 60 feet north to south. The aerial photographs support these general dimensions, and suggest a main gate in the southeast corner. The building foundations are of fieldstone and about one foot thick; the area around them is littered with ash, coal, broken ceramics, and broken glass. The lack of adobe mounding suggests that the structures were of wood.

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Last Updated: 13-Feb-2006